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Wake. The track left by a vessel's passage through the water.

"In the wake of ": directly astern of. Way. Movement through the water. "To get underway": to

pass from stand-still to movement. Wear, to. See under "Tack."

Weather. Relative position to windward of another object.

Opposite to Lee. Weather side, lee side, of a vessel; weather

fleet, lee fleet; weather gage, lee gage (see "Gage");

weather shore, lee shore. Weather, to. To pass to windward of a vessel, or of any other

object.

Weatherlt. The quality of a vessel which favors her getting,

or keeping, to windward. Weigh, to. To raise the anchor from the bottom. Used alone;

e.g., "the fleet weighed." Wheel. So called from its form. The mechanical appliance, a

wheel, with several handles for turning it, by which power

is increased, and also transmitted from the steersman on

deck to the tiller below, in order to steer the vessel. Wind And Water, between. That part of a vessel's side which

comes out of water when she inclines to a strong side wind,

but otherwise is under water. Windward. Direction from which the wind blows.

Yard. See "Spars."

INDEX

Algeciras, in Gibraltar Bay, station
of Franco-Spanish Fleet sup-
porting the Siege of Gibraltar,
121, 230, 231.

Arbuthnot, Marriott, British Ad-
miral, commands North
American Station, 1779, 113,
148; anger at Rodney's in-
trusion on his command, 150;
supports the attack on
Charleston, 1780, 151; sta-
tion in Gardiner's Bay, 151,
170; action with French
squadron under des Touches,
1781, 171; regains command
of Chesapeake Bay, 174;
superseded, 1781, 176.

Arethusa, British frigate. En-
counter with French frigate
Belle Poule marks beginning
of War of 1778 with France,
62, 82.

Armed Neutrality, The, of 1780,
3, 158.

Arnold, Benedict, American Gen-
eral. Effects following his
action on Lake Champlain
in 1776, 3, 4, 7, 25; with
Ethan Allen, seizes Ticon-
deroga and Crown Point,
1775, 8; captures or destroys
all hostile shipping on Lake
Champlain, 9; traverses
Maine forests, and joins Mont-
gomery before Quebec, 10;
maintains blockade of Quebec
till arrival of a British squad-
ron, 10; retreats to Crown
Point, and destitution of his
troops, 11; schemes for main-
taining command of Lake
Champlain, 12; his force,
and its character, 14, 15, 17;
compelled by shore batteries
to abandon lower Narrows

of the Lake, 15; selects
Valcour Island as position
for defence, 15; decision to
risk destruction of force ra-
ther than retire, 18, 19; sound
strategic and tactical ideas,
20; Battle of Valcour Island,
21; successful withdrawal
after defeat, 23; overtaken
and flotilla destroyed, 25;
effect of his resistance in
delaying British advance, 25;
conduct, courage, and heroism
throughout, 27; his subsequent
treason, 18,27,152; commands
British detachment in Vir-
ginia, 153, 169, 170, 174.
Asiatic Immigration, Danger in-
volved in, 4.

Barbados, West India Island, head-
quarters of British Leeward
Islands Station, 99; advan-
tage of Santa Lucia over, 104,
144, 207; notably for crippled
ships, 144; devastated by
hurricane, 1780, 159. Barrington, Samuel, British Admiral,
commands Leeward Islands
Station, 99; capture of Santa
Lucia by, 100-102; success-
fully resists d'Estaing's effort
to recapture, 103, 104; super-
seded in chief command by
Byron, 105; share in Byron's
action with d'Estaing, 107,
109; goes home wounded,
112; refuses command-in-
chief of the Channel Fleet,
1780, 157; serves in it under
Howe, 227; captures a French
convoy for East Indies, 227. Basse Terre, St. Kitts, Operations
around, 1782, 196-205; char-
acter of anchorage at, 199.

Battle, Order of, defined, 93 (note),

200 (note).
Battles, Naval, Valcour Island, Octo-
ber 11, 1776, 19-23.
Charleston Harbor, June 28,

1776, 33.
D'Estaing and Howe, August

10 and 11, 1778, 73-75.
Ushant, July 27, 1778, 84-91.
Barrington and d'Estaing,

Santa Lucia, December 15,

1778, 102-104.
Byron and d'Estaing, Grenada,

July 6, 1779, 105-112.
De Langara and Rodney, Cape

St. Vincent, January 16, 1780,

123.

De Guichen and Rodney, off
Martinique, April 17, 1780,
131-135.

De Guichen and Rodney, May
15, 1780, 143, 144.

De Guichen and Rodney, May

19, 1780, 144.

Cornwallis and La Motte-Pic-
quet, off Haiti, March 20,

1780, 153.

Cornwallis and de Ternay, June

20, 1780, 155-157.

De Grasse and Hood, off Mar-
tinique, April 29, 1781, 163-
167.

Arbuthnot and des Touches, off

Cape Henry, March 16, 1781,

171-173.
De Grasse and Graves, off Cape

Henry, September 5, 1781,

179-183.
The Doggers Bank, August 5,

1781, 189-193.

De Grasse and Hood, St. Kitts,
January 25 and 26, 1782, 199-
204.

De Grasse and Rodney, near
Dominica, April 9 and 12,

1782, 207-221.

Howe with Franco-Spanish Fleet
near Gibraltar, October 20,
1782, 231, 232.

Johnstone and Suffren, Porto
Praya, Cape Verde Islands,
April 16, 1781, 236-238.

Hughes and Suffren, Coro-
mandel Coast, February 17,
1781, 240-242.

Hughes and Suffren, off Ceylon,
April 12, 1782, 242-244.

Hughes and Suffren, off Nega-
patam, July 6, 1782, 244-246.

Hughes and Suffren, off Trin-
comalee, September 3, 1782,
247-251.

Hughes and Suffren, off Cud-
dalore, June 20, 1783, 253.
N.B. Naval Battles end here.
Belle Poule, French Frigate. En-
counter with British Arethusa
marks beginning of War of
1778 with Great Britain, 61,
82.

Blane, Sir Gilbert, Physician to
British Fleet under Rodney,
quoted, 124, 219, 220, 221.

Burgoyne, Sir John, British Gen-
eral, 3, 6, 14, 23, 27, 28, 50-53,
55; decisive effect of Ameri-
can control of Lake Cham-
plain, in 1776, upon his ex-
pedition, in 1777, 3, 9, 13,
14, 25; his surrender at
Saratoga, 53; it determines
France to intervene, 6, 58.

Byng, John, British Admiral, in-
fluence of his execution, in
1756, upon the minds of
naval officers, 93, 139, 146.

Byron, John, British Admiral, or-
dered to North American
Station, 1778, 59; delayed
by heavy weather, and puts
into Halifax, 62; Howe sup-
erseded by, 80; goes to West
Indies, 105; action with
D'Estaing off Grenada, 105-
111; comments upon course
of, 110-112; returns to Eng-
land, 112.

Canada, Strength of, against attack
from southward, 7; its ad-
vantage in this respect over
New York, 8; comprehen-
sion of these facts by Ameri-
cans of 1775, from the old
French Wars, 8; attempt to
utilize, by British, frustrated
by Arnold's promptitude, 9;
invasion of, under Mont-
gomery, ordered by American
Congress, 1775, 9; failure of
the attempt, decided by Brit-
ish Navy, 10-12; British
advance from, under Carle-
ton, 1776, 15-26; Burgoyne's
advance from, 1777, 51-53.

Cap Francois (now Cap Haltien),
French naval station on north
side of Haiti, 147-149,153,154,
168, 176, 178, 206, 223, 225.

Carkett, Robert, British Naval Cap-
tain, misunderstanding of
Rodney's orders by, causes
failure of British attack of
April 17, 1780, 133; Rodney's
censure of, 137-139.

Carleton, Sir Guy, Governor and
Commander-in-Chief, in Can-
ada, 1775-6, 9; besieged and
blockaded in Quebec by
Americans, 10-12; relieved
by British Navy, 11; takes
the offensive, 17; delayed
decisively by Arnold's prep-
arations on Lake Cham-
plain, 13, 18; battle of Val-
cour Island, 20-23; success-
fully eluded by Arnold, 23;
honored by Government for
the campaign, 26.

Carolinas, North and South, sup-
posed British sympathies in,
31, exaggerated, 175; ex-
pedition against Charleston,
and battle of Charleston Har-
bor, 1776, 31-38; opera-
tions against, and against
Georgia, renewed, 1779, 113-
115, and 1780, 151-153; dis-
astrous consequences to Brit-
ish operations, 114, 152, 174-
176.

Champlain, Lake, Decisive effect of
naval operations upon, 3,
4, 7, 13, 14, 25, 26; strategic
importance of, 7; naval cam-
paign upon, 1775-1776, chap-
ter i; remains in naval con-
trol of British throughout
the war, 28.

Charleston, South Carolina, attack
upon by British squadron,
1776, 32-37; siege and cap-
ture of, by the British, 1780,
114, 151.

Chesapeake Bay, naval command

of, by French, 1781, accom-
plishes independence of United
States, 4, 114, 184; Sir
William Howe moves by way
of, against Philadelphia, 1777,
52; operations in and near,
1781,169-174, 177-185; Brit-
ish control of, in 1781, prior
to arrival of de Grasse, 174;
de Grasse reaches, 1781, 178.

Clinton, Sir Henry, British General,
commands land force em-
ployed in Carolinas, 1776, 31,
32; in seizure of Narragansett
Bay, 48; left in command at
New York by Howe, 1777,
52; advance up the Hudson
River, 1777, 55; relieves
Howe as Commander-in-Chief
in North America, 56, 63;
evacuates Philadelphia, and
retreats upon New York,
1778, 63; narrowness of his
escape, 63, 64; evacuates
Narragansett Bay, 1779, 115;
operations of, in South Caro-
lina, and capture of Charles-
ton, 151; leaves Cornwallis in
command in Carolina, and re-
turns to New York, 152; sends
detachments to Virginia, for
diversion in favor of Corn-
wallis, 1781, 153, 169; seri-
ous difference of opinion be-
tween, and Cornwallis, 115,
175; orders of, to Corn-
wallis, which result in posi-
tion at Yorktown, 1781, 175.

Commerce, effects upon, through
inadequate naval preparation,
59-61, 117, 126, 158; table
of losses of British, 61 (note).

Convoys, effect of, upon naval
action, strategic or tactical,
105, 106, 109, 122, 126, 130,
148, 155-157, 158, 166, 176,
188, 189, 193, 199, 206-209,
227-229, 229-231, 235, 236-
238, 240, 246.

Cornwallis, Charles, Earl, British
General, accompanies expedi-
tion against Charleston, 1776,
31; hurried to Trenton, after
Washington's victory there,
49; professional quarrel with

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