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her majesty to be grievously suspected of an "affection to popery." The religious pliability of the queen, had been already too considerably tested; she had been required, in Scotland, to forsake the lutheran faith, in which she had been educated, for the calvinistic; now, she was required to communicate with the church of England. If she thought three changes of creed too much even for three crowns, her moral principles were the more respectable. It ought to be added, that the prelates of the church of England, were satisfied with her religious principles. "We have not the daughter of a Pharaoh, of an idolatrous king, nor fear we strange women to steal away king James's heart from God, but a queen as of a royal, so of a religious stock, professing the gospel of Christ with him-a mirror of true modesty, a queen of bounty, beloved by the people." This panegyric is from the pen of the bishop of Winchester.'

A more rational suspicion was raised by the report of her having received a present of pictures, and other trinkets, from the pope, through sir Anthony Standon; yet, such ought not to have stamped her a catholic, because, though the pope was the head of the Roman church, he was, at the same time, the patron of virtu, his metropolis being the centre of the fine arts, of which Anne of Denmark, was an ardent patroness.

But, while the religious jealousies of the English people were thus excited in regard to their lutheran queen, they imposed upon their king the same coronation oath, which Elizabeth had taken at her catholic inauguration. He swore to preserve religion in the same state, as did Edward the Confessor! The privy-council and senate had every fair opportunity of arranging this oath, similarly to that of Edward VI., before they admitted the king into England, if they had chosen so to do. How they expected their sovereign to make his oath and his practice consistent, is an inexplicable riddle? Blood had been shed profusely, and more

1 Preface to the works of king James, 1616.
2 Birch's State Papers.

In Mr. Arthur Taylor's Glories of Regality, most ample proof is brought that such was the coronation oath, from the era of William the Conqueror till the revolution, with the exception of Edward VI., whose oath was more consistent with the protestant church. Sandford, the antiquarian, asserts the same fact.

was to flow in persecution, in order to produce conformity with the established church; and yet, such was the oath imposed on the Stuart sovereigns, and the only man who kept it was dethroned! Appalling as the wickedness of the 16th and 17th centuries may be, the inconsistencies of legislature therein, is still more astounding to the examiners of its documentary history.

ANNE OF DENMARK,

QUEEN-CONSORT OF JAMES THE FIRST, KING OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

CHAPTER III.

The appointments of a queen-consort obsolete in England-Queen's council, attorney, solicitor, &c. appointed-Sketches of her ladies in waiting— Maids of honour-Her secretary-Her manners to the people-Kindness to sir Walter Raleigh-Dull sojourn at Winchester-Incidents of her city visit, and abode at the Tower-Queen sends to Dunfermline, for prince Charles (Charles I.)-Her magnificent masques-The queen's accouchement of her third daughter (Mary)—First royal protestant baptism in England-Ceremony of the queen's churching-Gunpowder Plot-Queen and lord Herbert—Birth and death of the queen's seventh child (Sophia) -Arrival of the queen's brother (Christiern IV.)—Queen calumniated, as sharing the orgies of the two kings-Her weak health, and close confinement-Farewell to her brother-Vexatious embroilment with lady Nottingham-Takes possession of Theobalds-Her portrait-Her sylvan sports-Kills the king's best dog-Death of the queen's youngest child— Earl of Salisbury's praises of the queen-Their quarrels, &c.-Queen's encouragement of poetry and the fine arts-Queen's magnificent revels at the installation of the prince of Wales-His influence-Her hatred of Carr and Overbury-Attends a ship-launch, with her son-Her despair at his decline and death-Witnesses the marriage of her daughter—Goes to Bath, for recovery of her health-Return-Unexpected visit of her brother, king Christiern-Queen patronises George Villiers (duke of Buckingham)-Autograph letter to him-Queen's exaggerated taste in dress-Portrait, (see vignette)—Patronises the Deptford boarding-school -Befriends sir Francis Bacon in the king's absence-Dialogue with him— Long decline-Intercedes for Raleigh-Lingering death-bed at Hampton Court-Jealousy of her foreign attendants-Interview with the queen and the archbishop of Canterbury-Satisfactory confession of faith-Delays making her will-Dialogue with her son Charles, prince of Wales— Death-Funeral-Epitaphs-Missing treasure-The king remains a

widower.

UPWARDS of half a century had elapsed since a queenconsort had existed in England, and her privileges and

endowments had become almost obsolete. An active inquisition was therefore instituted by king James, at his accession, regarding the lands and dower to which his consort was entitled. Sir Robert Cecil examined state documents as far back as the era of Katherine of Valois, queen of Henry V., but the dower of Katharine of Arragon proved the model from which that of Anne of Denmark was settled. The income of Katharine of Arragon, when queen, amounted to 5500% per annum. The manors which pertained to this dower were settled on Anne of Denmark, in addition to which she had Somerset House, Hatfield, and the royal palaces of Pontefract and Nonsuch. This jointure amounted to 63767. "The whole was to be expended," as Cecil remarks, "in wages to her servants, apparel to herself, and gratuities, the king charging himself with all her other expenses of household and stable." Anne still enjoyed her dower as queen of Scotland. Her private residence, in London, was Somerset House, (named, after she became queen-consort, Denmark House,) where she afterwards expended a large sum in improvements and embellishments. Twelve councillors were appointed to assist the queen in regulating the expenditure of her dower; and, according to the circular despatched to these functionaries, "her princely desire and pleasure was signified, that, when her majesty's abode was better settled, and the infection (of the plague) was less rife, that the knights of her council should repair to court, there to kiss her royal hand, and to receive such charge for her service as would be thought advisable."

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Now," says a courtly correspondent, "I must give you a little touch of the feminine commonwealth, called the household of our queen. You must know, we have ladies of divers degrees of favour,—some for the private chamber, some for the drawing-chamber, some for the bed-chamber, and some whose appointments have no certain station, and of these only are lady Arabella and my wife, (lady Worcester.) My lady Bedford holdeth fast to the bed-chamber; lady Hertford fain would, but her husband hath called her

1 Lodge, vol. iii. pp. 62–70. Mr. Hitcham, of Gray's Inn, was made the queen's attorney, and had her hand and signet to practise within the bar, and to take place next to king's counsel; Mr. Lowther was her solicitor.

home. Lady Derby, (the younger,) lady Suffolk, lady Rich, lady Nottingham, lady Susan de Vere, lady Walsingham, (and of late) lady Southwell, for the drawing-chamber; all the rest for the private chamber, when they are not shut out; for many times the king and queen lock their doors. But the plotting and malice among these ladies is so great, that I think envy hath tied an invisible snake about their necks, to sting each other to death. For the present, there are now five maids, Carey, Middlemore, Woodhouse, Gargrave, and Roper; the sixth is determined, but not come. God send them good fortune, for as yet they have no mother!" In Anne of Denmark's household was an office filled by an old lady, called "the mother of the maids;" a functionary whose vocation was to keep the fair bevy in order.2

1

The gem and star of the court of queen Anne was lady Arabella Stuart. Her approximation was near to the throne of Scotland, while, by her descent from lady Margaret Douglas, she was next heir to that of England, after James I. and his family. Before king James arrived in England, the wild plot for setting lady Arabella on the throne of England, had been concocted by sir Walter Raleigh, lord Cobham, lord Grey, and others of that faction, which had brought the earl of Essex to the block in the preceding reign. It does not appear that the liberty taken with the name of lady Arabella by the conspirators, had the slightest ill effect on the mind of James I.; so thoroughly convinced was he of her innocence, that he distinguished her with favour, and allowed her the rank, which was her due, of first lady at court next to his queen, during the tutelage of the princess royal.

3

While describing the queen's household, her private secretary and master of requests, Mr. William Fowler, must not be forgotten. How she came by so pragmatical a coxcomb in a station which required, at all times, good sense

1 Lodge, vol. iii. pp. 83-96. Letters of the earl of Worcester, sir T. Edmondes, Mr. Speaker Crew, &c.

2 Ibid.

3 Thomas Fowler, an English spy, whose perfidious letters to Burleigh have been quoted, was one of James I.'s gentlemen at the time of his marriage. Officials of the name of Fowler were likewise in the families of Edward VI. and lady Margaret Douglas.

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