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time. They have been, however, far more admired abroad than at home. We know not of any of them reprinted in this country since their first appearance, but several of them have been translated into French, Dutch, and Spanish. Bishop Hall said " he excelled in a distinct judgment, a rare dexterity in clearing the obscure subtleties of the schools, and in an easy explication of the most perplexed subjects.”
PERNETY (ANTHONY JOSEPH), was born Feb. 15, 1716, at Roanne, in Forez. He entered into the order of Benedictines, and devoted himself to study, and the composition of numerous works, some of which are correct and useful, and others deformed by absurd hypotheses, and that affectation of novelty, which gained many French writers in his day the title of philosophers. These whims are principally found in bis. “ Fables Egyptiennes et Greques devoilées," 1786, 2 vols. 8vo, and in his “ Dictionnaire mythohermetique.” His more useful publications were, his “ Dictionnaire de Peinture, Sculpture, et Gravure,” 1757 ; "Discours sur la Physionomie;" “ Journal Historique d'un Voyage faite aux îles Malouines, en 1763 et 1764," 1769, 2 vols. 8vo. This account of a voyage made by himself was translated into English, and read with some interest at the time of the dispute with Spain, relative to these islands, which are the same with the Falkland islands. “ Dissertation sur l'Amérique et les Américains :" in this work and in his “ Examen des Récherches Philosophiques de Pauw sur les Américains," he coutroverts the opinions of Pauw. He was author of many other works, and communicated several memoirs to the academy of Berlin, of which he was a member, and in which capital he resided a long time as librarian to Frederic, II. He at length returned to Valence, in the department of La Drôme, where he died about the close of the century."
PEROT, or PERROT (Nicholas), a learned prelate of the fifteenth century, was born at Sasso Ferrato, of an illustrious but reduced family. Being obliged to maintain himself by teaching Latin, he brought the rudiments of that language into better order, and a shorter compass for the use of his scholars; and going afterwards to Rome, was much esteemed by cardinal Bessarion, who chose him for
I Fuller's Ch. History, Abel Redivivus, and Holy State.-Lupton's Modern Divines. --Brook's Puritans.
& Dict. Hist. VOL. XXIV.
his conclavist or attendant in the conclave, on the death of Paul M. It was at this juncture that he is said to have deprived Bessarion of the papacy by his imprudence; for the cardinals being agreed in their choice, three of them went to disclose it, and to salute him pope; but Perot would not suffer them to enter, alledging that they might interrupt him in his studies. When the cardinal was informed of this blunder, he gave himself 'no farther trouble, and only said to his conclavist in a mild, tranquil tone, “ Your ill-timed care has deprived me of the tiara, and you of the hat.” Perot was esteemed by several popes, appointed governor of Perugia, and afterwards of Ombria, and was made archbishop of Siponto, 1458. He died 1480, at Fugicura, a country house so called, which he had built near Sasso Ferrato: He translated the first five books of ( Polybius," from Greek into Latin, wrote a treatise “ De generibus metrorutn," 1497, 4to; also “Rudimenta Grammaticës,” Rome, 1473, fol. a very rare and valuable edition, as indeed all the subsequent ones are; but bis most celebrated work is a long commentary on Martial, entitled * Cornucopia, 'sea Latinæ Linguæ Commentarius,” the best edition of which is that of 1.513, fol. This last is a very learted work, and has been of great use to Calepin in his Dictionary.'
PEROUSE (JOHN FRANCIS GALAUP DE LA), an able but unfortunate navigator, was born at Albi in 1741. tered into the French 'navy when he was only in his fifteenth year, and acquired such professional skill, that he was regarded as fit for the most arduous enterprises. The triumphs of the French marine were few in his time; yet he commanded in the successful attempt to destroy the English settlement in Hudson's Bay'in 1782. On the restoration of peace, it was resolved by the French ministry that a voyage of discovery should be undertaken to supply what had been left defective in the voyages of our 'iflustrious wavigator captain James Cook, and his associates. "Louis XVI. drew up the plan of the intended expedition with great judgment and intelligence, and La Perouse was the person fixed upon to conduct it. With two frigates, la 'Boussole, 'et l'Astrolabe, 'the first utider his own comhand, the second 'under that of M. de Langle, but subject
1 Niceron, vol. XXXII.-Tiraboschi.--Gen. Dict.-Brunet Manuel du Libraire.-Saxii Onomasticon.
to his orders, they sailed from Brest in August 1785; touched at Madeira and Teneriffe, and in November anchored on the coast of Brazil. Thence they proceeded round Cape Horn into the South Sea, and in February 1786 cast anchor in the bay of Conception, on the coast of Chili. At this time, so well had the means of preserving health been employed, that they had not a man sick. The ships reached Easter island in the month of April, and thence sailed, without touching at any land, to the Sandwich islands. On June 23d they anchored on the American coast, in lat. 58° 37', and landed on an island to explore the country and make observations. At this place M. Perouse had the misfortune of having two boats wrecked, with the loss of all their crew. Thence he ran down to California, and in September anchored in the bay of Monterey, whence they took their departure across the Pacific ocean, and in January 1787 arrived in the Macao roads. In February they reached Manilla, which they quitted in April, shaping their course for the islands of Japan. Passing the coasts of Corea and Japan, they fell in with Chinese Tartary, in lat. 427., and ran to the northward. They anchored in a bay of the island of Sagalien, and thence proceeded up
the shallow channel between that island and the continent as far as 51° 29'. Returning thence they reached the southern extremity of Sagalien in August, and passed a strait between it and Jesso, since named Perouse strait, into the North Pacific. On the sixth of September they anchored in the barbour of St. Peter and Paul in Kamtschatka. The ships having refitted, they set sail, and arrived at the Navigators Islands in December. In the bay of Maouna they met with a friendly reception from numerous natives, and began to take in refreshments. party of sixty, under the command of M. de Langle, went ashore to procure fresh water, when a most unfortunate occurrence took place, in which they were attacked by the natives, and M. de Langle and eleven of his men lost their lives. Quitting this place without any attempts at vengeance, Perouse proceeded to New Holland, and arrived at, Botany Bay in January 1788, and here terminates all that is known of the voyage of this navigator, from the journal which he transmitted to France. He had many and very important objects of research remaining, but was never more heard of. The vessels were probably wrecked, and all the crews perished, since all efforts made to obtain
information of them have been fruitless. So 1798 was pub. lished, at the expence of the French nation, and for the benefit of the widow of Perouse, “ Voyage autour du Monde par J. F. G. de la Perouse,” in three vols. 4to. was translated into the English. The discoveries of this navigator are chiefly in the seas between Japan and China, and China and Tartary.'
PERRAULT (CLAUDE), an eminent French architect, was the son of an advocate of parliament, and born at Paris, in 1613. He was bred a physician, but practised only among his relations, his friends, and the poor. . He dis. covered early a correct taste for the sciences and fine arts; of wbich he acquired a consummate knowledge, without the assistance of a master, and was particularly skilled in architecture, painting, sculpture, and mechanics. He still continues to be reckoned one of the greatest architects France ever produced. Louis XIV. who had a good taste for architecture, sent for Bernini from Rome, and other architects; but Perrault was preferred to them all; and what he did at the Louvre justified this preference. The façade of that palace, which was designed by him, “ is," says
Voltaire, one of the most august monuments of architecture in the world. We sometimes," adds he, “ go a great way in search of what we have at home. There is not one of the palaces at Rome, whose entrance comparable to this of the Louvre; for which we are obliged to Perrault, whom Boileau has attempted to turn into ridicule.” Boileau indeed went so far as to deny that Perrault was the real author of those great designs in architecture that passed for his. Perrault was involved in the quarrel his brother Charles had with Boileau, who, however, when they became reconciled, acknowledged Claude's merit..
Colbert, the celebrated French minister, who loved architecture, and patronized architects, advised Perrault to undertake the translation of Vitruvius into French, and illustrate it with notes ; which he did, and published it in 1673, folio, with engravings from designs of his own, which have been esteemed master-pieces. Perrault was supposed to have succeeded in this work beyond all who went before him, who were either architects without learning, or learned men without any
skill in architecture. He united a
knowledge of every science directly or remotely connected with architecture, and had so extraordinary a genius for mechanics, that he invented the machines by which those stones of fifty-two feet in length, of which the front of the Louvre' is formed, were raised. A second edition of his " Vitruvius, revised, corrected, and augmented," was printed at Paris, 1684, in folio; and he afterwards pubJished an abridgment for the use of students; and another valuable architectural work, entitled “ Ordonnance des cinq Especes de Colonnes, selon la methode des Anciens," 1683, fol.
When the academy of sciences was established, he was chosen one of its first members, and was chiefly depended upon in what related to mechanics and natural philosophy. He gave proofs of his great knowledge in these, by the publication of several works; among which were, moires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des animaux,"1671 -76, 2 vols. fol. with fine plates ; “ Essais de Physique,” in t vols. 12mo, the three first of which came out in 1680, and the fourth in 1688 ;. “ Recueil de plusieurs machines de nouvelle invention,” 1700, 4to, &c.
He died Oct. 9, 1688, aged seventy-five. Although he had never publicly practised physic, yet the faculty of Paris, of which he was a member, had such an opinion of his skill, and so much esteem for the man, that after his death they desired his picture of his heirs, and placed it in their public schools with that of Fernelius, Riolanus, and others, who had done honour to their profession.'
PERRAULT (CHARLES), younger brother to the preceding, was born at Paris, Jan. 12, 1628, and at the age of eight was placed in the college of Beauvais, where he distinguished himself in the belles-lettres, and had a considerable turn to that kind of philosophy which consisted mostly in the disputatious jargon of the schools. He also wrote verses, and indulged himself in burlesque, which was then much in vogue; on one occasion he aiused bimself in turning the sixth book of the Æneid into burlesque verse. He had, however, too much sense when his ideas became matured by reflection, to attach the least value to such effusions. When his studies were completed, he was admitted an advocate, and pleaded two causes with a success sufficient to induce the magistrates to wish to see him at
1 Niceron, vol. XXXIII.-Moreri. -Perrault's Les Hommes Illustres,