« 이전계속 »
x x a X 4.
1. The Assyrian cáme down like a wolf on the fold,
2. Like the leaves of the forest when Summer is green, That host with their banners at sunset were seen: Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn is blown, That host on the morrow lay withered and strown.
3. For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast,
And the eyes of the sleepers wax'd deadly and chill,
4. And there lay the steed with his nostril all wide;
5. And there lay the rider distorted and pale,
6. And the widows of Ashur are loud in their wail,
And the might of the Gentile unsmote by the sword
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herds wind slowly o'er the lea,
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
Arrived there, a prodigious noise he hears,
And, lo! a monstrous herd of swine appears.
Morgante Moggiore (Ld. Byron's Trans.)
The Spirit of the fervent days of old,
When words were things that came to pass, and Thought Flashed o'er the future, bidding men behold
Their children's children's doom already brought
Forth from the abyss of Time which is to be,
What the great seers of Israel wore within,
It hath been through all ages ever seen,
For he meseems most fit the fair to serve
And she most fit his service doth deserve,
That fairest is, and from her faith will never swerve.
The measures x x a and x a x are often intermixed in this formula, for the omission of a single syllable will change a line from the x x a to x a x.
I have not given all the varieties of lines that occur under the different varieties of measure, but enough has been given for the exercise of the pupil.
If the pupil has any difficulty in scanning a line, he should determine whether the measure is dissyllabic or trissyllabic in the neighborhood of it, and that will be a guide, as the same measure generally prevails through the piece.
See Latham's Gram.
The Musical Pauses are two-the cesural pause, which divides the line into two parts; and the final pause, which closes the verse. The sole end of these pauses is melody of
The sentential pauses are the same in verse as in prose, and marked by the same characters.
The cesural pause may be placed in any part of the verse or line, but it has the finest effect upon the melody, when placed after the second or third measure or in the middle of the third.
After the second measure
"In what retreat, inglorious or unknown,
After the third measure
"O say what stranger cause, yet unexplored,
In the middle of the third measure-
In these examples there is great melody, but not the same degree in each. The third example is the most melodious, in which the pause is in the middle of the third measure and consequently in the middle of the verse or line.
Expression consists in such a choice and distribution of poetic measures as are best adapted to the subject, and best calculated to impress sentiments upon the mind. Those poetic measures which end in an accented syllable, are the most forcible. Hence the measure xa is best adapted to solemn and sublime subjects. This is the measure of the Epic, of poems on grave and moral subjects, of Elegies, &c.
Poets sometimes take the liberty of placing two accented syllables together, in this measure, which adds much to the solemnity of the movement.
"While the clear sun, rejoicing still to rise,
In pomp rolls round immeasurable skies." Dwight. The two accented syllables, rolls round, expresses, beautifully, the majesty of the sun in his course.
RULES FOR READING VERSE.
"1. Words should be pronounced as in prose and in conversation; for reading is but rehearsing another's conversation.
"2. The emphasis should be observed as in prose. The voice should bound from accent to accent, and no stress should be laid on little unimportant words, nor on weak syllables.
"3, The sentential pauses should be observed as in prose; these are not affected by the kind of writing, being regulated entirely by the sense. But as the cesural and final pauses are designed to increase the melody of verse, the strictest attention must be paid to them in reading. They mark a suspension of voice without rising or falling.
"To read prose well, it is necessary to understand what is read; and poetry well, it is further necessary to understand the structure of verse." 99 Webster's Imp. Grammar.