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REPORTS ISSUED BY THE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS, SANUARY 1961

TO DATE-Continued

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Quantity distributed as of June 30, 1974 by

ACIR GPO sale 1

OTHER REPORTS-Continued

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"State Action on Local Problems in 1970," April 1971, report M-60, 14 pp. Summarizes State
legislative actions during 1970 affecting localities and analyzes their implications in terms of
the emergence of broad trends in State-local relations
*County Reform," April 1971, report M-61, 31 pp. Contains a summary of a speech by ACIR
Chairman Robert E. Merriam and 8 ACIR proposals for State legislation to strengthen county

government
"The Ouest for Environmental Quality: Federal and State Action, 1969-70," April 1971, report

M-62, 63 pp. A report on Federal and State action on the environment, with an annotated bibli-
ography. Out of print
"Court Reform," July 1971, report M-63, 31 pp. A summary of findings and recommendations for
improving State court systems, together with draft legislation intended to serve as a point of
departure for States wishing to incorporate the Commission's recommendations into their
statutes
"Correctional Reform" August 1971, report M-64, 13 pp. A summary of findings and recommenda-
tions for improving State and local corrections systems, together with drali legislation intended
to serve as a point of departure for States wishing to incorporate the Commission's recommenda-
tions into their statutes.
"Police Reform," August 1971, report M-65, 30 pp. A summary of findings and recommendations

far modernizing the police, together with draft legislation intended to serve as a point of de-
parture for States wishing to incorporate the Commission's recommendations into their statutes
"Prosecution Reform," September 1971, report M-66, 9 pp. A summary of findings and recom-
mendations for improving State and local prosecution systems together with draft legislation in-
tended to serve as a point of departure for States wishing to incorporate the Commission's recom-
mendations into their statutes.
"New Proposals for 1972. ACIR State Legislative Program," August 1971, report M 67,98 pp.
"In Search of Balance - Canada's Intergovernmental Experience," September 1971, report M-68,

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123 pp. A comparative study of Canadian experience relating to selected intergovernmental ten-
Sions prevalent in the United States. An analysis of Federal-Provincial relations, financing of

public education and social welfare, and Provincial-local relations.
"wm Should Pay for Public Schools?" October 1971, report M-69, 44 pp. Report on an ACIR
sponsored Conterence on State Financing of Public Schools
"Special Revenue Sharing: An Analysis of the Administration's Grant Consolidation Proposals,"

December 1971, report M-70,63 pp-
"The New Grass Roots Government? Decentralization and Citizen Participation in Urban Areas,'

January 1972, report M-71, 21 pp. Out of print.
"Profile of County Government,'" December 1971, report M-72, 148 pp. Presents an updated picture
of county government structure and organization; services and functions; involvement in zoning.
subdivision and land-use control; relationships with special districts; an analysis of single-county
metropolitan areas; and an assessment of progress made in county reform. Includes 9 drait State
laws to modernize county government..
"Federalism in 1971: The Crisis Continues," February 1972, report M-73,50 pp. 13th annual report.
"State-Local Finances : Significant Features and Suggested Legislation, 1972 Edition," March 1972,

report M-74, 420 pp
"State Action on Local Problems -1971, April 1972, report M-75, 24 pp. Information and reference

report summarizing selected State constitutional and legislative actions during 1971 that were
directed toward local units of government, particularly those in urban areas.
"Striking a Better Balance," January 1973, seport M-76, 80 pp. 14th annual report of the Advisory
Commission on Intergovernmental Relltions. Out of print.
"State Action on Local Problems," July 1973, report M-77, 48 pp. Information and reterence report
summarizing selected State constitutional and legislative actions during 1972 that were directed

toward local units of government
"The Value Added Tax and Alternative Sources of Federal Revenue," August 1973, report M-78,

86 pp. A report undertaker at the request of President Nixon, it contains no recommendations,
but rather investirates the value-added tax as one alternative source of Federal revenue. Also
roles possible national sales tax and greater reliance or use of individual income tax, estate
tales, and gift taxes
"Federal-State-local Finances: Significant Features of Fiscal Federalism," February 1974, report
W-79, 326 pp. ACIR's updated study of Federal, State, and Local revenues and expenditures.
Taules illustrate growth of the State local sector, historical changes in sources of revenue. State
restrictions of local property tax and debt powers, educational finance and public assistance,

and State aid to local governments.
"ACIR: The Year in Review." January 1974, report M-80,22 pp. 15th annual report. Ist in a new

format of annual report, in 3 parts
"Federalism in 1973: The System Under Stress," January 1974, report M 81, 19 pp. Discusses
the problems and prospects for federalism after a year of controversy and hope. Pt. II of the

annual report
"State Actions 1973: Toward Full Partnership," January 1974, report M-82, 33 pp. An analysis of
State constitutional and legislative actions affecting State-local relations and local government.

Cites trends occuring in the States
"The Property Tax in a Changing Environment," 1974, report M-83. A 32-State analysis of use,
administration, disparities, and trends with regard to the property tax. Also gives significant
note to tax relief measures and processes, in process.
See footnotes at end of table, p. 40.

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REPORTS ISSUED BY THE ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS, JANUARY 1961

TO DATE—Continued

Quantity distributed as of June 30, 1974 bym

ACIR GPO sale 1

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OTHER REPORTS-Continued "The Expenditure Tax: Concept, Administration and Possible Application," March 1974, report

M-84, 56 pp. As part of the President's requested research into alternative sources of Federal revenue, the expenditure tax was considered. As a new instrument, this publication analyzes the expenditure tax, its pluses and minuses, and compares them with the income tax system... "American Federalism: Into the Third Century." May 1974, report M-85, 39 pp. Outlines and agenda for American federalism. What should be accomplished? What should be changed? Where do we go from here? Part of a project done in conjunction with the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration...

"FOUR-PAGERS" "Urban America and the Federal System," October 1970, F-1.. "The Commuter and the Municipal Income Tax," October 1970, F-2. "Federal Aid to State and Local Capital Financing," December 1970, F-3. "A Circuit Breaker on Property Tax Overioad," January 1971, F-4. "Making the Safe Streets Act Work: An Intergovernmental Challenge." December 1970, F-5. “Court Reform: Key to a Balanced Criminal Justice System," June 1971, F-6., "Modernizing the Police

The Men in the Middle," June 1971, F-7. “Corrections: Stepchild of Criminal Justice," July 1971, F-8.. “Better Prosecution and Defense Vital to Justice," September 1971, F-9.

PUBLIC OPINION SURVEYS "Public Opinion and Taxes," May 1972, report S-1, 19 pp. “Revenue Sharing and Taxes: A Survey of Public Attitudes," September 1973, report S-2, 12 pp. "Changing Public Attitudes on Governments and Taxes," July 1974, report S-3, 16 pp...

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1 In addition to sales, all ACIR reports printed by GPO are distributed by the Superintendent of Documents to approximately 600 Federal depository libraries.

? Estimate.
34 page summaries of commission reports on staff analyses.

ATTACHMENT M М

SUMMARY OF ACIR RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommendations accomplish little sitting passively on library shelves. The Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations recognizes that its contribution to strengthening the federal system will be measured, at least in part, in terms of its role in fostering significant improvements in Federal, State and local relations. Such improvements generally require changes in Federal law or in State statutes or constitutional provisions although some may be accomplished through executive directives spelling out changes in administrative policy.

The Commission, therefore, devotes a substantial portion of its resources to encouraging consideration of its recommendations by the legislative and executive branches of government at all levels. Commission proposals are translated into draft bills or executive orders. At the Federal level, Congressional members of the Commission generally are the legislators who introduce Commission bills. The ACİR staff then works closely with the relevant Congressional committees as the bill progresses through the legislative mill. For the State level, the Commission publishes its draft legislative proposals in its own legislative program series and through Legislators' Guides in specific subject areas. In addition, the Council of State Governments carries draft ACIR proposals in its annual volume of Suggested State Legislation.

To the extent that its resources permit, the ACIR staff works with State officials to encourage consideration of Commission proposals. On proposals for administrative change affecting intergovernmental relations, the Commission cooperates fully with the Executive Office of the President, the Office of Management and Budget and other Federal departments and agencies. A summary of the Commission's current recommendations follows, arranged according to subject. The Commission report in which each recommendation appeared is identified. The Commission's recommendations catalogued here were developed over time; they reflect the judgment of many different Commission members. Proposals that have been modified or superceded by later Commission action do not appear in the summary. Action by the Federal Government on ACIR recommendations is noted in the text; State action—much more difficult to assess—is reflected in a concluding portion of this summary.

SUMMARY OF ADVISORY COMMISSION ON INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS

I. GoverNMENT STRUCTURE AND PROCESSEs—GENERAL
THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

State Legislatures—General

Restrictions on annual sessions of State legislatures should be removed and legislators be paid on an annual basis commensurate with demands on their time." (Report A-31, 1967)

States should provide year-round professional staffing of major legislative committees. (Report A-31, 1967)

State legislatures should consider following closely the development of Federal legislation and, after appropriate consultation with State executive officials, presenting views to congressional committees. (Report A–31, 1967)

State legislators should be eligible to receive Federal research ants under specified conditions. (Implemented by BOB Memo., December 22, 1969) Apportionment State constitutions should specify clearly legislative apportionment provisions; provide for apportionment based on population; * spell out a clear formula and specify the body to apportion seats; permit the people the opportunity to react to the formula at the polls; grant State courts jurisdiction to deal with apportionment; and specify the frequency of reapportionment. Courts should insure that nonjudicial bodies produce reasonable apportionment rather than apportion by decree. (Report A-15, 1962)

* Dempsey dissent. *Smylie, Anderson, Hollings, Donnenwirth, Newell, Hummel would add phrase, “Unless the people directly determine otherwise."

Jurisdiction

Federal agencies should cede to States legislative jurisdiction over

Federal government-owned properties as rapidly and extensively as consistent with their programs. The States should adopt legislation enabling them to accept jurisdiction (recommended by Council of State governments). The President and the Governors should encourage early action and implementation of these measures. (Report A-6, 1962)

THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH

General

State constitutions should be amended to reduce greatly the

number of separately elected State officials. (Report A-31, 1967) States should develop a strong planning capability in their

executive branches. (Report A-31, 1967) Congress should enact a Uniform Time Act. (Implemented by

PL 89-387). Governors

Governors should be permitted to succeed themselves; be given

responsibility to submit to the legislature, a budget covering all estimated State income and expenditures; and be empowered to reorganize the administrative structure of State government subject to a veto of either legislative house within a specified

time period. (Report A-31, 1967) Governors should have the discretionary authority to use their

good offices to resolve disputes among local units of government

where appropriate. (Report A-5, 1961) Public Personnel (see also Individual Subject Heads)

State-local personnel systems should be strengthened through

improved extended use of the merit system, improved personnel

management and more in-service training programs. States should empower all classes of municipalities to appoint all

city officers other than mayor and council members. (Report

A-12, 1962)
States should keep to a minimum the mandating of terms of

local government employment which is properly the subject
of discussion between employers and employees. Congress
should desist from mandating working conditions of State and

local government employees.* (Report A-35, 1969) States should separate the administration of service functions

from tax administrative functions and lodge responsibility for appointment, tenure, salary of officials in general units of

government. (Report A-12, 1962) State government should provide technical assistance on person

nel administration at the request of localities. (Report A-12, 1962)

* Walsh dissent.
• Arrington had additional view.

State procedures should be established to facilitate gathering of relevant public personnel data and assure its exchange among employing agencies and employee organizations. (Report A-35, 1969)

Units of government should consider extending social security to their employees. (Report A-16, 1963)

States should enact basic public labor relations laws, establishing relationships between State and local employers and employees and their organizations. Of two general routes—“meet and confer” and “collective negotiations”—the Commission prefers “meet and confer.”” The legislation should recognize the right of employees freely to join or not join employee organizations and should so full meet and confer rights by formal recognition of such organizations with majority support. (Report A-35, 1969)

State labor relations laws should prohibit all public employees from engaging in strikes." (Report A-35, 1969)

States should provide appropriate machinery to resolve recognition and representation disputes, assure adherence by all parties to the law and provide the means of facilitating the resolution of controversies. State law should provide procedures for mediation and other machinery to resolve disputes at the request of either party. (Report A-35, 1969)

States should bar recognition of any public employee organization whose governing requirements fail to assure internal democracy and fiscal integrity. The organizations should file with a State agency #. reports which should be made public. The State legislation should prohibit restraint or coercion of employees in their orights. (Report A-35, 1969)

Managerial and supervisory personnel, elected and top management appointive officials, and certain categories of confidential employees should be excluded from coverage of public labor relations laws. (Report A-35, 1969)

Treatment accorded State and local employees under the legislation, should be generally uniform. Appropriate arrangements should be made for meeting and conferring on a regional basis. (Report A-35, 1969)

Agreements resulting from public employer-employee discussions should be governed by pertinent laws, including merit system rules and regulations. (A-35, 1969)

State legislation should permit dues checkoff on the voluntary written authorization of the employee. (Report A-35, 1969)

Staff retirement coverage should be available to employees of all units at all levels of government; States, should consider merging numerous retirement systems and should provide

* Knowles, Michaelian, Shafer, Muskie, Mayor, Rockefeller dissent in favor of collective negotiations. *Arrington, Fountain, Knowles, Michaelian, Roos dissent, all for penalties for striking.

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