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The large Booty and Defenceless state of St. Eustatius . . . 161

Effect of these Conditions upon Rodney 161

Hood detached to cruise before Martinique 162

De Grasse arrives there with Twenty Ships-of-the-Line . . . 163 Indecisive Action between de Grasse and Hood .... 164

Criticism of the two Commanders 166

Junction of Rodney and Hood 166

De Grasse attempts Santa Lucia, and Fails 167

He captures Tobago 168

He decides to take his Fleet to the American Continent . . . 168

CHAPTER X

NAVAL OPERATIONS PRECEDING AND DETER-

MINING THE FALL OF YORKTOWN. CORN-

WALLIS SURRENDERS

1781

Summary of Land Operations in Virginia early in 1781 . . . 169

Portsmouth Occupied 170

A French Squadron from Newport, and a British from Gardiner's

Bay, proceed to the Scene 170

They meet off the Chesapeake 171

Action between Arbuthnot and des Touches, March 16, 1781 . .171

The Advantage rests with the French, but they return to Newport.

Arbuthnot enters the Chesapeake 174 Cornwallis reaches Petersburg, Virginia, May 20 . . .176

Under the directions of Sir Henry Clinton he evacuates Portsmouth

and concentrates his forces at Yorktown, August 22 . . . 175

The French Fleet under de Grasse Anchors in the Chesapeake,

August 30 ... 176

British Naval Movements, in July and August, affecting conditions

in the Chesapeake 176

Admiral Graves, successor to Arbuthnot at New York, joined there

by Sir Samuel Hood, August 28 177

Washington and Rochambeau move upon Cornwallis . . . 178 The British Fleet under Graves arrives off the Chesapeake . . 179

Action between de Grasse and Graves, September 5 ... 179

Hood's Criticism of Graves's Conduct 181

The British, worsted, return to New York. De Grasse, reinforced,

re-enters the Chesapeake, September 11 184

Cornwallis Surrenders, October 19 184

De Grasse and Hood Return to West Indies 185
CHAPTER XI

PAOI

An Accident that night induces de Grasse to bear down, and en-

ables Rodney to force Action 212

The Battle of April 12 begins 214

A Shift of Wind enables the British to Break the French Order in

three places 217

Consequences of this Movement 218

Resultant Advantages to the British 219

Practices of the opposing Navies in regard to the Aims of Firing . 219

Consequences Illustrated in the Injuries received respectively . . 220

Inadequate Use made by Rodney of the Advantage gained by his

Fleet 220

Hood's Criticisms 220

Hood's Opinion shared by Sir Charles Douglas, Rodney's Chief-of-

Staff 222

Rodney's own Reasons for his Course after the Battle . . . 222

His Assumptions not accordant with the Facts .... 223

Actual Prolonged Dispersion of the French Fleet .... 224

Hood, Detached in Pursuit, Captures a small French Squadron . 224

Rodney Superseded in Command before the news of the victory

reached England 225

The general War Approaches its End 226

CHAPTER XIII

HOWE AGAIN GOES AFLOAT. THE FINAL RELIEF

OF GIBRALTAR

1782

Howe appointed to Command Channel Fleet 227

Cruises first in North Sea and in Channel 228 The Allied Fleets in much superior force take Position in the Chops

of the Channel, but are successfully evaded by Howe . . 229

The British Jamaica Convoy also escapes them .... 229

Howe ordered to Relieve Gibraltar 229

Loss of the Royal George, with Kempenfelt 229

Howe Sails 229

Slow but Successful Progress 230

Great Allied Fleet in Bay of Gibraltar 230

Howe's Success in Introducing the Supplies 231

Negligent Mismanagement of the Allies 231

Partial Engagement when Howe leaves Gibraltar .... 232

Estimate of Howe's Conduct, and of his Professional Character . 232

French Eulogies 232
CHAPTER XIV

THE NAVAL OPERATIONS IN THE EAST INDIES,

1778-1783. THE CAREER OF THE BAILLI DE

SUFFREN

FAOE

Isolation characteristic of Military and Naval Operations in India . 234

Occurrences in 1778 234

Sir Edward Hughes sent to India with a Fleet, 1779 . . .235

The Years prior to 1781 Uneventful 235

A British Squadron under Commodore Johnstone sent in 1781 to

seize Cape of Good Hope 236

A Week Later, a French Squadron under Suffren sails for India . 238

Suffren finds Johnstone Anchored in Porto Praya, and attacks at

once 237

The immediate Result Indecisive, but the Cape of Good Hope is

saved by Suffren arriving first 238

Suffren reaches Mauritius, and the French Squadron sails for India

under Comte d'Orves 239

D'Orves dies, leaving Suffren in Command 240

Trincomalee, in Ceylon, captured by Hughes 240

First Engagement between Hughes and Suffren, February 17, 1782 240

Second Engagement, April 12 242

Third Engagement, July 6 244

Suffren captures Trincomalee ........ 247

Hughes arrives, but too late to save the place 247

Fourth Engagement between Hughes and Suffren, September 3 . 248

Having lost Trincomalee, Hughes on the change of monsoon is com-

pelled to go to Bombay 251

Reinforced there by Bickerton 251

Suffren winters in Sumatra, but regains Trincomalee before Hughes

returns. Also receives Reinforcements 251

The British Besiege Cuddalore 252

Suffren Relieves the Place 263

Fifth Engagement between Hughes and Suffren, June 20, 1783 . 253

Comparison between Hughes and Suffren ..... 254

News of the Peace being received, June 29, Hostilities in India cease 265

Glossary Of Nautical And Naval Terms Used In This Book . 257

Index 267

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Remains of the Revenge, one of Benedict Arnold's Schooners on

Lake Champlain in 1776. Now in Fort Ticonderoga. Frontispiece

FACING PA<M

Major-General Philip Schuyler 12

Edward Pellew, afterwards Admiral, Lord Exmouth ... 12

Benedict Arnold 27

Attack on Fort Moultrie in 1776 33

Richard, Earl Howe 78

Charles Henri, Comte d'Estaing 78

Admiral, the Honourable Samuel Barrington 104

Comte de Guichen 144

George Brydges, Lord Rodney 144

Francois-Joseph-Paul, Comte de Grasse, Marquis de Tilly . . 204

Admiral, Lord Hood 204

Sir Edward Hughes, K. B 254

Pierre Andre de Suffren de Saint Tropez 254

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