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expressed by different words: this is called irregular compa

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Compare these adjectives, looking only at the Pos.

Different degrees of quality are expressed by the use of many other words: thus the intensive word very is used to express a high degree of quality, but not the highest. John is much older than James. Here much increases the comparative degree. Far, extremely, exceedingly, and many other similar words, are in common use for the purpose of increasing the comparative and superlative degrees.

Exercises.

Good boy. Modest girl. Fine house. Wise man. Better way. Poor soil. Honest officer. Wiser man. Tallest woman. Whitest cloud. Coldest day. Warmer weather. Oldest book. Least person. Little pen. Higher tower. Larger tree.

Parse the adjective in each exercise.

Own is an intensive adjective added, mostly, to pronouns sometimes to nouns-in the poss'ive case, for emphasis; as, He will have his own way. The world will love its own people.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

Numeral adjectives are words which simply express number. They are of two kinds:

First. Cardinal; as, one, two, three, four, &c.
Second.

Ordinal; as, first, second, third, fourth, &c.

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*Lesser is a corruption, but too well established to be discarded. Authors always write lesser Asia." By the same reason may a man in a state of nature, punish the lesser breaches of the law." Locke. "God made the lesser light to rule the night." Gen. 1.

Two men.

Exercises.

Four books. One quill. Three trees. Fourth page. Third line. Second head.

NOTE. The cardinal numerals include all below them in the series, and the ordinal, exclude all below them.

REMARK. Page four-chapter seven-and all such expressions, are improper; for the plain reason, that one page can never be four.

Parse the adjective in each exercise under numerals, thus:

Two is a numeral adjective, because it simply expresses number; of the cardinal kind, and it belongs to men, according to Rule III., (which repeat.)

PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

When participles are used to qualify nouns, in such a way as to deprive them of their verbal character, they are called participial adjectives.

Exercises.

James was an educated man. That company was made up of well drilled soldiers. William saw five singing women. The pupil described a moving body. We are pleased with a growing season. Julia is a beloved friend. A humane general pities a conquered enemy. A punctual debtor will use unremitting efforts to pay a renewed note.

Parse the participial adjectives in those exercises, then; Review the exercises, and parse all the names, verbs, substitutes, and adjectives in them: and

Write several exercises on participial adjectives.

DEFINITIVE ADJECTIVES.

In the phrase this book; the word this, is added to book, not to express any quality of the book, as good or bad; but because it has been shown, in some way, which book is meant. So in the phrase a book or one book, a or one, simply defines, or specifies the application of the word book. Such words are called definitive adjectives, or definitives: hence,

Definitive adjectives are words added to nouns, to define their application; as, a man, the woman, this book, that pen, some trees, any way, those toys, every word.

Parse the definitive in each exercise, thus

A is a definitive adjective, because it is added to the noun, to define its application, and belongs to man, according to Rule III.

The definitives are known by lists.

LIST 1.-Each, every, either and neither.*

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Exercises.

"Each man took his sword." "He gave to each soldier a portion." Every man should have some employment." "Take either orange of the ten." Neither John, James nor Peter was there.

Parse the adjective in each exercise, as above.

Write exercises on the list.

LIST 2.-The, this, that, these, those, former, latter, yon.

*Usage authorizes the appropriation of these words to any number of individuals; as, Neither of the ten was there."

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The and an or a are ranked under the head of adjectives, according to the classification of Mr. Webster's Grammars and Dictionaries. Of these words he observes; They are definitive attributes, and have, grammatically considered, the like use as this, that, some, one, any.

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"The words called Articles, are, in all languages, Adjectives." Webster's Phil. Gram. Advertisement.

"In a scientific arrangement of grammatical principles, a and the belong to that class of adjectives denominated definitives or restrictives." Kirkham's Gram. p. 65.

Article is an improper term to express the true character of these words. See Webster's 4to Dic. Article.

De Sacy observes that an and a are regarded as articles without reason; and he ranks the with this, that, &c. See also Encycl. Brit. and Edinb. Encycl. Art. Gram.

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The Article may properly be regarded as an adjective word;." Bullions' Gram. p. 192.

The is one of the three kinds of demonstrative pronouns laid down by Mr. Latham. See his Gram. London 1843.

Several French grammarians, M. du MARSAIS; M, L'ABBE FROMANT, and others, pronounce the words called articles in that language, to be Adjectives, since they modify their substantives.

The definitives "6

un and une, in French, are indeterminate pronouns and adjectives of number." Cobbett's French Gram. p. 205.

The definitives called articles, are of much more importance in Greek than in our language, and in that, they are considered as improperly

NOTE 1. These definitives do not "point out what things are meant," but they are added to nouns whose meaning has been otherwise pointed out or made specific.

NOTE 2. The relation of the and that may be illustrated by the following

Saxon Declension of SE.

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This declension shows the and that to be different forms of the same word, hence it demonstrates the propriety of ranking them in the same part of speech. See Bosworth's Saxon Gram.

NOTE 3. The definitive the has lost much of its original character, and come to be used more nearly without meaning than any other word in the language: often serving no other purpose than affording a sound to fill a hiatus, or smooth the path of another word. "The least definite of all the defining adjectives is the word the." Cardell's Gram. p. 63.

Exercises.

The heighth of this wall is six feet. That book is mine. These apples are sour. Those trees were planted by James. The former expression may be as correct as the latter one. high mountain.

Parse the adjectives as before, and

Write exercises on the list.

See yon

erected into a distinct part of speech. "The article (in Greek) was properly and originally a demonstrative pronoun."

Gram. p. 313.

Kühner's Greek

"The article (in Greek) had originally the sense of both a demonstra tive, and relative pronoun." Ibm. p. 326.

"The article (in Greek) is an adjective word of three genders." Bullions Greek Gram. p. 42.

"The article (in Greek) was originally a demonstrative pronounthis, that, it sometimes losses-a portion of its strict demonstrative signification, and passes over into the meaning of the pronoun of the third person-he, she, it.' Anthon's Greek Gram.

Teachers who prefer to call the the definite article, and an and a the indefinite article, will find them sufficiently explained in this work.

LIST. 3,-An or a, any, some, other, another, all, such, several, what.

Exercises.

A gardener sold some fruit. A careless student injured all his books. Several men went in the pursuit. Some children love such fruit. He obtained another book. She went the What colors are here? If any person comes.

other way.

What difficulty did Henry encounter the other day? Some person has made several attempts to get another agent appointed. Parse the definitive in each exercise.

Write exercises on the list: then

Review the exercises, and parse all the names, verbs, substitutes, and adjectives in them.

NOTE 1. An is merely the adjective one. It drops the n before a consonant sound, u long and eu; as, a man, a universal deluge, a European. An is perfectly definite in number, and often so in specification; as, "Solomon built a temple." "London is a great commercial city." Perry won a splendid victory on Lake Erie.

An has two general uses. It denotes a class or sort; as an ox is a useful animal: or it denotes an individual; as, John sold

an ox.

"A dozen."

NOTE 2. A has several idiomatic uses, which are remarkable; as, “A few days.” "A great many persons." "A hundred." "A hundred years."

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"Full many a gem of purest ray serene.' Gray.

"Full many a rose-bud rears its blushing head." Beattie. These expressions are in violation of analogy, but they are well authorized by usage, and therefore, correct.

NOTE 3. Several, in old authors, is applied to singular names; as, "In every several city." 2 Chron. 11. 12.

"Each might his several province well command." Pope. This use of several is now obsolete, except in technical law style; as, "A joint and several estate." "A joint and several note or bond." "A several fishery.".

NOTE 4. The possessive case of names and substitutes, constitutes a class of definitives. In many of these, there is no ownership intended; as, Washington's monument." "Men's clothes." 66 'Boys' hats."

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