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1848, issued certain regulations for that purpose. A more general authority, applicable to both steam and sailing vessels, having been subsequently conferred upon the Lords of the Admiralty by the 14 & 15 Vict. c. 79 (1851), the last regulations were revoked and new ones issued in the year 1852, which still remain in force, and will do so until the 1st day of October next.

The purport of these Regulations was, amongst other things, to enjoin the use by steamers of coloured lights.

In consequence of the beneficial effects which have resulted from the use of this description of lights, the possibility of its application to the case of sailing-vessels was the subject of much and frequent consideration. The question was submitted to the consideration of a committee of naval and other officers appointed for this purpose, who, after much deliberation and the examination of many and competent witnesses, reported in favour of its adoption.

In the meantime the Merchant Shipping Act, 1854 (17 & 18 Vict. c. 104), had been passed. By the 295th section of which it was enacted as follows :— Lights and "CCXCV. The following rules shall be observed with regard to lights and fog signals (that is to say),

"(1.) The Admiralty shall, from time to time, make regulations requiring the exhibition of such lights, by such classes of ships, whether steam or sailing ships, within such places and under such circumstances as they think fit, and may, from time to time, revoke, alter, or vary the same :"

"(2.) The Admiralty may, if they think fit, make regulations requiring the use of such fog signals, by such classes of ships, whether steam or sailing ships, within

fog signals.

such places and under such circumstances as they think fit, and may, from to time, revoke, alter, or vary the same:"

"(3.) All regulations made in pursuance of this section shall be published in the 'London Gazette,' and shall come into operation on a day to be named in the 'Gazette' in which they are published, and the Admiralty shall cause all such regulations to be printed, and shall furnish a copy thereof to any owner or master of a ship who applies for the same, and production of the 'Gazette' containing such regulations shall be sufficient evidence of the due making and purport thereof."

"(4.) All owners and masters shall be bound to take notice of the same, and shall, so long as the same continue in force, exhibit such lights, and use such fog signals, at such times, within such plaees, in such manner, and under such circumstances, as are enjoined by such regulations, and shall not exhibit any other lights or use any other fog signals; and in case of default the master or the owner of the ship, if it appears that he was in fault, shall, for each occasion upon which such regulations are infringed, incur a penalty not exceeding twenty pounds."

Under the sanction of this clause the new Regulations have been made. Independently of their reference to the use of lights, they extend to that of fog signals also, and were published in the "Gazette" of March 2, 1858, in the following form—:

Admiralty Notice Respecting Lights And Fog SigNals TO BE CARRIED AND USED BY SEA-GOING VESSELS TO PREVENT COLLISION.

By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

By virtue of the power and authority vested in us, we hereby revoke, as from and after the 30th day of September, 1858, the Regulations made and published by us on the 1st day of May, 1852, relating to the Lights to be carried by Sea-going Vessels to prevent Collision: And we hereby make the following Regulations, and require and direct that the same be strictly observed, and carried into effect on and after the 1st day of October, 1858.

Steam-vessels. Lights— All sea-going steam-vessels, when under steam, shall

between sun-set and sun-rise, exhibit the following
lights:—

1. A bright white light at the foremast head;
A green light on the starboard side;

A red light on the port side.

2. The mast-head light shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least five miles, and shall show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twenty points of the compass, and it shall be so fixed as to throw the light ten points on each side of the ship, viz., from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side.

3. The green light on the starboard side, and the red light on the port side, shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, and they shall be so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard and on the port sides respectively.

4. The side lights are to be fitted with inboard screens, projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent the lights from being seen across the bow.

5. Steam-vessels, under sail only, are not to carry their mast-head light.

Fog Signals. All sea-going steam-vessels, whether propelled by Fog sigpaddles or screws, when their steam is up, and when g^,,TM, under way, shall in all cases of fog use as a fog signal a steam-whistle, placed before the funnel, at not less than eight feet from the deck, which shall be sounded once at least every five minutes; but when the steam is not up, they shall use a fog-horn or bell, as ordered for sailing ships.

Sailing-Vessels.

1. All sea-going sailing-vessels, when under way or Lights

being towed, shall between sun-set and sun-rise exhibit a v^^f green light on the starboard side, and a red light on the port side of the vessel, and such lights shall be so constructed as to be visible on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, at a distance of at least two miles, and shall show an uniform and unbroken light over an arc of the

Screens.

horizon of ten points of the compass, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard and on the port sides respectively.

2. The coloured lights shall be fixed, whenever it is practicable so to exhibit them, and shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent the lights being seen across the bow.

3. When the coloured lights cannot be fixed (as in the case of small vessels in bad weather) they shall be kept on deck between sun-set and sun-rise, and on their proper sides of the vessel, ready for instant exhibition, and shall be exhibited in such a manner as can be best seen on the approach of, or to, any other vessel or vessels, in sufficient time to avoid collision, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.

Fog signals— Sailing

Fog Signals.

All sea-going sailing-vessels, when under way, shall, in all cases of fog, use, when on the starboard tack, a fog horn, and when on the port tack shall ring a bell. These signals shall be sounded once at least every five minutes.

Sailing Pilot Vessels are to carry only a white light at the mast-head, and are to exhibit a flare-up light every fifteen minutes, in accordance with Trinity House regulation.

Vessels At Anchor.

At anchor. All sea-going vessels, when at anchor in roadsteads or fairways, shall between sun-set and sun-rise, exhibit

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