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who assembled at his house ; but Pellisson soon returned to Castres, the residence of his family, and applied himself to the business of the bar. He had excited the admiration of all about him, and was going on in a most flourishing way, when the small-pox seized him, and disfigured bis countenance so much that his friend mademoiselle de Scudery told him he had abused the common liberty of men to be ugly. Having come to Paris a second time, he had contracted a friendship for this lady, and for many years, it is said, they did not fail either to see or write to each other every day. In 1652 he became secretary to the king; and the same year read his “ History of the French Academy, from its establishment in 1635 to 1652,” to that society, who were so well pleased with it that they decreed him the first vacant place in the academy, and that, in the mean time, he should be empowered to come to all their meetings, and give his vote as an academician; with a proviso, however, that the like favour could not hereafter be granted to any person, upon any consideration whatever. This work of Pellisson, which has always been reckoned a master-piece, was printed at Paris, 1653, in 8vo.

Fouquet, the celebrated superintendant of the finances, who well knew his merit and talents, made him his first clerk and confidant in 1657 ; and Pellisson, though much to his injury, always preserved the sincerest attacbment to bim. Two

years after, he was made master of the accounts at Montpelier, and had scarcely returned from that place to Paris, when the disgrace of his patron Fouquet involved him in much trouble, and in 1661 he was sent to the Bastile, and confined there above four years. Though a very strict watch was set over him, he found means to correspond with bis friends, and even with Fouquet himself, from whom he also received letters. He used his utmost endeavours, and employed a thousand arts to serve this minister; and he composed in his behalf three famous pleadings, which, Voltaire says, “ resemble those of the Roman orator the most of any thing in the French language. They are like many of Cicero's orations; a mix. ture of judicial and state affairs, treated with an art void of ostentation, and with all the ornaments of an affecting eloquence.” In the mean time, the public was so convinced of his innocence, and he was so -esteemed in the midst of his misfortunes, that Tanaquil Faber dedicated his edition of Lucretius to him; and the very day that leave

was given to see him, the duke de Montausier, and other persons of the first distinction, went to visit him in the Bastile. He was set at liberty in 1666 ; and, two years after, had the honour to attend Louis XIV. in his first expedition against the United Provinces, of which he wrote a history. In 1670 he abjured the protestant religion, for which, it is said, he was prepared, during his imprisonment, by reading books of controversy. Voltaire says, “ he had the good fortune to be convinced of his errors, and to change his religion at a time when that change opened his way to fortune and preferment.” He took the ecclesiastical habit, obtained several benefices, and the place of master of the requests. The king settled on him a pension of 6000 livres; and, towards 1677, entrusted him with the revenues of some abbeys, to be employed in converting the protestants. He shewed great zeal in this work; but was averse to harsh measures. He published “ Reflexions sur les differens de la Religion ;” a new edition of which came out in 1687, augmented with an “Answer to the objections from England and Holland,” in the same language. He employed also bis intervals of leisure, for many years, in writing a large controversial volume upon the sacrament; but did not live to finish it, and the world has probably lost little by it. What he wrote on religious subjects does little credit to his pen. Even when he died, which was on Feb. 7, 1693, his religion was a matter of dispute; both papists and protestants claiming him for their own, while a third party thought he had no other religion than what he found necessary at court. He wrote some other works than those mentioned, both in prose and verse, but they have not been in request for many years. A selection, indeed, was published lately (in 1805), at Paris, somewhat in the manner of the compilations which appeared in this country about thirty years ago, under the name of Beauties."

PELLOUTIER (SIMON), an historical writer, was born Oct. 17, 1694, at Leipsic, but his family were originally of Lyons. Being appointed preceptor to the prince de Montbelliard's son, with whom he spent the years 1712 and 1713, at Geneva, he had an opportunity of attending Messrs. Turretin and Pictet's theological lectures; and M. Lenfant, whose pupil he also was, consecrated him to the

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Gen. Dict.-Niceron, vol. II. and X.-Dict. Hist.

service of the altar. He became pastor of the French church at Berlin, counsellor to the Upper Consistory, member and librarian of the academy, and died 1757, aged sixty-three. His “ Histoire des Celtes," printed in Holland, 1740, and 1750, in 2 vols. 12mo, was reprinted at Paris, 1770, 8 vols. 12mo, or 2 vols. 4to, and is esteemed a work of accuracy and merit.'

PEMBERTON (HENRY), a learned physician, mathematician, and mechanist, was born at London, in 1694. After studying grammar at a school, and the higher classics under Mr. John Ward, afterwards professor of rhetoric at Gresham college, he went to Leyden, and attended the lectures of the celebrated Boerhaave, to qualify himself for the profession of medicine. Hére also, as well as in England, he constantly mixed with his professional studies those of the best mathematical authors, whom he contemplated with great effect. From hence he went to Paris, to perfect himself in the practice of anatomy, to which he readily attained, being naturally dexterous in all manual operatious. Having obtained his main object, he returned to London, enriched also with other branches of scientific knowledge, and a choice collection of mathematical books, both ancient and modern, from the sale of the valuable li. brary of the abbé Gallois, which took place during his stay in Paris. After his return he assiduously attended St. Thomas's hospital, to acquire the London practice of physic, though he seldom afterwards practised, owing to bis delicate state of health. In 1719 he returned to Leyden, to take his degree of M. D. where he was kindly entertained by his friend Dr. Boerhaave. After his return to London, he became more intimately acquainted with Dr. Mead, sir I. Newton, and other eminent men, with whom he afterwards cultivated the most friendly connexions. Hence he was useful in assisting sir I. Newton in preparing a new edition of his “ Principia," in writing an account of his philosophical discoveries, in bringing forward Mr. Robins, and writing some pieces printed in the ad volume of that gentleman's collection of tracts, in Dr. Mead's “ 'Treatise on the Plague,” and in his edition of Cowper on the Muscles, &c. Being chosen professor of physic in Gresham-college, he undertook to give a course of lectures on chemistry, which was improved every time he exhibited it,

1 Dict. Hist.

and was publisned in 1771, by his friend Dr. James Wilson. In this situation too, at the request of the college of physiciaus, he revised and reformed their pharmacopeia, in a new and much improved edition. After a long and laborious life, spent in improving science, and assisting its cultivators, Dr. Pemberton died in 1771, at seventy-seven years of age.

Besides the doctor's writings above-mentioned, he wrote numerous other pieces; as, l. “ Epistola ad Amicum de Cotesii inventis ; " demonstrating Cotes's celebrated theorem, and showing how his theorems by ratios and logarithms may be done by the circle and byperbola. 2.“ Observations on Poetry,” especially the epic, occasioned by Glover's “ Leonidas.” 3. “A plan of a Free State, with a King at the head :" not published. 4. “ Account of the ancient ode printed in the preface to West's Pindar.” 5. « On the Dispute about Fluxions; in the 2d vol. of Robins' works. 6. “On the Alteration of the Style and Calendar." 7. “On reducing the Weights and Measures to one standard." 8. “A Dissertation on Eclipses. 9. “ On the Loci Plani,” &c. His numerous communications to the Royal Society, on a variety of interesting subjects, extend from the 32d to the 62d vol. of the Philos. Trans. He also carried on a long controversy with Philalethes Cantabrigiensis, i. e. Dr. Jurin, in " The Works of the Learned," vols. for 1737, 1738, and 1739.

After his death, many valuable pieces were found among his papers, viz. A short History of Trigonometry, from Menelaus to Napier. A Comment on an English translation of Newton's Principia. Demonstrations of the Spherics and Spherical Projections, enough to compose a treatise on those subjects. A Dissertation on Archimedes's Screw. Improvements in Gauging. Jo a given latitude to find the point of the Ecliptic that ascends the slowest. To find when the Oblique Ascension differs most from the arch to which it belongs. On the principles of Mercator's and Middle-latitude sailing. To find the Heliacal Rising of a Star. To compute the Moon's Parallax. To. determine the Course of a Comet in a Parabolic Orbit. And others, all neatly performed. On the whole, Dr. Pemberton appears to have been a clear and industrious autbor, but his writings are too diffuse and laboured.'

| Hutton and Shaw's Abridgment of the Philos. Transactions.


PEMBLE (WILLIAM), a learned divine, was born, according to Fuller, in Sussex, but more probably at Egerton, in Kent, in 1591, and was educated at Magdalencollege, Oxford, on one of the exhibitions of John Baker, of Mayfield, in Sussex, esq.

Wood informs us that having completed his degree of bachelor by determination, in 1613, he removed to Magdalen-hall, where he became a noted reader and tutor, took the degree of M. A. entered into orders, was made divinity reader of that house, became a famous preacher, a well-studied artist, a skilful linguist, a good orator, an expert mathematician, and an ornament to the society. “All which accomplishments," he adds, “were knit together in a body of about thirtytwo years of age, which had it lived to the


might have proved a prodigy of learning.” As he was a
zealous Calvinist, he may be rapked among the puritans,
but he was not a nonconformist. He died while on a visit
to his tutor, Richard Capel, who was at this time minister
of Eastington, in Gloucestershire, in the thirty-second-
year of his age, April 14, 1623. His works, all of which
were separately printed after his death, were collected in
1 vol. fol. in 1635, and reprinted four or five times; but
this volume does not include his Latin works, “ De forma-
rum origine;" "De Sensibus internis," and " Enchiridion
Oratorium.” Bishop Wilkins includes Pemble's Sermons
in the list of the best of his age.'

PENA (John), a celebrated mathematician, who descended from an illustrious family of Aix, was born at Moustiers, in the diocese of Riez, in Provence, in 1530. He studied the belles lettres under Ramus, but is said to have afterwards instructed his master in mathematics, which science he taught with great credit in the royal college at Paris. He died Aug. 23, 1560, aged thirty. M. Pena left a Latin translation of Euclid's “ Catoptrica,” with a curious preface, and also employed his pen upon tbat geometrician's other works, and upon an edition of the “ Spherica” of Theodosius, Greek and Latin, Paris, 1558, 4to, &c.?

PENGELLY (Sir THOMAS), a learned judge, was born in Moorfields, May 16, 1675, and, as the anonymous author of his life says, was baptised by the name of Thomas son of Thomas Pengelly ; but others have supposed that he was a natural son of Richard Cromwell the protector.

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