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Hafniæ, 1657, inserted in the third and fourth centuries of the anatomical and medical histories of T. Bartholin. He also left in MS. a“ Methodus Anatomica,” which was in the library of M. de Vick of Amsterdam.'
PACATUS (LATINUS DREPANIUS), a poet and orator, was born in the fourth century, at Drepanum in Aquitania, but, according to others, at Bourdeaux; or, according to Sidonius, at Agen. He discovered a remarkable taste for poetry from his youth; and Ausonius informs us, wrote love verses. Ausonius adds, that he was equal to Catullus, and surpassed all the Latin poets, except Virgil
. Ausonius robably thought all this; for he certainly had a very high opinion of him, dedicated some of his own works to him, and paid the greatest deference to his judgment. Pacatus was sent to Rome in the year 388, to congratulate Theodosius the Great on his victory over the tyrant Maximus; and on this occasion he delivered a panegyric on the emperor in the senate house, for which he was rewarded, in the -year 390, with the proconsulship of a province in Africa, and, in the year 393, with the office of superintendant of the imperial domain. We have no farther particulars of his life. None of his poems are extant, and the only proof of his talents to which we can appeal is his panegyric on Theodosius, the second part of which is the most interesting, and gives some curious historical facts.' In style and manner he is thought to resemble Seneca or Pliny rather than Cicero. The best edition is that by Arntzenius, Amst. 1753, 4to.'
PACE (RICHARD), a learned Englishman, was born about 1492, at or near Winchester, as is generally supposed, and was educated at the charge of Thomas Langton, bishop of that diocese, who employed bim, while a youth, as his amanuensis. The bishop, pleased with his proficiency, and particularly delighted with his early turn for music, which be thought an earnest of greater attainments, be stowed a pension on him sufficient to defray the expenceś of his education at Padua, at that time one of the most flourishing universities in Europe. Accordingly he studied there for some time, and met with Cuthbert Tonstall, afterwards bishop of Durham, and William Latimer, whom he called his preceptors. On his return, he studied for
Eloy Dict.-Hist. de Medicine. . Biog. Univ. et Moreri in art. Drepanius.-Fabric. Bibl. Lat.
some time at Queen's-college, Oxford, of which his patron Langton had been provost; and was soon after taken into the service of Dr. Christopher Bambridge, who succeeded Langton in the office of provost, and became afterwards a cardinal. He attended him to Rome, about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and continued there until the cardinal's death in 1514. He appears, before this, to have entered into boly orders, for in the beginning of this year, and while abroad, he was made prebendary of Bugthorp, in the church of York, in the room of Wolsey, afterwards the celebrated cardinal; and in May of the same year, was promoted to the archdeaconry of Dorset, on the resigna, tion of his friend Langton, at which time, as Willis supposes, he resigned the prebend of Bugthorp.
On his return to England, he was sent for to court, probably in consequence of the character given of him by his deceased patron, cardinal Bambridge ; and became such a favourite with Henry VIII. that he appointed him, as some say, secretary of state, which Mr. Lodge doubts; but it seems certain, that he either held that, or the office of private secretary, or some confidential situation, under Henry, who employed him in affairs of high political importance. In 1515, he was sent to the court of Vienna, where the object of his embassy was to engage the emperor Maximilian to dispossess the French king Francis I. of the duchy of Milan, his royal master being alarmed at the progress of the French arms in Italy. Pace succeeded in his nego-' ciation, so far as to persuade the emperor to undertake this expedition ; and he also. engaged some of the Swiss cantons to furnish him with troops ; but the scheme was ultimately so unsuccessful that Maximilian was obliged to make peace with France. Pace, however, profited so much by his acquaintance with this emperor, as to acquire a very useful knowledge of his character; and when he afterwards offered to resign his crown in favour of Henry VIII. he was enabled to give his sovereign the best advice, and to assure him, that Maximilian had no other design, by this apparently liberal offer, than to obtain another subsidy, and that, in other respects, very little credit was due to his word. In this opinion cardinal Wolsey, at home, seems to have concurred.
In 1,519, Maximilian died, and the kings of France and Spain immediately declared themselves candidates for tbe Imperial throne. Henry, encouraged by the pope, was also induced to offer himself as a candidate, and Pace was ordered to attend the diet of the empire, sound the opinions of the electors, and endeavour to form a judgment of the likelihood of his success. Pace, however, soon discovered that his royal master had started too late, and that even the electors of Mentz, Cologn, and Triers, who were disposed to favour his pretensions, pleaded, with a shew of regret, that they were pre-engaged. The election fell on Charles V. In 1516, Pace was insti. tuted treasurer of Lichfield, which he resigned in 1522, on being made dean of Exeter. In 1519, he succeeded Colet as dean of St. Paul's; and some say, held also the deanery of Sarum, but this is not quite clear, although he is called dean of Salisbury by Herbert, in his “Life and Reign of Henry VIII.” In 1521, he was made prebendary of Combe and Harnham, in the church of Sarum, and we find mention of some other church preferments he held from 1516 to 1522, but they are so dubiously related that it is difficult to give them in due order.
On the death of pope Leo X. when cardinal Wolsey's ambition aimed at the papal throne, he sent Pace to Rome to promote his interest; but before his arrival there, Adrian, bishop of Tortosa, had been chosen : and on his death, in 1523, Pace was again employed to negotiate for Wolsey, but with no better success, Clement VII, being elected. He obtained, however, from the pope, an enlargement of Wolsey's powers as legate, which the latter was at this time desirous to obtain. Pace was soon afterwards sent on an embassy to Venice, where he carried with him the learned Lupset as his secretary. Wood declares that on this occasion “ it is hard to say whether he procured more commendation or admiration among the Venetians; both for the dexterity of his wit, and especially for his singular promptness in the Italian tongue; wherein he seemed nothing inferior, neither to P. Vannes here in England, the king's secretary for the Italian tongue, nor yet to any other, which were the best for that tongue in all Venice."
It was at this time, however, that Pace fell under cardinal Wolsey's displeasure; the effects of which are said to have been very serious. The cardinal is thought to have beer enraged against him, first, because he had shewn a readiness to assist Charles duke of Bourbon with money, for whom the cardinal had no great affection : and, secondly, because he had not forwarded the cardinal's design
of obtaining the papal chair with so much zeal as Wolsey expected. Such are the reasons assigned by some bistorians for Wolsey's displeasure, who is said to have ordered matters in such a manner, that for nearly the space of two years, Pace received no instructions from his court as to his proceedings at Venice; his allowance for expences was also withdrawn, and no answer returned to his letters, On one occasion, when the Venetian ambassador residing in London asked Wolsey whether he had any commands for the English ambassador at Venice, he answered Paceus decipit Regem: and this singular treatment, we are told, so affected Pace that he became insane. As soon as the king was informed of this, Pace was ordered home; and, being carefully attended by physicians at the king's command, was restored in a short time to his
and amused himself by studying the Hebrew language, with the assistance of Robert Wakefield. In the interval, he was introduced to the king at Richmond, who expressed much satisfaction at his recovery; and admitted him to a private audience, in which he remonstrated against the car, dinal's cruelty to him. But the cardinal was too powerful at this time, and when urged by the king to answer the charge against him, he summoned Pace before him, and sat in judgment, with the duke of Norfolk and others, who condemned Pace, and sent him to the Tower of London ; where he was confined for two years, till discharged at. length by the king's command. Pace, thus degraded, and depressed in body and mind, resigned his deanries of St, Paul and Exeter, a little before his death; and, retiring to Stepney for his health, died there, in 1532, when not quite fifty years of age.
There is an elegant and just character of him by Leland, written upon his return from Venice; and he certainly was much esteemed by the learned men of his time, especially by sir Thomas More and Erasmus. The latter admired Pace for his candour and sweetness of temper; and was so much afflicted at his misfortunes, that he could never forgive the man that caused them. He styles him utriusque litera, turæ calentissimus; and wrote more letters to him than to any one of his learned friends and correspondents. Stow gives him the character of a right worthy man, and one that gave in council faithful advice: learned he was also, says that antiquary, “and endowed with many excellent parte and gifts of nature; courteous, pleasant, and delighting in
music; highly in the king's favour, and well beard in mata ters of weight.” There is extant a remarkable letter of his to the king, written in 1527, in which he very honestly gives his opinion concerning the divorce; and Fiddes observes, that he always used a faithful liberty to the cardinal, which brought him at last to confinement and distraction.
He wrote, 1. “ De fructu qui ex doctrina percipitur liber." Basil, 1517, dedicated to Dr. Colet. This was written by our author at Constance, while he was ambassador in Helvetia ; but, inveighing much against drunkenness as a great obstacle to the attaining of knowledge, the people there supposing him to reflect upon them, wrote a sharp answer to it, and even Erasmus calls it an indiscreet performance; in which Pace had, between jest and earnest, represented him as a beggar, and a beggar hated by the clergy. He bids sir Thomas More exhort Pace, since he had so little judgment, rather to confine himself to the translation of Greek writers, than to venture upon works of his own, and to publish such mean and contemptible stuff. (Erasm. epist. 275, and Ep. 287).
" Oratio nuperrimè composita de fædere percusso inter Henricum Angliæ regem, et Francorum reg. Christianiss. in æde Pauli Lond. habita," 1518. 3. “ Epistolæ ad Erasmum,” &c. 1520. These Epistles are part of the “Epistolæ aliquot eruditorum virorum." 4. " Exemplum literarum ad regem Hen. VIII. an. 1526," inserted in a piece entitled, “ Syntagma de Hebræorum codicum interpretatione,” by Robert Wakefield. Pace also wrote a book against the unlawfulness of the king's marriage with Katharine, in 1527, and made several translations : among others, one from English into Latin, " Bishop Fisher's Sermon,” preached at London on the day upon which the writings of M. Luther were publicly burnt, Camb. 1521, and a translation from Greek into Latin of Plutarch's piece, “ De commodo ex inimicis capiendo."
PACHECO (FRANCIS), a Spanish artist, supposed to have been born in 1571, at Seville, is said by Mr. Fuseli, to owe his reputation more to theory, writing, and the celebrity of his scholars Cano and Velázquez, than to the superiority of his works. He was a pupil of Luis Fernan
1 Ath. Ox. vol. 1.-Dodd's Ch. Hist.--Lodge's Illustrations, vol. I.-Fiddes and Grove's Lives of Cardinal Wolsey.--Knight and Jortin's Lives of Erasmus,