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Must has no change of termination, and is used in present,

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* Will is conjugated regularly, when it is a principal verb, as, present, I will, past, I willed, &c.

+ Doth is used in sacred, or lofty style, and does in common language.

ROOT OF THE VERB.

The Root of a verb is that form which is found in the present tense of the Infinitive.

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB.

The principal parts of the verb are three-the forms which are found in the first person singular, of the present and past tenses of the indicative, and the perfect participle.

CONJUGATION,

Of the auxiliary and principal Verb

To Have.

ROOT. To Have.

PRIN. PARTS. Present, Have.

*

Past, Had. Perf. Part, Had.

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"Hath is used in solemn style; has, in familiar."

NOTE. The forms of this verb, in the present and past tenses, are used, both as auxiliary, and principal verb.

Prior-Past, or Pluperfect Tense.

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NOTE. Compound Tenses are those in which the verb has one or more auxiliaries.

POTENTIAL MODE,

Indefinite Tense.

SINGULAR.*

I may, can, must, might, could, would or should n have
Thou mayest, canst, must, mightest, couldst, wouldst or shouldst

n have

You may, can, must, might, could, would or should n have He may, can, must, might, could, would or should n have

PLURAL.

We may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have Ye may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have You may, can, must, might, could, would, or should ʼn have They may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have

* May and can are applicable to future time, as well as present: as,

Prior-Present, or Perfect Tense.

SINGULAR.

I may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had Thou mayest, canst, must, mightest, couldst, wouldst, or shouldst n have had

You may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had He may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had

PLURAL.

We may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had Ye may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had You may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had They may, can, must, might, could, would, or should n have had

NOTE. The arrangement of the verb in the potential mode, seems to have been very generally overlooked or neglected by grammarians. That the common paradigm of this mode is very defective, I think must be evident to every one who has carefully reflected on the subject.

NOTE 2. A synopsis of the old paradigm of the Potential, is here given, that teachers may be prepared to follow it, if they so elect:

Pres. I may, can, or must have.

Perf. I may, can, or must have had.

Past. I might, could, would, or should have.

Prior-Past. I might, could, would, or should have had.

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You may go to-morrow. He can go after he gets his lesson. I must be a home to-morrow. The present of the Subjunctive in Latin is translated by can, "may," "should," and "would," when indicatively used; and it, generally refers to future time. "I may go," and "I might go,” are radically future. I should go,” and “I shall go," are equally future. [See Edin. Encycl. Art. Grammar.]

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Must, might, could, would and should, in connection with a principal verb, are applicable to the present and future, as well as the past; as "I would not change, if I could, our subjection to physical laws, our expc. sure to hunger and cold, and the necessity of constant conflicts with the material world. I would not, if I could, so temper the elements, that they should infuse into us only grateful sensations, that they should make vegetation so exuberant as to anticipate every want, and the minerals so ductile as to offer no resistance to our strength and skill. [Channing's Works, vol. v. p. 157.]

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

The Subjunctive Mode is usually the same as the Indicative and Potential, with some preceding word expressing condition, supposition, or contingency.

These words are if, though or although, unless, whether, lest, admit, grant, allow, suppose, except, most of which are verbs; and perhaps some others.*

The learner should conjugate the verb in the subjunctive, by prefixing some word expressing doubt, throughout the indicative and potential modes; thus

If I have n

Present

If Thou hast n

If You have n

If He has or hath n

Tense.

If we have n
If Ye have n

If You have n

If They have n, &c

Subjunctive Forms..

Present Tense.

Hypothetical Forms.

If I had n

S If Thou hadst n
If You had n
If He had n

Had I n
Hadst thou n
Had you n

Had he n

If we had n

If Ye had n
If You had n
If They had n

Had we n
Had ye n

Had you n
Had they n

NOTE. These forms have but one meaning; and are placed in the present tense, because they are used with a present signification; and grammarians so explain them.

EXAMPLE. "But had we feelings and principles worthy of men and Christians, should we wait for the evil to stand at our door, before walking up to the use of means for averting it?" [Channing on War.]

"If is a corruption of gif, the imperative of gifan, the Saxon orthography of give. Though, the Saxon theah, signifies permit, allow. Al though is a compound of all and though, give or allow all. The la

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