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The average weight of all recruits was 145.04; of the white troops 57.74 per cent weighed 140 pounds or over, and 1.60 per cent weighed less than the minimum, 120 pounds, as compared with 55.96

and 2.06 for 1913. Of the colored troops 66.55 per cent weighed 140 pounds or over, while 1.09 per cent weighed less than the minimum, 120 pounds, as compared with 66.67 and 1.27, respectively, for 1913.

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Total...

1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00

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Table No. 56.- Relation of chest measurement to age-Continued.

PROPORTIONAL NUMBERS-COLORED RECRUITS, 1914.

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Total..

1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00

The chest measurement of 40.94 per cent of the white recruits was 34 inches and over and 8.82 per cent were 30 inches and under, as compared with 40.75 and 8.30, respectively, for the preceding year. The chest measurements for colored recruits show 39.30 per cent 34 inches or over, and 8.02 per cent were 30 inches and under, as compared with 39.98 and 8.79, respectively, for 1913. Table No. 57.-Causes of rejection, by medical officers of the Army, of candidates exam

ined for enlistment, 1914.

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Venereal diseases...
Diseases of the ear, includ-

ing defects of hearing....
Diseases of the eye, in-
cluding defects of vision.
Heart disease......
Flat feet..
Alcoholism...
Hernia.
Diseases of the organs of
locomotion, except spi-

nal curvature. Diseases of the respiratory

system... Diseases of the genito

urinary system, non

venereal...
Defects of development,
except as shown in detail
Defective teeth....
Weakness of mind.
Diseases of the skin.
Under weight.
Varicose veins.
Tuberculosis.
Diseases of the nervous

system, except as shown

in detail. General diseases, except

as shown in detail.. Curvature of the spine... Diseases of the digestive

system, except as shown in detail..

25. 57

121

26.00

25

23. 52

146

25. 54

10

25.98

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TABLE No. 57.Causes of rejection, by medical officers of the Army, of candidates exam

ined for enlistment, 1914Continued.

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Chest development insufficient...

35 5.74 31 6.66 4 3.76 35 6.12 Varicocele..

33 5.41

25 5.37 5 4.70 30 5. 25 Physical debility. 27 4.42 25 5.37

25 4.37 Hemorrhoids..

3.77
14

3.01 7 6. 59 21 3.67 Under height.

3.44 15 3. 22 3 2. 82 18 3. 15 Over weight and obesity.. 16 2.62 12 2.58 4 3.76 16 2. 79 Diseases of the circulating

system, except as shown
in detail.
10 1.64 10 2. 15

10 1.75 Over height.

3
.49 3 .65

3 Injuries.....

193 31. 63 158 33.95 27 25. 40 185 32.36 Rejected for causes physical and mental. 4,699 770.08 3,670 788. 57 723 680.20 4,393

768.41 Rejected for causes not physical....... 1,403 229.92 984 211.43 340 319.80 1,324 231. 59

Total rejected... 6,102 1,000.00 4,654 1,000.00 1,063 |1,000.00 15, 717 1,000.00

.52

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Venereal diseases caused the greatest number of rejections this year, as in 1911 and 1912; it occupied only third place in 1913. This cause of rejection for whites gave a rate of 107.92 per 1,000 and for colored 353.25, or more than three times as great as for the whites.

TABLE No. 58.--Principal occupations of recruits, first enlistment, 1914.

[graphic]

Laborers..
Farmers.
Clerks and bookkeepers.
Drivers and stablemen..
Machinists.
Carpenters.
Firemen..
Cooks.
Electricians
Miners..
Painters..
Chauffers.
Plumbers.
Waiters.
Tailors..
Musicians
Printers and bookbinders.
Barbers.
Salesmen..
Engineers.
Blacksmiths and horse-

shoers.
Bakers.
Sailors..
Railroad hands.
Telegraphers.
Mechanics..
Mill workers.
Butchers..
Shoemakers.
Metal workers.
Porters..
Linemen.
Molders.
Weavers.
Masons, brick and stone.
Nurses:
Tinners.
Boiler makers.
Lumbermen.
Students.
Stenographers..
Furniture workers..

977

Jewelers. 78 Druggists. 13 Civil

engineers and sur.
56

veyors.
8 Motormen..
13 Packers.
14 Leather workers.
87 Paper workers.

5 Teachers.
21 Plastorers and lathers.
17 Draftsmen.
29 Hatters.

3 Tobacco workers
59 Conductors.
15 Glass workers
6 Laundrymen.
5 Photographers.
16 Coopers..

Merchants...
Cement workers..

Core makers..
8 Designers and decorators.
2 Gardeners...
3 Inspectors...
4 Silk workers.

Agents.
5 Bartenders.
2 Roofers...

Bridge workers.
3 Confectioners.

Auto workers
72 || Florists..

Brass workers..
Actors..
Knitters.
Box makers.

Dentists...
2 Rubber workers.
2 Soldiers..

Button makers..
5 Dairymen...

Upholsterers.
Embroiderers.

Table No. 58.Principal occupations of recruits, first enlistment, 1914Continued.

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FORTIFICATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. The scheme of national defense upon which work was in progress between 1888 and 1906, during which time nearly all of our existing seacoast batteries were built, was based primarily upon a report submitted January 16, 1886, by the “Board on Fortifications and Other Defenses,” commonly designated as the Endicott Board. On January 31, 1905, the President organized a board with the then Secretary of War, Hon. William H. Taft, as president, to review the projects for the United States and for the insular possessions, to indicate the localities where defenses were most urgently needed, and to determine the character and general extent of the defenses, with their estimated cost. This board is known as the National Coast Defense Board. The board submitted its final report February 1, 1906.

Permanent seacoast defenses have been installed at the following localities in the United States: 1. Kennebec River, Me.

14. Charleston, S. C. 2. Portland, Me.

15. Port Royal, S, C. 3. Portsmouth, N. H.

16. Savannah, Ga. 4. Boston, Mass.

17. Key West, Fla. 5. New Bedford, Mass.

18. Tampa Bay, Fla. 6. Narragansett Bay, R. I.

19. Pensacola, Fla. 7. Eastern entrance to Long Island 20. Mobile, Ala. Sound.

21. New Orleans, La. 8. New York, N. Y.

22. Galveston, Tex. 9. Delaware River.

23. San Diego, Cal. 10. Baltimore, Md.

24. San Francisco, Cal. 11. Washington, D. C.

25. Columbia River, Oreg. and Wash. 12. Hampton Roads, Va.

26. Puget Sound, Wash. 13. Cape Fear River, N. C.

In addition to the above, work is in progress in the coast defenses of Los Angeles, Cal., and it is expected that work will be begun at an early date on fortifications at the entrance to Chesapeake Bay, fortifications at this site having been recommended by the National Coast Defense Board.

The fortifications recommended by the Endicott Board were sutlicient to meet the defensive requirements of our seacoast as far as they could be foreseen at that date and practically all of our existing seacoast batteries were covered by projects prepared by that board. Of the existing emplacements over 90 per cent were completed or were in progress at the end of the Spanish War.

The general project of coast defense prepared by the Endicott Board was reviewed by the National Coast Defense Board, which, in a number of cases, recommended additional work, but the greater part of the work recommended by this latter board related to the accessories of the defenses, such as fire control, searchlights, power plants, submarine mine defenses, etc., rather than to the construction of new emplacements.

When designed and constructed our seacoast batteries were thoroughly modern and fully adequate for the purpose for which they were intended, but the work of battery construction has in the past few years been allowed to practically cease and has not kept pace with the recent progress in naval development.

It can not be too emphatically stated that the art of fortification is a progressive one. It must continually grow to keep pace with the new discoveries which give it special advantages or to meet and offset progress in the development of naval vessels and armament against which the forts are expected to contend. However carefully planned and constructed, a battery must always pertain to the date when completed and must be out of date in so far as relates to things which have been discovered or developed since the battery was planned.

Seacoast defenses are designed to fight naval vessels and to thus protect certain cities, harbors, or other utilities from bombardment by an enemy's vessels within any of the area covered by the seacoast guns. In locating and designing batteries the range and power of the naval guns, as well as the number of such guns which can be brought against these fortifications, must be given consideration, and, unless our fortificatioss are to become obsolete, changes in any of the elements of naval offense must be met by corresponding changes in seacoast batteries, and these changes must in most cases consist not merely of modifying the older emplacements by affording additional protection for the gun platforms and magazines against the increased power of naval guns, or in mounting more powerful guns in these older emplacements, but rather in the construction of absolutely new batteries in new locations. The older batteries were necessarily designed and located so as to obtain the maximum effect with guns of the range of those to be mounted in these emplacements. If the guns which were to be mounted in these older batteries had been of longer range, the locations of the batteries would in many cases have been different, and if more powerful and longer

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