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to Numa. And nothing is more true, than that princes referred their controversies to his decision.

Nor must I forget to bring again to the notice of the reader the instance, though on a smaller scale, of the colonists and descendants of William Penn. The Quakers have uniformly conducted themselves towards the Indians in such a manner, as to give them from their earliest intercourse an exalted idea of their character. And the consequence is, as I stated in a prior section, that the former in affairs of importance are consulted by the latter at the present day. But why, if the Cabinet of any one powerful nation were to act upon the noble principle of relinquishing war, should we think the other Cabinets so lost to good feelings as not to respect its virtue? Let us instantly abandon this thought ; for the supposition of a contrary sentiment would make them worse than the savages I have mentioned.

Let us then cherish the fond hope that human animosities are not to be eternal, and that man is not always to be made a tiger to man. Let us hope that the Government of some one nation (and when we

consider

VOLÍ III.

I

consider the vast power of the British empire, the nature of its constitution and religion, and the general humanity of its inhabitants, none would be better qualified than our own) will set the example of the total dereliction of wars. And let us, in all our respective situations, precede the anticipated blessing, by holding out the necessity of the subjugation of the passions, and by inculcating the doctrine of universal benevolence to man;-so that, when we look upon the beautiful islands, which lie scattered as so many ornaments of the ocean, we may wish their several inhabitants no greater injury than the violence of their own waves ; or that, when we view continents at a distance from us, we may consider them as inhabited by our brothers; or that, when we contemplate the ocean itself, which may separate them from our sight, we may consider it not as separating our love, but as intended by Providence to be the means of a quicker intercourse for the exchange of reciprocal blessings.

CHAP

CHAPTER IV.

SECTION I.

Fourth tenet is on the subject of a Pecuniary Main

tenance of a Gospel-Ministry-Example and precepts of Jesus Christ--also of Paul and Peter conclusions from these premises--these conclusions supported by the primitive practice--great tenet resulting from these conclusions and this primitive practice is, that the Quakers hold it . unlawful to pay their own ministers, and also others of any other denomination, for their Gospellabours.

The fourth and last tenet of the Society is on the subject of the Unlawfulness of a Pecuniary Maintenance of a Gospel-Ministry. · In explaining this tenet I am aware that I am treading upon delicate ground. The great majority of Christians have determined, that the spiritual labourer is worthy of his that if men relinquish the usual occu

pations,

hire;

I 2

pations, by which a livelihood is obtained, in order that they may devote themselves to the service of religion, they are entitled to a pecuniary maintenance; and that if they produce a rich harvest from what they sow, they are of all men, considering their usefulness to man to be greater in this than in

any other service they can render him, the most

thy of encouragement and support. I am aware also of the possibility of giving offence to some, in the course of the explanation of this tenet.

To these I can only say, that I have no intention of hurting the feelings of any; that in the Church there are those, whom I esteem and love, and whom of all others I should be sorry to offend. But it must be obvious to these, and indeed to all, that it is impossible for me, in writing a history of the manners and opinions of the Society, to pass over in silence the tenet that is now before me; and if I notice it, they must be sensible that it becomes me to state fully and fairly all the arguments, which the Quakers give for the difference of opinion, which they manifest from the rest of their fellow-citizens on this subject. It does not appear, then, the Quakers say,

by

by any records that can be produced, that Jesus Christ ever received any payment for the doctrines, which he taught ; neither does it appear, as far as his own instructions, which are recorded by the Evangelists, can be collected on this subject, that he considered any pecuniary stipend as necessary or proper for those, who were to assist in the promotion of his religion.

Jesus Christ, on the erection of his Gospel-ministry, gave rules to his Disciples how they were to conduct themselves in the case before us.

He enjoined the twelve, before he sent them on this errand, as we collect from St. Matthew and St. Luke, that “ they had received freely, so they were to give freely; that they were to provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in their purses, nor scrip nor other things for their journey, for that the workman was worthy of his meat *." And on their return from their mission he asked them, “ When I sent you

and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. Then said he unto them, But now

as

without purse,

* Matt. x. 8. Luke ix.

he

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