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to the conduct of human life;" and another not less valued by his sect is his “ Key, &c. to discern the difference between the religion professed by the people called Quakers, and the perversions, &c. of their adversaries, &c." which has gone through twelve editions at least. Not long after his restoration to society, he lost his wife, which affected him so much, that he said all his other troubles were nothing in comparison of this; and he published a short account of her character, dying expressions, and pious end, The following year, he appeared as the eulogist of George Fox, in a long preface to Fox's Journal, then published. The preface, giving a summary account of the people whom Fox had been so much the means of uniting, has been several times printed separately, under the title of “ A brief Account of the rise and progress of the people called Quakers.” It has passed through many editions in English, two in French, and has been translated into German by A. F. Wenderborn. The same year he travelled as a minister in some of the western counties; and in the next, we find him the public advocate of the Quakers to parliament, before whom a bill was then depending for their ease in the case of oaths.
In the early part he married a second wife, and soon after lost his eldest son, Springett Penn, who appears, from the character given to him by his father, to have been a hopeful and pious young man, just coming of age. The same year he added one more to his short tracts descriptive of Quakerism, under the title of “Primitive Christianity revived,” &c. and now began his paper controversy with the noted George Keith, who from a champion of Quakerism, and the intimate of Barclay, had become one of its violent opponents. Keith's severest tract accuses Peon and his brethren of deism. In 1697, a bill depending in parliament against blasphemy, he presented to the House of Peers, “A Caution requisite in the consideration of that Bill;" wherein he advised that the term might be so defined, as to prevent malicious prosecutions under that pretence. But the bill was dropped. In 1698, he travelled as a preacher in Ireland, and the following winter resided at Bristol. In 1699, he again sailed for his province, with his wife and family, intending to make it his future residence; but, during his absence, an attempt was made to undermine proprietary governments, under colour of advancing the king's prerogative. A bill for the purpose was brought into parliament, but the measure was postponed until his return, at the intercession of his friends; who also gave him early information of the hostile preparations, and he arrived in England the latter part of 1701. After his arrival, the measure was laid aside, and Penn once more became welcome at court, by the death of king William, and the consequent accession of queen Anne. On this occasion, he resided once more at Kensington, and afterwards at Knightsbridge, till, in 1706, he removed to a convenient house about a mile from Brentford. Next year
he was involved in a law-suit with the executors of a person who had been his steward; and, though many thought him aggrieved, his cause was attended with such circumstances, as prevented his obtaining relief, and he was driven to change his abode to the rules of the Fleet, until the business was accommodated; which did not happen until the ensuing year. It was probably at this time, that he raised 6,600l. by the mortgage of his province.
After a life of almost constant activity and employment, he found, at the age of sixty-five, that the infirmities of age began to visit him, and to lessen his abilities for travelling with his wonted alacrity; yet, in the year 1709, he visited the west of England, and some counties nearer his residence in the metropolis. But at length, in 1710, finding the air near the city not to agree with his declining constitution, he took a handsome seat at Rushcomb, near Twyford, in Berkshire, at which he continued to reside to the time of his decease. In 1712, he had, at distant times, three fits, thought to be of the apoplectic kind. The last of these impaired his understanding and memory, so much as to render him unfit for public action afterwards. His friend, Thomas Story, an eminent Quaker, who had been the first recorder of the corporation of Philadelphia, made him 'annual visits after this time,' to his death. In 1713 and 1714, he found him cheerful, and able to relate past transactions, but deficient in utterance, and recollection of the names of absent persons. In 1715, his memory seemed further decayed; but both in this, and the former year, Story relates, that he continued to utter in the Quakers' meeting at Reading, short, but sound and sensible expressions. This year he also tried, but without benefit, the effect of the waters at Bath. In 1716, he seemed glad to see his friend, and at parting with him and another, he said, “My love is with you. The Lord pre
serve you, and remember me in the everlasting covenant." In 1717, he scarce knew his old acquaintance, or could walk without leading. His decease was on the 30th of July, 1718, and his interment the 5th of the next month, at Jordan, near Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire. Without attempting to draw up a regular character of William Penn, it must be evident from his works, that he was a man of abilities; and, from his conduct through life, that he was a man of the purest conscience. This, without acceding to his opinions in religion, we are perfectly willing to allow and to declare.'
PENNANT (THOMAS), an eminent traveller, naturalist, and antiquary, was born June 14, 1726*, at Downing, in Flintshire, the seat of his family for several generations. He was the son of David Pennant, and his mother was the daughter of Richard Mytton of Halston. He was educated first at Wrexham, then at Mr. Croft's school at Fulham, and last at Queen's and Oriel colleges, Oxford, where, however, he took no degree, but was complimented with that of LL. D. in the year 1771, long after he had left the university,
A present of the ornithology of Francis Willoughby, made to him at the age of twelve, gave him a taste for that study, and a love for natural history in general, which he afterwards pursued with constitutional ardour, and great reputation ; to such small matters do men of talents sometimes owe their prevailing bias. In 1746-7, he made a tour into Cornwall, where he contracted a strong passion for minerals and fossils. The first production of his which appeared in print, though unknown to himself, was an abstract of a letter which he wrote to his uncle, John Mytton, esq. on an earthquake which was felt at Downing, April 2, 1750. This appeared in the Philosophical Transactions. In 1754, he was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, an honour which he resigned in 1760. Accord
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* “ To prevent all disputes about to Miss Jevny Parry, of Merton, in the place and time of my birth, be it this parish; who, to her dying day, known that I was born on June 14, never failed telling me, 1726, old style, in the room now called rogue ! I remember you when you had the yellow room; that the celebrated pot a shirt to your back." Mrs. Clayton, of Shrewsbury, ushered
Pennant's Hist. of Whiteford me into the world, and delivered me
and Holywell. | This account, now altered in some parts, was drawn up for the last edition of this Dictionary.--A very elaborate life has lately been published by Mr. Clarkson, in 2 vols. 8v0.--See also Biog, Brit. --and Life prefixed to his Works 1728, 2 vols, folio.
ing to his own account, his foresight at this time was small. " I had," says be, “ married a most amiable woman; my circumstances were very narrow, my worthy father being alive, and I vainly thought my happiness would have been permanent, and that I never should have been called again from my retirement to amuse myself in town, or to be of use to the society."
Previous to this resignation, however, in 1754, he visited Ireland ; but such was the conviviality of the country, that his journal proved as meagre as his entertainment was plentiful, “so it never was a dish fit to be offered to the publick." In 1756, he published in the “ Philosophical Transactions," a paper on several coralloid bodies he had collected at Coalbrook-dale, in Shropshire. In 1757, at the instance of the celebrated Linnæus, he was elected of the Royal Society at Upsal, which he calls the first and greatest of his literary honours. He kept up a correspondence with Linnæus, till age and infirmities obliged the latter to desist.
In 1761, he began his “ British Zoology,” which, when completed, consisted of 132 plates on imperial paper, all engraved by Mazel. Edwards, the celebrated ornithologist, conceived at first a little jealousy on this attempt, but it very soon subsided, and they contracted a great intimacy, which ended only with the death of Mr. Edwards, He devoted the profits of the “ British Zoology" to the Welsh charity school, in Gray's inn-lane, London, and supported the far greater part of the expence; but be lost considerably by it, and the school did not gain so much as it might if the work had been printed in a quarto, instead of a large folio'size. But he confesses he was at that time inexperienced in these affairs.
In 1765, he made a short tour to the continent, where he enjoyed the company of the celebrated Buffon, who publicly acknowledged his favourable sentiments of Mr. Pennant's studies in the fifteenth volume of his “ Natural History.” They had afterwards a dispute on branches of their respective studies, but, adds our author, “our blows were light, and I hope that neither of us felt any material injury.” At Ferney he visited Voltaire, who happened to be in good humour, and was very entertaining; but in his attempt to speak English, satisfied the visitors that he was perfect master of the oaths and curses which disgrace that language.
During this tour, Mr. Pennant visited also baron Haller, the two Gesners, the poets, and Dr. Trew, a venerable patron of natural history, who resided at Nuremberg. At the Hague, he met with Dr. Pallas, and this meeting gave rise to his “ Synopsis of Quadrupeds,” and the second edition, under the name of the “ History of Quadrupeds,” a work received by the naturalists of different parts of Europe in a manner uncommonly favourable. Mr. Pennant had proposed this plan to Pallas, but owing to the latter being promoted at the court of Petersburgh, it ultimately devolved on himself. In 1767, after his return, he was elected fellow of the Royal Society. In 1768, his British Zoology was published in two volumes, 8vo, and the bookseller gave Mr. Pennant 100l. for permission to do so, whic he immediately vested in the Welsh charity-school.
In 1769, he added a third volume, in octavo, on the reptiles and fishes of Great Britain. In the fifty-eighth volume of the Philosophical Transactions, was published his account of a new species of Pinguin, brought by captain Macbride, from the Falkland islands. In the same year, in conjunction with sir Joseph Banks, and Mr. Loten, who had been a governor in one of the Dutch islands in the Indian ocean, he published twelve plates of Indian Zoology, but that work was afterwards discontinued. In the spring of this year, he acquired one whom he calls a treasure, Moses Griffith, to whom the public are indebted for numberless scenes and antiquities, and who accompanied Mr. Pennant in all his journeys except that of the present year, which was his first tour into Scotland. had,” says he, “the hardiness to venture on a journey to the remotest part of North Britain, a country almost as little known to its southern brethren as Kamtschatka. I brought home a favourable account of the land. Whether it will thank me or no I cannot say, but from the report I have made, and shewing that it might be visited with safety, it has ever since been inondée with southern visitants.” This year, also, he was elected fellow of the Royal Academy at Drontheim.
In 1770, he published 103 additional plates to the British Zoology, with descriptive additions ; and in 1771, he printed, at Chester, his “ Synopsis of Quadrupeds," in one volume, 8vo. In May of the same year, he was honoured by the university of Oxford, with the degree of doctor of laws, conferred in full convocation. About the