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tory evidence, that the person making it is the person described in and who executed such instrument.

$ 253. Proof by subscribing witness.-Where the execution of a conveyance is proved by a subscribing witness, such witness must state his own place of residence, and that he knew the person described in and who executed the conveyance. The proof must not be taken unless the officer is personally acquainted with such witness, or has satisfactory evidence that he is the same person, who was a subscribing witness to the conveyance.

$ 254. Compelling witnesses to testify.-On the application of a grantee in a conveyance, his heir or personal representative, or a person claiming under either of them, verified by the oath of the applicant, stating that a witness to the conveyance, residing in the county where the application is made, refuses to appear and testify concerning its execution, and that such conveyance can not be proved without his testimony, any officer authorized to take, within the state, acknowledgment or proof of conveyance of real property may issue a subpoena, requiring such witness to attend and testify before him concerning the execution of the conveyance. A person who, on being duly served with such a subpoena, without reasonable cause refuses or neglects to attend or refuses to answer under oath concerning the execution of such conveyance, forfeits to the person injured one hundred dollars; and may also be committed to prison by the officer who issued the subpoena, there to remain without bail, and without the liberties of the jail, until he answers under oath as required by this section.

$ 255. Certificate of acknowledgment or proof.-An officer taking the acknowledgment or proof of a conveyance must indorse thereupon or attach thereto, a certificate, signed by himself, stating all the matters required to be done, known or proved on the taking of such acknowledgment or proof; together with the name and substance of the testimony of each witness examined before him, and if a subscribing witness, his place of residence.

$ 256. When certificate to state time and place.-Where the acknowledgment or proof is taken by a commissioner appointed by the governor, for a city or county within the United States, and without the state, the certificate must also state the day on which, and the town and county or the city in which the same was taken.

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$ 257. When certificate must be under seal.--Where a certificate of acknowledgment or proof is made by a commissioner appointed by the governor, or by the mayor or other chief magistrate of a city or town without the United States, or by a minister, charges des affairs, consul-general, vice-consul-general, deputy consul-general, vice-consul or deputy-consul, consular or vice-consular agent, or consul or commercial or vice-commercial agent, of the United States, it must be under his seal of office, or the seal of the consulate to which he is attached. All acknowledgments or proofs of deeds, mortgages or other instruments relating to real property, the certificates of which were made in the form required by the laws of this state, by a consul-general, vice-consul-general, deputy consul-general, vice-consul, deputyconsul, consular agent, vice-consular agent, consul or commercial agent or vice-commercial agent of the United States prior to the first day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, are confirmed.

$ 258. Acknowledgment by corporation and form of certificate.—The acknowledgment of a conveyance or other instrument by a corporation, must be made by some officer thereo fauthorized to execute the same by the board of directors of said corporation. The certificate of acknowledgment must be in substantially the following form, the blanks being properly filled.

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On the....... ...day of.

in the the year... before me personally came... .to me known, who, being by me duly sworn, did depose and say that he resided in...... ; that he is the (president or other officer of the name of corporation), the corporation described in and which executed the above instrument ; that he knew the seal of said corporation ; that the seal affixed to said instrument was such corporate seal ; that it was so affixed by order of the board of directors of said corporation, and that he signed his name thereto by like order.

(Signature and office of officer taking acknowledgment.)

If such corporation have no seal, that fact must be stated in place of the statements required respecting the seal.

$ 259. When county clerk's authentication necessary.-A certificate of acknowledgment or proof, made within the state, by

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a commissioner of deeds, justice of the peace, or, except as otherwise provided by law, by a notary public, does not entitle the conveyance to be read in evidence or recorded, except within the county in which the officer resides at the time of making such certificate, unless authenticated by a certificate of the clerk of the same county, provided however, that all certificates of acknowledgments or proof, made by or before a commissioner of deeds of the city of New York residing in any part therein, shall be authenticated by the city clerk of said city, that the said commissioner of deeds, was duly appointed and qualified as such and no other certificate shall be required, from any other officer to entitle said conveyance to be read in evidence or recorded in any county or part of a county, situated within the limits, confines, or boundaries, of the said city of New York. But this section does not apply to a conveyance executed by an agent for the Holland Land Company, or of the Pulteney estate, lawfully authorized to convey real property. (As amendea by chap. 147 of 1899.)

$ 260. When other authentication necessary.- In the following cases a certificate of acknowledgment or proof is not entitled to be read in evidence or recorded unless authenticated by the following officers, respectively :

1. Where the original certificate of acknowledgment or proof is made by a commissioner appointed by the governor, by the secretary of state.

2. Where made by a judge of a court of record in Canada, by the clerk of the court.

3. Where made by the officer of a state of the United States, or of the dominion of Canada authorized by the laws thereof to take the acknowledgment or proof of deeds to be recorded therein, by the secretary of state of the state, or the clerk, register, recorder or prothonotary of the county in which the officer making the original certificate resided, when the certificate was made, or by the clerk of any court of that county, having by law a seal.

$ 261. Contents of certificate of authentication.-An officer authenticating a certificate of acknowledgment or proof must subjoin or attach to the original certificate a certificate under his hand, and if he has, pursuant to law, an official seal, under such seal. Except when the original certificate is made by a judge of a court of record in Canada, such certificate of authentication must specify that, at the time of taking the acknowl

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edgment or proof, the officer taking it was duly authorized to take the same; that the authenticating officer is acquainted with the former's handwriting, or has compared the signature to the original certificate with that deposited in his office by such officer; and that he verily believes the signature to the original certificate is genuine; and if the original certificate is required to be under seal, he must also certify that he has compared the impression of the seal affixed thereto with the impression of the seal of the officer who took the acknowledgment or proof deposited in his office, and that he verily believes the impression of the seal upon the original certificate is genuine. A clerk's certificate authenticating a certificate of acknowledgment or proof, taken before a judge of a court of record in Canada, must specify that there is such a court; that the judge before whom the acknowledgment of proof was taken, was, when it was taken, a judge thereof; that such court has a seal; that the officer authenticating is clerk thereof; that he is well acquainted with the handwriting of such judge, and verily believes his signature is genuine.

$ 262. Recording of conveyances acknowledged or proved without the state, where parties and certifying officer are dead.-Where the execution of a conveyance of real property within this state is acknowledged or proved according to the laws of any other state of the United States, and a certificate of the acknowledgment or proof signed by the officer taking it is annexed to or indorsed upon the instrument, if such officer and the grantor or mortgagor be dead and the death of all of them be proved by affidavit, sworn to in such state before an officer authorized by its laws to administer an oath therein, the conveyance, with the affidavit or affidavits annexed thereto, on being authenticated as required by this section, may be read in evidence and recorded in the same manner, and with like effect, as if the conveyance was acknowledged or proved and certified as required by the laws of this state. To entitle such conveyance and affidavits to be read in evidence, or recorded, a certificate of the clerk, recorder, register or prothonotary of the county in which the deceased officer resided, authenticating his signature, and also certifying that the conveyance is acknowledged or proved in all respects, as required by the laws of such state, must be annexed to the original certificate and a like certificate of such clerk, recorder, register or prothonotary, authenticating the signature of

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the officer, before whom the affidavits proving the deaths were taken, must be annexed to such affidavits. The affidavits on being recorded, are presumptive evidence of the matters of fact, required to be stated therein.

$ 263. Proof where witnesses are dead. Where the witnesses to a conveyance authorized to be recorded, are dead, its execution may be proved before any officer authorized to take within the state the acknowledgment and proof of conveyances, other than a commissioner of deeds, a notary public, or a justice of the peace. The proof of the execution must be made by satisfactory evidence of the death of all the witnesses thereto, and of the handwriting of such witnesses, or any one of them, and of the grantor, which evidence, with the name and residence of each witness examined, must be set forth by the officer taking the same, in his certificate of proof. A conveyance so proved, and certified, may be recorded in the proper office, if the original conveyance be at the same time deposited in the same office, there to remain for the inspection of all persons desiring to examine the same. If the conveyance affects real property in two or more counties, a certified copy of the conveyance, with the proof and certificates, may be recorded in each of such counties. Such recording and deposit are constructive notice of the execution of such conveyance to all purchasers of the same real property, or any part thereof, from the same vendor, his heirs or assigns, subsequent to such recording, but do not entitle the conveyance or the record thereof, or a transcript of the record to be read in evidence.

$ 264. Recording books.—Different sets of books must be provided by the recording officer of each county, for the recording of deeds and mortgages; in one of which sets, he must record all conveyances and other instruments absolute in their terms delivered to him, pursuant to law, to be so recorded, which are not intended as mortgages, or securities in the nature of mortgages, and in the other set such mortgages and securities delivered to him.

$ 265. Indexes.-Each recording officer must provide, at the expense of his county, proper books for making general indexes of instruments recorded in his office, and must form indexes therein, so as to afford correct and easy reference to the books of record in his office. There must be one set of indexes for mort. gages or securities in the nature of mortgages, and another set

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