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DEFECTIVE VERBS. Defective verbs are those which are used in only part of the conjugation.

III. PRONOUNS OR SUBSTITUTES.

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid a too frequent repetition of the same word.

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LISTS OF THE SUBSTITUTES.

1. I, thou or you, he, she, it—we, ye or you, they.
2. Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.

Compound-myself, thyself, himself, ourselves, &c.

The above are personal, because their forms show what person they are in.

3. Who, which, that, what.

4. This, that, these, those. 5. As, both, same, such.

6. Many, few, all, any, several.

7. First, last, former, latter, less, least.

8. Some, one, other, another, none.

9. Each, every, either, neither, whether.

The distinctions of person, number and case belong to substitutes, as to names.

IV. ADJECTIVES OR ATTRIBUTES.

Adjectives are words added to names, to express the qualities of the things named.

Adjectives are varied, to express the different degrees of quality;-the variation is called,

COMPARISON. Adjectives have three degrees of comparison -some, four-the imperfect, positive, comparative and superlative.

The imperfect degree, denotes a slight degree of the quality -the positive, expresses the quality, as positive and distinctthe comparative increases the positive, in meaning-and the superlative expresses the highest or lowest degree of the quality. NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. These are of two kinds-cardinal and ordinal.

DEFINITIVE ADJECTIVES. These are words added to names, to define their application: they are known by lists.

1. Each, every, either, neither.

2. The, this, that, these, those, former, latter, yon.

3. An or a, any, some, other, another, all, such, several, what.

V. ADVERBS OR MODIFIERS.

Adverbs are words added to verbs, adjectives and other adverbs, to modify their meaning.

VI. PREPOSITIONS.

Prepositions are words used to connect words and show the relation between them.

VII. CONJUNCTIONS OR CONNECTIVES. Conjunctions are words used to connect words or sentences.

VIII. INTERJECTIONS OR EXCLAMATIONS. Interjections are words used to express the emotions of the speaker.

Promiscuous Exercises.

A DIRGE.

CALM on the bosom of thy God,
Young spirit! rest thee now!
Even while with us thy footstep trod,
His seal was on thy brow.

Dust, to its narrow house beneath!

Soul, to its place on high!—

They that have seen thy look in death,

No more may fear to die.

Lone are the paths, and sad the bowers,
Whence thy meek smile is gone;
But oh!-a brighter home than ours,
In heaven, is now thine own.

Mrs. Hemans.

THE CHILD AND DOVE.

SUGGESTED BY CHANTREY'S STATUE OF LADY LOUISA RUSSELL.

THOU art a thing on our dreams to rise,
'Midst the echoes of long-lost melodies,

And to fling bright dew from the morning back,
Fair form! on each image of childhood's track.

Thou art a thing to recall the hours

When the love of our souls was on leaves and flowers; When a world was our own in some dim sweet grove, And treasure untold in one captive dove.

Are they gone? can we think it, while thou art there, Thou joyous child with the clustering hair?

Is it not spring that indeed breathes free

And fresh o'er each thought, while we gaze on thee?

No! never more may we smile as thou
Sheddest round smiles from thy sunny brow;
Yet something it is, in our hearts to shrine
A memory of beauty undimm'd as thine:

To have met the joy of thy speaking face,
To have felt the spell of thy breezy grace,
To have linger'd before thee, and turn'd, and borne
One vision away of the cloudless morn.

Mrs. Hemans.

ORDER OF PARSING.

In parsing, the learner should give the reason of every thing, as he proceeds, until he is thoroughly familiar with all the definitions and reasons. Whenever a rule is applied, let it be repeated.

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* The distinction of gender is not to be mentioned in parsing nouns not masculine or feminine, nor in parsing any substitutes except he and she.

† The distinction of voice is not to be named in parsing intransitive verbs.

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SYNTAX.

SYNTAX is a system of Rules for the construction of sen

tences.

In other words:

Syntax is sentence making.

NOTE. The Rules of Syntax are comprised under four general divisions- Government - Concord or Agreement· Gene

ral Construction and Punctuation.

A Sentence is an assemblage of words forming a complete proposition.

A Phrase is two or more words rightly put together.
Sentences are either simple or compound.

A simple sentence contains one subject, or nom. and one personal verb, that is, a subject and a verb, and without these, no proposition can be formed; as, Man lives.

A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences connected together; as, God is good, and man is dependent.

Each division of a compound sentence, is a clause, or member of the sentence.

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Government is the influence that one word has, in directthe person, number or case of another.

Concord is the agreement of one word with another in a

sentence.

General Construction is the position of the different parts and phrases of a sentence, with reference to each other. An adjunct is a phrase added to a word or sentence to illustrate or amplify the import of other words, or of the whole sentence.

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