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Battle, Order of, defined, 93 (note),

200 (note).
Battles, Naval, Valcour Island, Octo-
ber 11, 1776, 19-23.
Charleston Harbor, June 28,

1776, 33.
D'Estaing and Howe, August

10 and 11, 1778, 73-75.
Ushant, July 27, 1778, 84-91.
Barrington and d'Estaing,

Santa Lucia, December 15,

1778, 102-104.
Byron and d'Estaing, Grenada,

July 6, 1779, 105-112.
De Langara and Rodney, Cape

St. Vincent, January 16, 1780,

123.

De Guichen and Rodney, off
Martinique, April 17, 1780,
131-135.

De Guichen and Rodney, May
15, 1780, 143, 144.

De Guichen and Rodney, May

19, 1780, 144.

Cornwallis and La Motte-Pic-
quet, off Haiti, March 20,

1780, 153.

Cornwallis and de Temay, June

20, 1780, 155-157.

De Grasse and Hood, off Mar-
tinique, April 29, 178-1, 163-
167.

Arbuthnot and des Touches, off

Cape Henry, March 16, 1781,

171-173.
De Grasse and Graves, off Cape

Henry, September 5, 1781,

179-183.
The Doggers Bank, August 5,

1781, 189-193.

De Grasse and Hood, St. Kitts,
January 25 and 26, 1782, 199-
204.

De Grasse and Rodney, near
Dominica, April 9 and 12,

1782, 207-221.

Howe with Franco-Spanish Fleet
near Gibraltar, October 20,
1782, 231, 232.

Johnstone and Suffren, Porto
Praya, Cape Verde Islands,
April 16, 1781, 236-238.-

Hughes and Suffren, Coro-
mandel Coast, February 17,
1781, 240-242.

Hughes and Suffren, off Ceylon,
April 12, 1782, 242-244.

Hughes and Suffren, off Nega-
patam, July 6, 1782, 244-246.

Hughes and Suffren, off Trin-
comalee, September 3, 1782,
247-251.

Hughes and Suffren, off Cud-
dalore, June 20, 1783, 253.
N.B. Naval Battles end here.
Belle PovXe, French Frigate. En-
counter with British Arethuaa
marks beginning of War of
1778 with Great Britain, 61,
82.

Blane, Sir Gilbert, Physician to
British Fleet under Rodney,
quoted, 124, 219, 220, 221.

Burgoyne, Sir John, British Gen-
eral, 3, 6, 14, 23, 27, 28, 50-53,
55; decisive effect of Ameri-
can control of Lake Cham-
plain, in 1776, upon his ex-
pedition, in 1777, 3, 9, 13,
14, 25; his surrender at
Saratoga, 53; it determines
France to intervene, 6, 58.

Byng, John, British Admiral, in-
fluence of his execution, in
1756, upon the minds of
naval officers, 93, 139, 146.

Byron, John, British Admiral, or-
dered to North American
Station, 1778, 59; delayed
by heavy weather, and puts
into Halifax, 62; Howe sup-
erseded by, 80; goes to West
Indies, 105; action with
D'Estaing off Grenada, 105-
111; comments upon course
of, 110-112; returns to Eng-
land, 112.

Canada, Strength of, against attack
from southward, 7; its ad-
vantage in this respect over
New York, 8; comprehen-
sion of these facts by Ameri-
cans of 1775, from the old
French Wars, 8; attempt to
utilize, by British, frustrated
by Arnold's promptitude, 9;
invasion of, under Mont-
gomery, ordered by American
Congress, 1775, 9; failure of
the attempt, decided by Brit-
ish Navy, 10-12; British
advance from, under Carle-
ton, 1776, 15-26; Burgoyne's
advance from, 1777, 51-53.

Cap Francois (now Cap Haltien),
French naval station on north
side of Haiti, 147-149,153,154,
168, 176, 178, 206, 223, 225.

Carkett, Robert, British Naval Cap-
tain, misunderstanding of
Rodney's orders by, causes
failure of British attack of
April 17, 1780, 133; Rodney's
censure of, 137-139.

Carleton, Sir Guy, Governor and
Commander-in-Chief, in Can-
ada, 1775-6, 9; besieged and
blockaded in Quebec by
Americans, 10-12; relieved
by British Navy, 11; takes
the offensive, 17; delayed
decisively by Arnold's prep-
arations on Lake Cham-
plain, 13, 18; battle of Val-
cour Island, 20-23; success-
fully eluded by Arnold, 23;
honored by Government for
the campaign, 26.

Carolinas, North and South, sup-
posed British sympathies in,
31, exaggerated, 175; ex-
pedition against Charleston,
and battle of Charleston Har-
bor, 1776, 31-38; opera-
tions against, and against
Georgia, renewed, 1779, 113-
115, and 1780, 151-153; dis-
astrous consequences to Brit-
ish operations, 114, 152, 174-
176.

Champlain, Lake, Decisive effect of
naval operations upon, 3,
4, 7, 13, 14, 25, 26; strategic
importance of, 7; naval cam-
paign upon, 1775-1776, chap-
ter i; remains in naval con-
trol of British throughout
the war, 28.

Charleston, South Carolina, attack
upon by British squadron,
1776, 32-37; siege and cap-
ture of, by the British, 1780,
114, 151.

Chesapeake Bay, naval command

of, by French, 1781, accom-
plishes independence of United
States, 4, 114, 184; Sir
William Howe moves by way
of, against Philadelphia, 1777,
52; operations in and near,
1781,169-174, 177-185; Brit-
ish control of, in 1781, prior
to arrival of de Grasse, 174;
de Grasse reaches, 1781, 178.

Clinton, Sir Henry, British General,
commands land force em-
ployed in Carolinas, 1776, 31,
32; in seizure of Narragansett
Bay, 48; left in command at
New York by Howe, 1777,
52; advance up the Hudson
River, 1777, 55; relieves
Howe as Commander-in-Chief
in North America, 56, 63;
evacuates Philadelphia, and
retreats upon New York,
1778, 63; narrowness of his
escape, 63, 64; evacuates
Narragansett Bay, 1779, 115;
operations of, in South Caro-
lina, and capture of Charles-
ton, 151; leaves Cornwallis in
command in Carolina, and re-
turns to New York, 152 ; sends
detachments to Virginia, for
diversion in favor of Corn-
wallis, 1781, 153, 169; seri-
ous difference of opinion be-
tween, and Cornwallis, 115,
175; orders of, to Corn-
wallis, which result in posi-
tion at Yorktown, 1781, 175.

Commerce, effects upon, through
inadequate naval preparation,
59-61, 117, 126, 158; table
of losses of British, 61 (note).

Convoys, effect of, upon naval
action, strategic or tactical,
105, 106, 109, 122, 126, 130,
148, 155-157, 158, 166, 176,
188, 189, 193, 199, 206-209,
227-229, 229-231, 235, 236-
238, 240, 246.

Cornwallis, Charles, Earl, British
General, accompanies expedi-
tion against Charleston, 1776,
31; hurried to Trenton, after
Washington's victory there,
49; professional quarrel with
Sir H. Clinton, 115. 175; at
siege and capture of Charles-
ton, 152; left in command
of southern department, 1780,
152; defeats Gates at Cam-
den, 1780, 152; pushes on
- to North Carolina, 152; em-
barrassments there, 152; en-
ters Virginia, and joins Arnold
at Petersburg, 1781, 153, 174;
ordered by Clinton to occupy
a defensive position which
should cover anchorage for a
fleet, 175; evacuates Ports-
mouth, and takes position
at Yorktown, 175; French
cruisers bar his retreat towards
the Carolinas, and occupy
York River, 179; enclosed
by French fleet and French
and American armies, 184;
compelled to surrender,
185.

Comwallis, Sir William (brother of
Lord), British naval captain,
share in action between Byron
and d'Estaing, 1779, 108-
110, 153; in command of a
squadron, action with La
Motte-Picquet, 1780, 153; ac-
tion with de Ternay's squad-
ron, 155-157; characteris-
tics, and nickname of, 157;
distinguished part in Hood's
action with de Grasse, 1782,
201; share in Rodney's vic-
tory, 217; quoted, 156, 198,
200, 203, 211.

Crown Point, military post on Lake
Champlain, 8; seized by
Benedict Arnold and Ethan
Allen, 1775, 8; General Mont-
gomery embarks at, to in-
vade Canada, 1775. 9; Ar-
nold retreats to, in 1776, after
reverses in Canada, 12; part
in campaign of 1776, 24; re-
covered by British. 25; re-
occupied by Americans after
Burgoyne's surrender, 28.

Cuddalore, British post in India,
on Coromandel Coast, be-
sieged by Hyder AH and
Suffren, 242; taken by Hyder
Ali, 244; British attempt to

retake, 252; relieved by Suf-
fren, 252-254.

Darby, George, British Admiral,
commands Channel Fleet,

1780, 157; relief of Gibraltar
by, 1781. 186-188; blocked
in Torbay by Franco-Span-
ish fleet, 1781, 188-189.

Delaware, Naval Operations in the,
1777, 52-55; in 1778, 59, 62-
64.

De Barras, French Commodore, com-
mands squadron in Newport,

1781, 174; opinion concern-
ing des Touches' conduct, 174;
junction with de Grasse in
Chesapeake Bay, 1781, 184.

De Bouille, French General, governor
of Martinique, 1780, concerts
with de Guichen an attack
on British West Indies, 130;
project against Barbados,

1782, 197; capture of St.
Kitts. 197-205.

De Cordova, Spanish Admiral, com-
mands in allied fleet under
d'Orvilliers, 1779, 118, 119;
in chief command, at Cadiz,
125; in Channel, 1781, 188;
in 1782, 228; at Algeciras,
during Howe's relief of Gibral-
tar, 230-232.

D'Estaing, Comte, French Admiral,
in chief command, in 1778,
of first French fleet sent to
America, 59; biographical
summary of, 59 (note); Gov-
ernment instructions to, 59;
slowness of movements of,
62-64; failure to attack Howe
at Sandy Hook, 66-68; pro-
fessional inefficiency of, 67,
79, 111, 112; proceeds to
Newport, R. I., 69, and enters
the harbor, 70; joins Ameri-
cans in siege of the town, 70;
abandons it on Howe's ap-
pearance and puts to sea, 73;
manoeuvres against Howe, 73-
75; fleet scattered by gale,
75; refuses to renew siege
of Newport, and goes to
Boston. 77, 78; outgeneralled
throughout by Howe, 78;
goes to West Indies, 1779,
100; fails to recover Santa
Lucia, 102-104; captures
Grenada, 105; action with
Byron, 106-112; fails in at-
tempt to retake Savannah,
115; returns to Europe with
ships of his original command,
115; sent to Cadiz, in 1780,
to bring back to Brest French
contingent of Allied Fleet, 158.
De Grasse, Comte, French Admiral,
exercises the decisive effect
in obtaining American Inde-
pendence, 4; sails to take
chief command in America,

1781, 162; action with Hood
off Martinique, 163-165; Che-
valier's comment on conduct
of, 166; abortive attempt
against Santa Lucia, 167;
capture of Tobago by, 168;
goes to Cap Francois, 168,
176, and there prepares for
expedition against Comwallis,
178; on this occasion shows
energy and foresight unusual
to him, 178; anchors in
Chesapeake Bay, 178; ac-
tion with Graves, 179-184;
regains Chesapeake, 184; re-
turns to West Indies after
Cornwallis's surrender, 185;
expedition against St. Kitts,

1782, 197-205; outgeneralled
by Hood, 201, 204, 205; St.
Kitts surrenders to, 205;
Hood escapes from, 205; re-
turns to Martinique, 206;
expedition against Jamaica,
plan of, 206; puts to sea,
207; transactions from April
8 to April 12, 207-212; de-
feated in great battle of
April 12, 213-221, and cap-
tured with flagship, 221;
professional character of, illus-
trated, 166. 178, 184, 198,
205, 207, 209, 214, 215, 216.

De Guichen, Comte de, succeeds
d'Estaing in North American
command, 1780, 115, 130;
biographical summary of, 115
(note); project of against
Barbados, 130; frustrated

by Rodney, 130; aotion of
April 17, with Rodney, 130-
135; orders of French Gov-
ernment to, 141; consequent
conduct of, 141-145; actions
with Rodney, May 15, 142,
and May 19, 144; broken
down by responsibility, 145;
under orders, accompanies
Spanish squadron to Cap
Francois, 147; there refuses
to cooperate with Americans,
147; returns to Europe, 148;
commands French contingent
to Allied Fleet under de Cor-
dova, 1781, 188; advises
attack upon British Fleet
in Tor Bay, 189; loses great
part of West India military
convoy entrusted to his charge,
196.

De Langara, Spanish Admiral, squad-
ron under command of, de-
feated, and himself captured
by Rodney, 122, 123; in-
efficiency of, 125.

D'Orves, Comte, French Admiral,
commands in East Indies,
1781, 235, 236; joined by
Suffren, 239; sails for Coro-
mandel Coast, 240; dies, and
succeeded by Suffren, 240.

D'Orvilliers, Comte, French Admiral,
commander-in-chief of Brest
Fleet, 1778, 82; puts to sea,
82; Government instructions
to, 83; encounter with Brit-
ish Fleet under Keppel, 83;
manoeuvres of, and action of
July 27, 83-91; comment
upon, 92, 97; summer cruise
of, 1779, 116-120; hampered
by instructions, 119; re-
turns to Brest unsuccessful,
120.

De Suffren, Bailli, French Captain
and Admiral, with d'Estaing
in Narragansett Bay, 1778,
69; in the action with Byron
off Grenada, 111; his comment
upon d'Estaing's conduct,
111; biographical summary
of. 111 (note); sails for East
Indies, 1781, 163, 236; effect
upon operations of, in India,
by capture of a French con-
voy in Bay of Biscay, 228;
attacks British squadron in
Porto Praya, 236-238; saves
Cape of Good Hope, 238;
arrives He de France, 239;
succeeds to chief command in
East Indies, 240; five battles
with British squadron, 240,
242, 244, 247, 253; captures
Trincomalee, 1782, 247; re-
lieves Cuddalore, 252-254;
estimate of, 254, 255.

De Ternay, French Commodore,
commands squadron with con-
voy, from Brest for Newport,
R. I., 155; action with Brit-
ish squadron under Corn-
wallis, 1780, 155-157; com-
ment, favorable and unfavor-
able, 156; death of, 1781,
and succeeded by des
Touches, 170.

Dee Touches, French Commodore,
succeeds de Ternay in com-
mand at Newport, 1781, 170;
sails to enter Chesapeake
Bay, to check British opera-
tions in Virginia, 170; pur-
sued by Arbuthnot, 171;
action between the two squad-
rons, 171-173; gains tactical
advantage, but leaves the field
to the British, 174; justified
by de Barras, who arrives
and supersedes him, 174.

De Vaudreuil, Marquis, French
Admiral, second to de Grasse
in 1782, 209; commands-in-
chief partial attack on Hood's
division, 209; quoted, 214;
succeeds to chief command
upon de Grasse's surrender,
222; condition of his com-
mand after the battle, 223;
pursued by Rodney, but
reaches Cap Francois, 225.

Doggers Bank, Battle of the, 1781,
189-194.

Dominica, British West India Island,
captured by French, 1778, 99;
battle of, 208, 209, 210, 213,
215.

Douglas, Sir Charles, British naval
captain, commands squadron

which relieves Quebec, 1776,
10; quoted, 11, 14, 17, 18,
22, 25, 26; energetic prepara-
tions by, to regain control
of Lake Champlain, 15-17;
force created by, 17; made
a baronet for his services at
this time, 26; captain of the
fleet to Rodney, 1782, 222;
opinion as to Rodney's con-
duct cited, 222.

Farragut, at Mobile, cited in illus-
tration, 66 (note).

Fighting Instructions, Additional,
point in, bearing upon the
failure of Rodney's plan of
attack, April 17, 1780, 133,
J38, 139 (and note).

"Fleet in Being," 73, 174; how
regarded, apparently, by
D'Orvilliers in 1779, 119.

France, intervention of France in
the American quarrel deter-
mined by Burgoyne's defeat,
and leads to Spanish inter-
vention, 3, 58, 116; vacil-
lating naval instructions of
Government of, 83, 118, 119,
141, 154; divergence of views
between Spain and, 120, 121,
147, 158, 186, 188, 189.

France, He de (now Mauritius),
French naval station in Indian
Ocean, 126, 234, 236, 239.

Gardiner's Bay, east end of Long
Island, station of British
fleet under Arbuthnot, watch-
ing French at Newport, 151,
170.

Gates, Horatio, American General,
defeated by Cornwallis at
Camden, 152.

George, Lake, a link in consecutive
water communications from
New York to Canada, 7, 61.

Gibraltar, d'Estaing ordered to
commence hostilities when
forty leagues west of, 59;
capture of, a leading object
with Spanish Government,
120; this desire affects the
major operations of Allies
throughout the war, 121, 186:

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