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That she (England) can spare from her service such men as him. Lord Brougham's Speeches, Dedication.

Except the idiomatic use of whom, instead of who, after than ; as, "Than whom none higher sat."

REMARK 2. But is not a negation, and therefore the negation should be used with it. He can but accept it; should be, he · cannot but accept it. "The truth, which was burning as a fire within him, he could not but give forth." Channing on War, 1838.

REMARK 3. Conjunctions sometimes connect verbs of different modes or tenses without repeating the nominative; as, "He lives temperately and has long lived temperately." "He is indolent and therefore will be poor."

Not that he is or ever was, obliged by these statutes to call a new parliament every year. Blackstone's Com. b. 1, 2.

For when a man says gold is malleable, he means and would insinuate something more than this. Locke.

That they have contributed, and probably yet contribute.


"But whatever they were or are." "The whole has been done under the auspices, and is confirmed by the sanction of religion and piety." "It has opened, and will more and more open their eyes." Burke. "If I have been born, or dwell, or have served an apprenticeship in one town." Paley.

“He neither receives nor can give delight." Johnson. These sentences are perfectly good English. The repetition of the nominative would mar some of them.


Foundation of Rule XV.

It is both agreeable and convenient for the speaker to allow the hearer to supply some thoughts in the discourse, without their being expressed. Hence,


Ellipses should often be admitted, but not allowed to obscure the sense, nor weaken the force of the sentence; as, He came and returned the same day. "I love and fear him."

What is the foundation of this rule? See above.

Incorrect Construction.

"I gladly shunned who gladly fled from me."

"And this is it men mean by distributive justice, and is properly termed equity."

"That species of commerce will produce great gain or loss." "The people of this country possess a healthy climate and soil."

"A little man and woman,'

"—and a little woman.

“A delightful garden and orchard.”

"A magnificent house and gardens."

"O piety! virtue! how insensible have I been to your charms."


"He is not only sensible and learned, but is religious also.' By presumption and by vanity, we provoke enmity and we incur contempt."


"His conduct is not scandalous, and that is the best can be said of it."

REMARK 1. When the qualities of different things are compared, the latter sentence is often very elliptical; as, My book is better than yours; i. e. than your book is.

REMARK 2. Interrogative expressions and their answers, are often very elliptical; as, "whom did you see?" Ans. "John." That is, I saw John.

Foundation of Rule XVI.

When different things are connected, due respect should be had to the order of time; and the most important idea should be placed last. Hence,


When extent and duration are connected in the same simple sentence, the extent should be placed before the duration; as, "The shriek, which comes to us from all regions and ages, has been extorted by human cruelty." Channing's Works, vol. 5, 122.

What is the foundation of rule 16? See above.

Improper Construction.

"Homer is a poet, who, in all ages, and by all critics, has been greatly admired for sublimity." Blair's Lec. 4. Better-by all critics of all ages.

"In every composition, what interests the imagination, and touches the heart, pleases all ages and all nations." Ibm. Lec. 2. 'Authority or prejudice may, in one age or country, give a temporary reputation to an indifferent poet or bad artist." Ibm.


"I had long been convinced that public lectures, which had been used in most ages and countries, to teach the elements of almost every part of learning, were the most convenient mode in which these elements could be taught."

Mackintosh on the Law of Nature and Nations.

"I am of opinion that the volume, (the Bible) independent of its divine origin, contains more sublimity, purer morality, more important history, and finer strains of eloquence, than can be selected from all other books, in whatever age or language they may have been written." Sir W. Jones.


Sentences are common, in our best authors, in which one word contains two cases. This is allowable, says Dr. Gleig, when the contiguity of the words prevents obscurity. See Encycl. Brit. Art. Gram.



Upon the soil they fought to save. Bryant's Battle-field.

Here soil is the object of the preposition upon and of the transitive verb save. The common resolution of such sentences is thus. Upon the soil which they fought to save." But here are two words, in immediate connection, which mean the same thing— soil and which—and hence the expression is tautological. The sense is as fully expressed without which, as with it.

Hence such sentences have to be elliptical in construction, or tautological in meaning. Usage sanctions both forms.

"Who steals my purse steals trash."

"Who fed thee last, will feed thee still." Hymn.
"Who kindly lengthens out our days,
Demands our choicest songs." Hymn.

""Tis Heaven has brought me to the state you see.

Beggar's Pet.

"The uneasiness we feel-is that we call desire." Locke.

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Though in her eye and faded cheek,

Is read the grief she will not speak." Halleck's Bozzaris.

“The events we are about to relate, occurred near the middle

of the last century." Two Admirals, vol. 1. p. 13.

"It is made with a well-founded hope of thereby better obtaining the object we have in view." Lord Ashburton's Letter to Mr. Webster, Aug. 6, 1842.

"Who would a handsome figure see, Should look upon Sir Eustace Gray."


"Spirits hear what spirits tell." Coleridge's War Eclogue. What often contains two cases. Upon this point, all are agreed. What good reason can be given for allowing what to contain two cases, and denying that power to other words in similar positions?

"For I have business would employ an age." Jane Shore. "I had several men died, in my ship, of calentures." Swift. "They who affect to guess at the object they cannot see." Bolingbroke. "Whatever powers they assumed were deemed legitimate.” Story on Con.

"Some talk of subjects they do not understand." Johnson. "On every syllable we utter, we give more or less of each one of these four elements of expression." Barber's Elocution.

Promiscuous Exercises.

"During the last two or three years, a number of tracts have appeared upon this much agitated question. One ascribes the letters to Glover, the author of Leonidas;' another to some obscure person, whose name we have forgotten. By far the most ridiculous, however, is a series of letters, to show that Junius was none other than the late Duke of Portland."

Lord Brougham's Miscel. vol. 2, p. 235.

"On the present occasion, the monarch was attended by all his own family, and most of the distinguished nobles of the land; and was accompanied by the French barons, then remaining as hostages in England, for whose comfort and amusement, under the tedium of their honorable captivity, no endeavors, that kindness or good feeling could suggest, were left unemployed." James' Life of Edward, &c. vol. 2, p. 237.

66 - As the introduction of new characters and new themes have rendered necessary." 99 Morris Græme.

"The process of the mind in rendering her conceptions particular, is indeed exactly the reverse of that by which she generalizes them." Encycl. Brit.



The nominative case governs the verb which asserts its action or being, in person and number. p. 125.

NOTE. A verb in the infinitive mode; a sentence or a clause may be the subject of a verb. p. 126.


A verb must agree with its subject-nominative in person number. p. 127.


NOTE 1. When a verb is governed by the infinitive mode, or a clause, it must be in the third person singular. p. 128.

NOTE 2. Two or more infinitives, or clauses, connected by and, being the subject of the verb, require the verb to be in the plural. p. 128.

NOTE 3. Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns in the singular number, connected by and, must have verbs, nouns, and pronouns agreeing with them in the plural. p. 129.

NOTE 4. If the singular nouns connected by and, are limited by each, every, either or neither, the verb or pronoun must be in the singular. p. 130.

NOTE 5. Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns singular, connected by the alternative, or or nor, must have verbs, nouns, and pronouns to agree with them in the singular. p. 130.

NOTE 6. When nouns and pronouns of different persons are connected in the nominative case, the verb must agree, in person, with the one next to it, and the pronoun must be put in



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