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OTHER CoMMISSION PUBLICATIONs
In addition to the 47 policy reports which contain Commission recommendations for, action by the several levels of government, ACIR issues other publications of various kinds. These have included over 90 printed documents; and numerous ongoing periodicals.
These information reports are of several types. One category, typified by the bienniel compendia of Federal-State-Local Finances, contains information of broad interest. Other reports provide back. ground and findings on subjects for which the Commission has no policy position: such as Measuring the Fiscal Capacity and Effort of State and Local Areas or The Erpenditure Tar: Concept, Administration and Possible Applications. Still others highlight previous Commission findings and #s. on recommendations, but take no new policy positions. Examples are American Federalism: Into the Third Century and The Property Tar in a Changing Environment.
In the past few years, ACIR has sponsored national opinion surveys to determine public attitudes toward taxes, revenue sharing and government efficiency. The latest, published in June 1974, is Changing Public Attitudes on Governments and Tares.
Commission staff prepares three periodicals for key Federal, State and local officials and leaders of civic organizations, public interest groups and government associations. Information Bulletins analyze and discuss emerging problems and new developments of interest. Information Interchange Service transmits several items, generally
rtinent official documents, articles from journals or papers prepared [. other organizations that might not otherwise come to the attention of our readers. Congressional Watch, as its name implies, reports on Congressional activities with intergovernment impact of interest to those on the ACIR mailing list.
The Commission provides Action Agendas and Legislators' Guides to State and local officials, civic leaders and the news media, as part of its implementative efforts. The Action Agenda summarizes ACIR findi and recommendations in lay language. The Legislators' Guide provides additional background and statistical information as well as draft legislation. Such publications have been prepared on County Modernization, Substate }. and Circuit Breaker Property Tax: Relief.
The ACIR statute directs the Commission to “make available technical assistance to the executive and legislative branches of the Federal government in the review of proposed legislation to determine its overall effect on the Federal system.” In this connection, ACIR receives many requests from Congressional Committee Chairmen, the Office of Sion and i. and other Federal agencies to review proposals and pending legislation. If the proposal deals with a subject on which the Commission has taken a policy position, that fact, is reported along with the Commission's supporting arguments. If the Commission has taken no policy position on the subject matter of the proposal, that fact is reported. Occasionally, when a proposal would have a significant impact on intergovernmental relations, and when there is sufficient guidance from Commission recommendations
on related matters, staff comments are offered-clearly labeled "Staff Comments."
The ACIR staff also receives frequent requests from Congressional Committees and executive agency staffs to advise and assist in the development of proposals that would implement Commission recommendations for action. The staff also receives many requests from State and local governments both to review proposals or legislation and also to assist in the development of programs that would carry out Commission recommendations. Within the limits of available staff, the Commission responds affirmatively to these requests.
THE IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM
The Commission recognizes that its contribution to strengthening the Federal system will be measured in part in terms of its role in actually fostering significant improvements in the relationships between and among Federal, State and local governments. It therefore devotes a significant share of its resources to encouraging the consideration of its recommendations for legislative and administrative action by government at all levels.
When the Commission makes recommendations for changes at the national level, draft bills are developed for consideration by Congress. Congressional members of the Commission--and occasionally other House and Senate members—introduce these measures, which are referred to appropriate committees and considered along with other pending legislation. Commission recommendations for administrative changes at the national level are transmitted to the President, his executive office, and the heads of individual departments and agencies as appropriate.
ACIR recommendations for State action are translated into legislative language for consideration by State legislatures. These draft proposals are made available to Governors, State legislative leaders, State administrative officials and other State and local policymakers and their advisors.
The Commission seeks formal support for its recommendations from the various organizations of State and local officials with which it cooperates such as the National Governors' Conference, the Council of State Governments, the National Conference of State Legislators, the National League of Cities, the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the National Association of Counties, the International City Management Association, State leagues of municipalities, associations of counties, citizen groups, business, professional and labor organizations, taxpayers leagues, bureaus of government research and other public and private interest groups.
In addition, the staff makes special efforts to work closely with those jurisdictions from which requests for technical assistance are received and in which an ACIR staff analysis of existing laws and practices suggests there is the greatest need or potential for constructive change.
ADMINISTRATION OF OMB CIRCULAR A-85 ACIR is the administrator of OMB Circular A-85 which provides an assured mechanism for State and local government review of draft
Federal regulations having substantial intergovernmental implications. In addition to normal A–85 administration and to the production of an A–85 annual report for the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Commission staff has actively participated with OMB, the Federal agencies, and the public interest groups representing State and local governments in a series of thorough reviews of the language and performance of Circular A–85.
MonitoRING REVENUE SHARING—A NEw TASK
At the request of the President, the Commission agreed in 1972 to take on a new task: monitoring the intergovernmental impact of the landmark general revenue sharing legislation. The Commission had been an early advocate of Federal general support aid, endorsing revenue sharing as one component of a “new Federal aid mix” in its exhaustive 1967 study, Fiscal Balance in the American Federal System. When the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act of 1972, the legislation creating revenue sharing, was signed in October 1972, the Commission readily assented to provide this technical assistance. In the two years since the legislation was enacted, ACIR has held four informal hearings, two in Washington, DC, one on the West Coast and one in Chicago. The Commission obtained testimony on the functional aspects of revenue sharing from Federal, State and local officials, both legislative and executives, elected as well as appointed. From leaders of citizens organizations, ACIR has received testimony on citizen participation and compliance with civil rights and other laws. The Commission is expected to consider its first formal evaluation of the program at its fall 1974 meeting, scheduled for late September.
IMPACT of ACIR
The impact of an organization such as the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations is difficult to measure with any precision. Some legislative enactments clearly and directly have stemmed from ACIR work, but more frequently the cause and effect relationship is unclear because of the multiple forces working toward similar ends. Over its 15-year history, the Commission has tracked about 700 State enactments that implement ACIR recommendations. At the very least, the Commission's activity in the field has contributed to the atmosphere in which these measures were enacted. At the Federal level, ACIR impact is easier to document. Over the ast few years, ACIR developed the Uniform Relocation Act and the ntergovernmental Cooperation Act and vigorously worked for their enactment. The Commission was also heavily involved in the development of the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act. All were major items on ACIR’s agenda. Of course, here too, other forces were at work to achieve implementation of common objectives. Several of ACIR’s very comprehensive studies have had significant impact. Fiscal Balance in the American Federal System, for instance, urged both a general strengthening of elected officials at all levels of government and a new mix in Federal aid. Slowly, and through a
variety of mechanisms, progress has been achieved on both fronts. State-Local Relations in the Criminal Justice System, another broadgauge report, called for specific reform of each facet of criminal justice-courts, police, corrections, prosecution and defense—as well as coordination among these aspects of the system. Due to its special timeliness, this report has had impact on the substantial activity in the field of criminal justice since the ACIR study came out three years ago.
ACIR's FUTURE ROLE
ACIR shall continue to strive to identify and study the friction points in the federal system and to recommend and work for the solutions to such intergavernmental problems. Research efforts will be selected and designed to assure a mix of topics dealing with both current issues and longer term reforms, thereby assuring both immediacy and perspective. These work areas, dealing primarily with fiscal and government structure questions, will be linked where possible to other relevant and timely national problems. Numerous fiscal and structural problems remain to be studied. And yet more numerous linkages need to be drawn between these studies and the constantly growing list of national substantive concerns. The Commission hopes to treat as large a percent of these issues as possible and appropriate under the mandate of the law creating the Commission.
Similarly, ACIR hopes to strengthen its ability to provide technical assistance to the legislative and executive branches of Federal, State and local governments.
ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL
ROBERT E. MERRIAM, Chicago, Ill. Chairman
ERNEST F. HOLLINGS, South Carolina
CHARLES H. PERCY, Illinois
CLARENCE J. BROWN, JR., Ohio
KENNETH R. COLE, JR., Assistant to the President for Domestic
DALE BUMPERS, Arkansas
ROBERT D. Ray, Iowa
RICHARD G. LUGAR, Indianapolis, Ind. Vice Chairman
John H. POELKER, St. Louis, Mo.
Jous Hanson BriscoE, Speaker, House of Delegates, Maryland
John H. BREWER, Kent County, Mich.
MEMBERS OF THE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERDEPARTMENTAL
12/8/59–4/29/66 * Farris Bryant (Chairman; Florida; Democrat)
10/10/67-10/30/09 Robert E. Merriam (Chairman; Illinois; Republican) 10/30/69-present John E. Burton (New York; Republican).
12/8/59-12/7/61 ** James K. Pollack (Michigan; Republican)
12/8/59–12/7/61 Howard R. Bowen (Iowa; Democrat)
2/22/62-2/22/64 * Don Hummel (Arizona; Democrat)
2/22/62-2/22/64 Thomas H. Eliot (Missouri; Democrat).
4/30/64-4/29/66 Adelaide Walters, Mrs. (North Carolina; Democrat). 4/30/64-4/29/66 Dorothy I. Cline (New Mexico; Democrat)
3/18/67-1/6/70 * Price Daniel (Texas; Democrat).
3/18/67-10/9/67 Alexander Heard (Tennessee; Democrat)
3/18/67-10/30/69 Howard H. (Bo) Callaway (Georgia; Republican) 10/30/69-5/15/73 Edward C. Banfield (Massachusetts; Democrat).
3/22/71-5/29/73 * Robert H. Finch (California; Republican)--
5/29/73-present U.S. Senators (3): Sam J. Ervin, Jr. (North Carolina; Democrat).
12/8/59-2/20/73 Karl E. Mundt (South Dakota; Republican)
12/8/59-5/10/72 Edmund S. Muskie (Maine; Democrat)
12/8/59-present Charles H. Percy (Illinois; Republican)
5/11/72-present Ernest F. Hollings (South Carolina; Democrat).
2/20/73-present U.S. Representatives (3);
Florence P. Dwyer, Mrs. (New Jersey; Republican)---- 12/8/59-1/2/73 L. H. Fountain (North Carolina; Democrat).
12/8/59-present Wilbur D. Mills (Arkansas; Democrat).
12/8/59-1/9/61 Frank Ikard (Texas; Democrat).
3/10/61-12/15/61 Eugene J. Keogh (New York; Democrat)
2/5/62-12/31/66 Al Ullman (Oregon; Democrat).
1/30/67-8//74 Clarence J. Brown, Jr. (Ohio; Republican).
2/5/73-present The Act establishing the Commission provides that members appointed from private life shall be appointe:d without regard to political party; of the members representing the Congress, two shall be from the majority party of the respective houses; of each class of members representing State and local governments, not more than two shall be from any one political party (Public Law 86-380, Sept. 24, 1959). Party atlili stions and State of origin (except for Cabinet Members) for all present and previous members are shown. Members are appointed for 2-year terms and, in accordance with an amendment adopted in 1966, continue to serve until their successors are appointed, except that any member who ceases to hold the official position from which he was appointed ceases to be a member. Serred on the Commission in two capacities at different times. "Deceased.