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RULE IV. The relation of property requires the name or pronoun of the owner to be in the possessive case; as Mary's hat. Henry's book. The man's cane. Men's clothes. His books. Their pens.

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Parse the first name in each example after the following

MODEL FOR PARSING A NAME.-John's is a name; proper, because it is a particular name; masculine gender, it denotes a male; third person, it is spoken of; singular number, it denotes but one; and it is in the possessive case, it denotes the owner of hat, according to rule 4th (which repeat.)

Let the pupil write the following names both in the singular and plural numbers, and in the possessive case, viz., man, boy, girl, book, animal, horse, peace, conscience; the last two, only in the singular.

N. B. Be careful to place your apostrophes in the right places; and the teacher should inspect the black board, slate or book.

The Objective case denotes the object of an action or of a relation; as, James struck Charles, they live in Boston, Perry conquered the Britons on Erie.

NOTE. The nominative and objective cases have the same form, and are known only by the different offices they perform in the sentence; which are easily distinguished by a little reflection. The possessive may always be known by the apostrophe.

A general Rule to distinguish the cases. The nominative case does something-the possessive case owns something—the objective case has something done to it.

Declension.

The declension of names is their variations by numbers and cases, in the following manner:

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Son

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Obj.

Man

Men

Sons

Obj. In declining names, the pupil should be careful to describe the possessive case thus: in the singular, poss. son's with an apostrophe and the letter s after it; plural sons', with an apostrophe after the s.

Write on the black board, the possessive case of four proper names, singular, and of four common names, singular and plural. Turn to your list of names to find them, if you choose.

Promiscuous Exercises.

James struck Charles. William tore Henry's book. The servant whips John's horse. The boy broke the lady's knife. A lady made the boys' caps. The horses draw the plow. Richard drives the oxen.

Parse the names as directed in the models under the nomina

tive and possessive cases. Those in the objective case are parsed according to those models, but put in the objective case because they are the objects of the action.

II. VERBS.

Having given a general description of names, which are the most important class of words, we will now proceed to consider words that assert action; which are next to names in importance. Here we are introduced to a large class of words called verbs. A verb is a word that asserts action, or being, or a state of being; as I write, he reads, John sits, she sleeps, fire burns, the horse eats, dogs run, children play, it is.

Parse all the verbs in the examples after the following MODEL OF PARSING.-Write is a verb, because it asserts action.

Write verbs on a black board or slate, and repeat verbs without writing them, until you can distinguish them readily; then take your writing book, and turn to the first name you have written, and write a verb opposite to it, in the middle of the second space, which will make sense with the name, after the following

Model of Composition.

men

boys horses

dogs

write
play

draw

bark

Continue this exercise until you write fifteen or twenty examples, and be sure to know why the word you write, is a verb, in every instance.

CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS.

Verbs are of two kinds, transitive and intransitive.

A transitive verb asserts action which does or can, terminate on some object: as, John strikes James. The dog bit the boy. The man drives the horse. The horse draws the plow. The pupil learns the lesson.

Parse the verb in each example after the following

MODEL OF PARSING.-Strikes is a verb, because it asserts action; transitive, the action terminates on the object, James.

Write several transitive verbs on a slate, or black board, and in your book, as above directed.

Now select all the transitive verbs you have written in your book, and write a name after each one, that will make sense with it, as far to the right as you can, after the following

Model of Composition.

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This model contains four propositions or sentences. The first has three parts-men is the subject, write is the verb, and letters is the object. Some sentences have three parts, and others only two. Analyze each sentence in the model, and all the sentences you write, as I have showed you under the foregoing models.

Foundation of the First Part of Rule IX. in Syntax.

Consider this sentence. "The dog bit the boy." The action of the dog terminated on the boy-the boy was the object of the action. Hence, the first part of Rule 9th, in Syntax.

RULE IX.-Transitive verbs govern the objective case; as Charles loves his lesson. John performed his task. William obeys his mother. Pupils learn their lessons. They sung the tune. He wrote a letter. She read the book. Thomas bough a hat.

Parse all the objective words in the examples under transitive verbs after the following

Model for Parsing.

Boy is a name; common, because it is a general name; masculine gender, it denotes a male; third person, spoken of; singular number, it denotes but one; and in the objective case, because it is the object of the action bit, and governed by bit, according to Rule IX. (which repeat.)

An intransitive verb asserts being, or a state of being; as to be, to sit; or action which cannot terminate on an object; as, The ship sails. The birds fly, The sun rises. Boys skate.

Parse all the verbs in the preceding examples.

MODEL OF PARSING.-To be is a verb, because it asserts being; intransitive, it cannot take an object after it.

ANOTHER-Sails is a verb, because it asserts action; intransitive, the action cannot terminate on an object. We cannot say the ship sails any thing.

Write six intransitive verbs, as before.

NOTE 1. In the classification of verbs, I have followed Webster, Bullions and others. This division avoids several serious objections, which lie against the classifications of Murray, Kirkham, Smith, and others.

1. It avoids the absurdity of making two kinds of verbs out of one verb-the active and passive being nothing more than two forms of the same verb.

2. It avoids the impropriety of confining the word transitive to the active voice; the verb being as perfectly transitive in the passive voice as it is in the active.

3. It avoids the use of the evasive term neuter, in designating the character of verbs; and

4. The distinction between active intransitive, and neuter verbs, which is utterly useless, for they are equally without regimen, and construed in precisely the same way in Syntax.

5. It avoids uniting in one class, in Etymology, transitive and intransitive verbs, which must be distinguished in Syntax, the transitive verb always having a regimen in the active voice, but the intransitive, never.

This classification of verbs is founded on their use in the construction of sentences, and has the following advantages:— 1. It is clear, characteristic, and easily understood.

2. It employs the terms active and passive, only to distinguish

the two forms of transitive verbs, called the active and passive voice.

NOTE. 2. "This classification of the verb has been adopted in the best grammars of the Greek and Latin Languages, and in some respectable English grammars lately published; it is advocated by Mr. Webster, in his dissertations on the English language;―is adopted in his English Grammar and Dictionary; and from its greater simplicity, accuracy, and utility, appears likely to prevail."-[Bullions' Eng. Gram. p. 202.]

VOICE.

Voice, in grammar, means a particular modification of transitive verbs by which they show whether the. action is performed by the nominative, or by some other agent, upon the nominative.

Transitive verbs have two forms, called the Active and Passive voices.

In the active voice, a transitive verb asserts action performed by the subject or nominative, upon some object; as, John makes shoes.

Here John is the subject and agent, or actor, makes is the verb, and shoes, the object or effect produced.

In the passive voice, a transitive verb asserts, action received or suffered by the subject or nominative, as shoes are made by John.

In this form shoes is the subject, are made is the verb, and John is the object preceded by a preposition. In this form the agent and object have changed places.

NOTE. The action passes over from the agent and terminates upon the object in each voice: hence, the propriety of appropriating the term transitive to the verb in both voices.

Intransitive verbs have no distinction of voice, being always in the active; as I sit, I run; except in a few instances; as "He is come." They are gone," for " He

has come."

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They have gone."

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These two forms should be parsed in the same way.

Transitive verbs in the active voice, and intransitive verbs, have the same form, and can be distinguished only

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