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Admiral Keppel puts to Sea with the British Channel Fleet . . 61

First Guns of the War with France 62

Extreme Length of Byron's Passage 62

He turns back to Halifax 62

D'Estaing's slowness allows Howe to escape from Delaware Bay.

Howe's Celerity 62

Evacuation of Philadelphia by British Army, and its precipitate

Retreat to New York 63

Escape of both Army and Fleet due to d'Estaing's Delays . . 63

Rapid Action of Lord Howe 64

D'Estaing Arrives off New York 64

Howe's elaborate Dispositions for the Defence of New York Bay . 65

Statement of British and French Naval Force 66

D'Estaing decides not to attempt Passage of the Bar, and puts to Sea 67

Anchors off Narragansett Bay 69

Forces the Entrance to Newport and Anchors inside the Bay . . 70

The British garrison besieged by superior American and French

forces 70

Howe appears with his Fleet and anchors off the entrance, at Point

Judith 71

Sustained Rapidity of his action at New York 71

D'Estaing Withdraws from Siege of Newport and puts to Sea . . 73 Manoeuvres of the two Opponents .74

D'Estaing quits the Field, and both Fleets are scattered by a heavy

Gale 75

Howe returns to New York and collects his Fleet .... 76

D'Estaing calls off Newport; but abandons the Siege finally, taking

his Fleet to Boston 77

Critical Condition of British garrison in Newport. D'Estaing's

withdrawal compels Americans to raise the siege ... 77

Howe follows d'Estaing to Boston 77

Discussion of the Conduct of the opposing Admirals ... 78

Howe gives up his Command and returns to England ... 80

CHAPTER V

THE NAVAL WAR IN EUROPE. THE BATTLE OF

USHANT

1778

Admirals Keppel and D'Orvilliers put to Sea from Portsmouth and

Brest 82

Instructions given to the French Admiral 83

Preliminary Manoeuvres after the two Fleets had sighted one another 83

PAOI

The Battle of Ushant 84

A Drawn Battle. The respective Losses 91

The Significance of the Battle in the fighting Development of the

British Navy 93

The "Order of Battle" 93

The Disputes and Courts Martial in Great Britain arising from the

Battle of Ushant 94

Keppel Resigns his Command . .87

CHAPTER VI

OPERATIONS IN THE WEST INDIES, 1778-1779. THE

BRITISH INVASION OF GEORGIA AND SOUTH

CAROLINA

Influence of Seasonal Conditions upon Naval Operations in America 98

Commercial Importance of the West Indies 98

The French seize Dominica 99

D'Estaing Sails with his Fleet from Boston for Martinique . . 100

A British Squadron under Hotham sails the same day for Barbados,

with Five Thousand Troops 100

Admiral Barrington's Seizure of Santa Lucia 101

D'Estaing sails to Recapture it 102

Rapidity and Skill shown in Barrington's Movements and Dispo-

sitions 102

D'Estaing's attacks Foiled, both on Sea and on Shore . . . 103

He Abandons the attempt and Returns to Martinique . . . 104

Importance of Santa Lucia in Subsequent Operations . . . 104

Byron Reaches Barbados, and takes over Command from Harrington 105

D'Estaing Captures the British Island Grenada .... 105

Byron goes to its Relief 106

The Action between the two Fleets, of Byron and d'Estaing,

July 6, 1779 106

Criticism of the two Commanders-in-Chief 110

D'Estaing returns to Grenada, which remains French . . .112

Byron returns to England. British North American Station assigned

to Admiral Arbuthnot, Leeward Islands to Rodney . . . 113

British Operations in Georgia and South Carolina. Capture of

Savannah 113

Fatal Strategic Error in these Operations 114

D'Estaing's attempt to Retake Savannah Foiled . . . .115

His appearance on the coast, however, causes the British to abandon

Narragansett Bay 115

D'Estaing succeeded by de Guichen in North America. Rodney

also arrives .115
CHAPTER VII

PAGB

The Losses of the Respective Fleets 140

They Continue to Cruise 141

The Action of May 16, 1780 142

That of May 19, 1780 . .144

The Results Indecisive 144

Contrary Personal Effect produced upon the two Admirals by the

encounters 145

De Guichen asks to be Relieved 145

Rodney's Chary Approval of his Subordinates in these two instances 146

Suspicion and Distrust rife in the British Navy at this period . . 146

Twelve Spanish Sail-of-the-Line, with Ten Thousand Troops, Arrive

at Guadeloupe 147

They refuse Cooperation with de Guichen in the Windward Islands 147

De Guichen Accompanies them to Haiti with his Fleet . . . 147

He declines to Cooperate on the Continent with the Americans, and

sails for Europe 148

Rodney Arranges for the protection of the Homeward West India

Trade, and then proceeds to New York 149

Effect of his coming 160

The Year 1780 one of great Discouragement to Americans . . 161

Summary of the Operations in the Carolinas and Virginia, 1780,

which led to Lord Cornwallis's Surrender in 1781 . . 151

Two Naval Actions sustained by Commodore Cornwallis against

superior French forces, 1780 163

The Year 1780 Uneventful in European seas 167

Capture of a great British Convoy 157

The Armed Neutrality of the Baltic Powers 168

The Accession of Holland to this followed by a Declaration of War

by Great Britain 168

The French Government withdraws all its Ships of War from before

Gibraltar 168

CHAPTER IX

NAVAL CAMPAIGN IN WEST INDIES IN 1781. CAP-

TURE OF ST. EUSTATIUS BY RODNEY. DE

GRASSE ARRIVES IN PLACE OF DE GUICHEN.

TOBAGO SURRENDERS TO DE GRASSE

Effects of the Great Hurricanes of 1780 in West Indies . . . 159

Rodney's Diminished Force. Arrival of Sir Samuel Hood with rein-
forcements 100

Rodney receives Orders to seize Dutch Possessions in Caribbean . 100

Capture of St. Eustatius, St. Martin, and Saba . . . .161

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