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Section of Title 10
COMMISSION ON ROLES AND CAPABILITIES OF UNITED
STATES INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY Pub. L. 103-359, title IX, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3456, provided that:
"SEC. 901. ESTABLISHMENT.
“There is established a commission to be known as the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community (hereafter in this title referred to as the 'Commission').
Section of former
Title 5 171a(j).. ........ 171c. 171c-1, 1710-2.............. 171d.. 171e. 1711 1718... 171h 1711.. 1713. 172. 172a. 172b.. 172c. 172d. 172e. 1721 172g. 172h 1721. 181-1 ..........................
124. 134, 135, 136, 718, 2358. (Repealed). 1580. 171. 141, 142. 143. 2201. 2351. 173. 136. 3014, 5061, 8014. 2203. 2204. 2208. 2209. 126. 2205. 2206. 2701. 101, 3011, 3012, 3062, T. 50
$ 409. 3012. 101; T. 50 $ 409. 5012. 5013, 5402. 8012. (Repealed). 101; T. 50 $ 409. 8013. 8012. 8033. 8011. 8012. 8013. 743, 8062.
181-2. 411a(a). 411a(b).. 411a(c) 626(a). 626(b). 626(c) ........................... 626(d)............................. 626(e) ............................. 626(f) 626(g). 626a. 626b. 626C
SAVINGS PROVISION Section 12(g) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided: “All laws, orders, regulations, and other actions relating to the National Military Establishment, the Departments of the Army, the Navy, or the Air Force, or to any officer or activity of such establishment or such departments, shall, except to the extent inconsistent with the provisions of this Act (see Short Title of 1949 Amendment note above), have the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted; but, after the effective date of this Act (Aug. 10, 1949), any such law, order, regulation, or other action which vested functions in or otherwise related to any officer, department, or establishment, shall be deemed to have vested such function in or relate to the officer or department, executive or military, succeeding the officer, department, or establishment in which such function was vested. For purposes of this subsection the Department of Defense shall be deemed the department succeeding the National Military Establishment, and the military departments of Army, Navy, and Air Force shall be deemed the departments succeeding the Executive Departments of Army, Navy, and Air Force.”
"SEC. 902. COMPOSITION AND QUALIFICATIONS.
"(a) MEMBERSHIP.-(1) The Commission shall be composed of 17 members, as follows:
“(A) Nine members shall be appointed by the President from private life, no more than four of whom shall have previously held senior leadership positions in the intelligence community and no more than five of whom shall be members of the same political party.
“(B) Two members shall be appointed by the majority leader of the Senate, of whom one shall be a Member of the Senate and one shall be from private life.
"(C) Two members shall be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate, of whom one shall be a Member of the Senate and one shall be from private life.
“(D) Two members shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, of whom one shall be a Member of the House and one shall be from private life.
"(E) Two members shall be appointed by the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, of whom one shall be a Member of the House and one shall be from private life.
"(2) The members of the Commission appointed from private life under paragraph (1) shall be persons of demonstrated ability and accomplishment in government, business, law, academe, journalism, or other profession, who have a substantial background in national security matters.
“(b) CHAIRMAN AND VICE CHAIRMAN.–The President shall designate two of the members appointed from private life to serve as Chairman and Vice Chairman, respectively, of the Commission.
"(c) PERIOD OF APPOINTMENT; VACANCIES.-Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. Any vacancy in the Commission shall not affect its powers but shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment.
"(d) DEADLINE POR APPOINTMENTS.—The appointments required by subsection (a) shall be made within 45 days after the date of enactment of this Act (Oct. 14, 1994).
"(e) MEETINGS.-(1) The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman.
"(2) The Commission shall hold its first meeting not later than four months after the date of enactment of this Act.
"(f) QUORUM.—Nine members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number of members may hold hearings, take testimony, or receive evidence.
"(g) SECURITY CLEARANCES.-Appropriate security clearances shall be required for members of the Commission who are private United States citizens. Such clearances shall be processed and completed on an expedited basis by appropriate elements of the executive branch of Government and shall, in any case, be completed within 90 days of the date such members are appointed.
"(h) APPLICATION OF CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF LAW.In light of the extraordinary and sensitive nature of its deliberations, the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.), and the regulations prescribed by the Administrator of General Services pursuant to that Act, shall not apply to the Commission. Further, the provisions of section 552 of title 5,
SEPARABILITY Section 309 of act July 26, 1947, provided: “If any provision of this Act (see Short Title note above) or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby."
(Section 310(a) of act July 26, 1947, set out as an Effective Date note above, provided that section 309 of act July 26, 1947, is effective July 26, 1947.)
"(14) To what extent, if any, should the budget for United States intelligence activities be publicly disclosed.
"(15) To what extent, if any, should the United States intelligence community collect information bearing upon private commercial activity and the manner in which such information should be controlled and disseminated.
"(16) Whether counterintelligence policies and practices are adequate to ensure that employees of intelligence agencies are sensitive to security problems, and whether intelligence agencies themselves have adequate authority and capability to address perceived security problems.
"(17) The manner in which the size, missions, capabilities, and resources of the United States intelligence community compare to those of other countries.
“(18) Whether existing collaborative arrangements between the United States and other countries in the area of intelligence cooperation should be maintained and whether such arrangements should be expanded to provide for increased burdensharing.
“(19) Whether existing arrangements for sharing intelligence with multinational organizations in support of mutually shared objectives are adequate.
United States Code (commonly known as the 'Freedom of Information Act'), shall not apply to the Commission; however, records of the Commission shall be subject to the Federal Records Act (probably means chapters 21 to 31 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents) and, when transferred to the National Archives and Records Agency, shall no longer be exempt from the provisions of such section 552. "SEC. 903. DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION.
"(a) IN GENERAL.-It shall be the duty of the Commission
“(1) to review the efficacy and appropriateness of the activities of the United States intelligence community in the post-cold war global environment; and
“(2) to prepare and transmit the reports described in section 904.
“(b) IMPLEMENTATICN.-In carrying out subsection (a), the Commission shall specifically consider the following:
"(1) What should be the roles and missions of the intelligence community in terms of providing support to the defense and foreign policy establishments and how should these relate to tactical intelligence activities.
“(2) Whether the roles and missions of the intelligence community should extend beyond the traditional areas of providing support to the defense and foreign policy establishments, and, if so, what areas should be considered legitimate for intelligence collection and analysis, and whether such areas should include, for example, economic issues, environmental issues, and health issues.
“(3) What functions, if any, should continue to be assigned to the organizations of the intelligence community, including the Central Intelligence Agency, and what capabilities should these organizations retain for the future.
"(4) Whether the existing organization and management framework of the organizations of the intelligence community, including the Central Intelligence Agency, provide the optimal structure for the accomplishment of their missions.
"(5) Whether existing principles and strategies governing the acquisition and maintenance of intelligence collection capabilities should be retained and what collection capabilities should the Government retain to meet future contingencies.
“(6) Whether intelligence analysis, as it is currently structured and executed, adds sufficient value to information otherwise available to the Government to justify its continuation, and, if so, at what level of resources.
"(7) Whether the existing decentralized system of intelligence analysis results in significant waste or duplication, and, if so, what can be done to correct these deficiencies.
"(8) Whether the existing arrangements for allocating available resources to accomplish the roles and missions assigned to intelligence agencies are adequate.
"(9) Whether the existing framework for coordinating among intelligence agencies with respect to intelligence collection and analysis and other activi. ties, including training and operational activities, provides an optimal structure for such coordination.
"(10) Whether current personnel policies and practices of intelligence agencies provide an optimal work force to satisfy the needs of intelligence consumers.
"(11) Whether resources for intelligence activities should continue to be allocated as part of the defense budget or be treated by the President and Congress as a separate budgetary program.
"(12) Whether the existing levels of resources allocated for intelligence collection or intelligence analysis, or to provide a capability to conduct covert actions, are seriously at variance with United States needs.
"(13) Whether there are areas of redundant or overlapping activity or areas where there is evidence of serious waste, duplication, or mismanagement.
"SEC. 904. REPORTS.
“(a) INITIAL REPORT.-Not later than two months after the first meeting of the Commission, the Commission shall transmit to the congressional intelligence committees a report setting forth its plan for the work of the Commission.
“(b) INTERIM REPORTS.-Prior to the submission of the report required by subsection (c), the Commission may issue such interim reports as it finds necessary and desirable.
"(c) FINAL REPORT.-No later than March 1, 1996, the Commission shall submit to the President and to the congressional intelligence committees a report setting forth the activities, findings, and recommendations of the Commission, including any recommendations for the enactment of legislation that the Commission considers advisable. To the extent feasible, such report shall be unclassified and made available to the public. Such report shall be supplemented as necessary by a classified report or annex, which shall be provided separately to the President and the congressional intelligence committees.
"SEC. 905. POWERS.
“(a) HEARINGS.-The Commission or, at its direction, any panel or member of the Commission, may, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this title, hold hearings, sit and act at times and places, take testimony, receive evidence, and administer oaths to the extent that the Commission or any panel or member considers advisable.
“(b) INFORMATION FROM FEDERAL AGENCIES.-The Commission may secure directly from any intelligence agency or from any other Federal department or agency any information that the Commission consid. ers necessary to enable the Commission to carry out its responsibilities under this section. Upon request of the Chairman of the Commission, the head of any such department or agency shall furnish such information expeditiously to the Commission.
"(c) POSTAL, PRINTING AND BINDING SERVICES.—The Commission may use the United States mails and obtain printing and binding services in the same manner and under the same conditions as other de. partments and agencies of the Federal Government.
"(d) SUBCOMMITTEES.–The Commission may establish panels composed of less than the full membership of the Commission for the purpose of carrying out the Commission's duties. The actions of each such panel shall be subject to the review and control of the Commission. Any findings and determinations made by such a panel shall not be considered the findings and
determinations of the Commission unless approved by the Commission.
"(e) AUTHORITY OF INDIVIDUALS TO ACT FOR COMMISSION.–Any member or agent of the Commission may, if authorized by the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take under this title. "SEC. 906. PERSONNEL MATTERS.
“(a) COMPENSATION OF MEMBERS.-Each member of the Commission who is a private United States citizen shall be paid, if requested, at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which the member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Commission. All members of the Commission who are Members of Congress shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as Members of Con. gress.
"(b) TRAVEL EXPENSES.—Each member of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of services for the Commission. "(c) STATT.
"(1) IN GENERAL.-The Chairman of the Commission may, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, appoint a staff director and such additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The staff director of the Commission shall be appointed from private life, and such appointment shall be subject to the approval of the Commission as a whole. No member of the professional staff may be a current officer or employee of an intelligence agency, except that up to three current employees of intelligence agencies who are on rotational assignment to the Executive Office of the President may serve on the Commission staff, subject to the approval of the Commission as a whole.
“(2) COMPENSATION.—The Chairman of the Commission may fix the pay of the staff director and other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay fixed under this paragraph for the staff director may not exceed the rate payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title and the rate of pay for other per. sonnel may not exceed the maximum rate payable for grade GS-15 of the General Schedule.
"(d) DETAIL OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES.–Upon request of the Chairman of the Commission, the head of any Federal department or agency may detail, on a nonreimbursable basis, any personnel of that department or agency to the Commission to assist it in carrying out its administrative and clerical functions.
"(e) PROCUREMENT OF TEMPORARY AND INTERMITTENT SERVICES.—The Chairman of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals which do not exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay payable for level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.
"(1) ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICES.–The Di. rector of Central Intelligence shall furnish the Com. mission, on a non-reimbursable basis, any administrative and support services requested by the Commission consistent with this title. "SEC. 907. PAYMENT OF COMMISSION EX
PENSES. "The compensation, travel expenses, per diem allowances of members and employees of the Commission,
and other expenses of the Commission shall be paid out of funds available to the Director of Central Intelligence for the payment of compensation, travel allowances, and per diem allowances, respectively, of employees of the Central Intelligence Agency. "SEC. 908. TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION.
“The Commission shall terminate one month after the date of the submission of the report required by section 904(c). "SEC. 909. DEFINITIONS. “For purposes of this title
“(1) the term 'intelligence agency' means any agency, office, or element of the intelligence community:
“(2) the term 'intelligence community' shall have the same meaning as set forth in section 3(4) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401a(4)); and
“(3) the term 'congressional intelligence committees' refers to the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives." NATIONAL COMMISSION ON DEFENSE AND NATIONAL
SECURITY Pub. L. 101-511, title VIII, § 8104, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1898, as amended by Pub. L. 102-172, title VIII, $ 8078, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1189, provided that:
“SECTION 1. This section establishes the National Commission on Defense and National Security. "SEC. 2. FINDINGS. "The Congress makes the following findings:
"(1) Recent revolutionary world events require a fundamental reassessment of the defense and national security policies of the United States.
"(2) Emerging democracies around the world will require political, technical, and economic assistance, as well as military assistance, from the developed free nations in order to thrive and to become productive members of the world community.
“(3) Real and potential military threats to the United States and its allies will continue to exist for the foreseeable future from not just the Soviet Union but also from terrorism and from Third World nations.
“(4) Proliferation of both sophisticated conven. tional weapons and of nuclear weapons could produce a world more dangerous than we have faced in the past.
“(5) Ethnic rivalries as well as economic inequalities may produce instabilities that could spark seri. ous conflict.
“(6) In order to formulate coherent national policies to meet these challenges of a new world environment, it is essential for the United States to achieve a bipartisan consensus such as that which emerged following World War II.
"(7) Such a consensus can be fostered by the development of policy recommendations from a highly respected group of individuals who do not bear a parti. san label and who possess critical expertise and ex
perience. "SEC. 3. ESTABLISHMENT.
“There is established a commission to be known as (the) National Commission on Defense and National Security (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the 'Commission'). The Commission is established until 30 days following submission of the final report required by section 6 of this section. "SEC. 4. DUTIES OF COMMISSION.
"(a) IN GENERAL.–The Commission shall analyze and make recommendations to the President and Congress concerning the national security and national defense policies of the United States.
"(b) MATTERS TO BE ANALYZED.-Matters to be analyzed by the Commission shall include the following:
“(1) The world-wide interests, goals, and objectives of the United States that are vital to the national security of the United States.
“(2) The political, economic, and military developments around the world and the implications of those developments for United States national security interests, including,
"(A) the developments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union;
"(B) the question of German unification;
"(C) the future of NATO and European economic integration;
“(D) the future of the Pacific Basin; and
“(E) potential instability resulting from regional conflicts or economic problems in the developing world.
"(3) The foreign policy, world-wide commitments, and national defense capabilities of the United States necessary to deter aggression and implement the national security strategy of the United States, including the contribution that can be made by bilateral and multilateral political and economic associations in promoting interests that the United States shares with other members of the world community.
"(4) The proposed short-term uses of the political, economic, military, and other elements of national power for the United States to protect or promote the interests and to achieve the goals and objectives referred to in paragraph (1).
“(5) Long-term options that should be considered further for a number of potential courses of world events over the remainder of the century and into
the next century. "SEC. 5. MEMBERSHIP.
“(a) NUMBER AND APPOINTMENT.—The Commission shall be composed of 10 members, as follows:
"(1) Three appointed by the President.
“(2) Three appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
"(3) One appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives.
“(4) Two appointed by the majority leader of the Senate.
“(5) One appointed by the minority leader of the Senate.
"(b) QUALIFICATIONS.—Persons appointed to the Commission shall be persons who are not officers or employees of the Federal Government (including Members of Congress) and who are specially qualified to serve on the Commission by virtue of their education, training, or experience.
"(c) TERMS.-Members shall be appointed for the life of the Commission. A vacancy in the Commission shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.
"(d) BASIC PAY.-Members of the Commission shall serve without pay.
“(e) QUORUM.-A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum, but a lesser number may hold hearings.
"(f) CHAIRMAN AND VICE CHAIRMAN.—The Chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the Presi. dent from among the members appointed by the President. The Vice Chairman of the Commission shall be designated by the Speaker of the House of Representatives from among the members appointed by the Speaker.
"(g) MEETINGS.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman or a majority of its members.
"(h) DEADLINE FOR APPOINTMENTS.-Members of the Commission shall be appointed not later than the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act (Nov. 5, 1990). "SEC. 6. REPORTS.
“(a) INITIAL REPORT.-The Commission shall transmit to the President and to Congress an initial report not later than six months after the date on which the Commission is first constituted with a quorum.
"(b) FINAL REPORT.-The Commission shall transmit to the President and to Congress a final report one year following submission of the initial report under subsection (a).
"(c) CONTENTS OF REPORTS.—The report under subsection (b) shall contain a detailed statement of the findings and conclusions of the Commission concerning the matters to be studied by the Commission under section 4, together with its recommendations for such legislation and administrative actions as it considers appropriate. Such report shall include a comprehensive description and discussion of the matters set forth in section 4.
"(d) REPORTS TO BE UNCLASSIFIED.-Each such report shall be submitted in unclassified form.
“(e) ADDITIONAL AND MINORITY VIEWS.-Each report may include such additional and minority views as in. dividual members of the Commission may request be included. “SEC. 7. DIRECTOR AND STAFF OF COMMIS
SION; EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS. “(a) DIRECTOR.—The Commission shall, without regard to section 5311(b) of title 5, United States Code, have a Director who shall be appointed by the Chairman and who shall be paid at a rate not to exceed the maximum rate of basic pay payable for GS-18 of the General Schedule.
"(b) STAFF.-The Chairman may appoint and fix the pay of such additional personnel as the Chairman considers appropriate.
"(c) APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN CIVIL SERVICE LAWS.The Director and staff of the Commission may be appointed without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing appointments in the competitive service, and may be paid without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, except that no individual so appointed may receive pay in excess of the annual rate of basic pay payable for GS-18 of the General Schedule.
“(d) EXPERTS AND CONSULTANTS.-Subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the Commission, the Chairman may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5 of the United States Code, but at rates for individuals not to exceed the daily equivalent of the maximum annual rate of basic pay payable for GS-18 of the General Schedule.
"(e) STAFF OF FEDERAL AGENCIES.–Upon request of the Commission, the head of any Federal agency may detail, on a reimbursable basis, any of the personnel of such agency to the Commission to assist the Commission in carrying out its duties under this Act. "SEC. 8. POWERS OF COMMISSION
“(a) HEARINGS AND SESSIONS.—The Commission may, for the purpose of carrying out this Act, hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, take such testimony, and receive such evidence, as the Commission considers appropriate.
"(b) POWERS OF MEMBERS AND AGENTS.-Any member' or agent of the Commission may, if so authorized by the Commission, take any action which the Commission is authorized to take by this section.
"(c) OBTAINING OFFICIAL DATA.-The Chairman or a designee on behalf of the Chairman may request information necessary to enable the Commission to carry out this Act directly from any department or agency of the United States.
"(d) GIFTS.—The Commission may accept, use, and dispose of gifts or donations of services or property.
"(e) Mails.-The Commission may use the United States mails in the same manner and under the same conditions as other departments and agencies of the United States.
“(f) ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT SERVICES.-The Administrator of General Services shall provide to the Commission on a reimbursable basis such administrative support services as the Commission may request.
REORGANIZATION PLAN No. 8 OF 1949 Section 12(1) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided that: “Reorganization Plan Numbered 8 of 1949, which was transmitted to the Congress by the President on July 18, 1949 (set out in Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees) pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1949, shall not take effect, notwithstanding the provisions of section 6 of such Reorganization Act of 1949."
"SEC. 9. INITIAL FUNDING OF COMMISSION.
"If funds are not otherwise available for the necessary expenses of the Commission for fiscal year 1991, the Secretary of Defense shall make available to the Commission, from funds available to the Secretary for the fiscal year concerned, such funds as the Commission requires. When funds are specifically appropri. ated for the expenses of the Commission, the Commission shall reimburse the Secretary from such funds for any funds provided to it under the preceding sentence."
(References in laws to the rates of pay for GS-16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 (title I, $ 101(c)(1)) of Pub. L. 101-509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.)
INTELLIGENCE PRIORITIES AND REORGANIZATION Pub. L. 101-510, div. A, title IX, $ 907, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1622, provided that:
“(a) REVISION OF PRIORITIES AND CONSOLIDATION OF FUNCTIONS.—The Secretary of Defense, together with the Director of Central Intelligence, shall conduct a joint review of all intelligence and intelligence-related activities in the Tactical Intelligence and Related ACtivities (TIARA) programs and the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP). The Secretary, together with the Director, shall take the following actions with respect to those activities:
"(1) In cases in which redundancy or fragmentation exist, consolidate functions, programs, organizations, and operations to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the conduct of those intelligence activities or programs.
"(2) Revise intelligence collection and analysis pri. orities and resource allocations to reflect changes in the international security environment.
"(3) Strengthen joint intelligence functions, operations, and organizations.
“(4) Improve the quality and independence of intelligence support to the weapons acquisition process.
"(5) Improve the responsiveness and utility of national intelligence systems and organizations to the needs of the combatant commanders.
"(b) PERSONNEL REDUCTIONS.-(1) The number of personnel assigned or detailed to the National Foreign Intelligence Program and related Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities programs shall be reduced by not less than 5 percent of the number of such personnel described in paragraph (2) during each of fiscal years 1992 through 1996.
“(2) The number of personnel referred to in paragraph (1) is the number of personnel assigned or detailed to such programs on September 30, 1990.”
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE For provisions relating to the exercise of certain authority respecting foreign intelligence electronic surveillance, see Ex. Ord. No. 12139, May 23, 1979, 44 F.R. 30311, set out under section 1802 of this title. CHANGE OF TITLES OF SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, ET AL.;
REAPPOINTMENT Section 12(f) of act Aug. 10, 1949, provided in part that: “The titles of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, the Under Secretaries and the Assistant Secretaries of the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, the Chairman of the Munitions Board, and the Chairman of the Research and Development Board, shall not be changed by virtue of this Act (see Short Title of 1949 Amendment note set out above) and the reappointment of the officials holding such titles on the effective date of this Act (Aug. 10, 1949) shall not be required."
Ex. ORD. No. 10431. NATIONAL SECURITY MEDAL Ex. Ord. No. 10431, Jan. 19, 1953, 18 F.R. 437, provided:
1. There is hereby established a medal to be known as the National Security Medal with accompanying ribbons and appurtenances. The medal and its appurtenances shall be of appropriate design, approved by the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council.
2. The National Security Medal may be awarded to any person, without regard to nationality, including members of the armed forces of the United States, for distinguished achievement or outstanding contribution on or after July 26, 1947, in the field of intelligence relating to the national security.
3. The decoration established by this order shall be awarded by the President of the United States or, under regulations approved by him, by such person or persons as he may designate.
4. No more than one National Security Medal shall be awarded to any one person, but for subsequent services justifying an award, a suitable device may be awarded to be worn with the Medal.
5. Members of the armed forces of the United States who are awarded the decoration established by this order are authorized to wear the medal and the ribbon symbolic of the award, as may be authorized by uniform regulations approved by the Secretary of Defense.
6. The decoration established by this order may be awarded posthumously.
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE AWARD OF THE NATIONAL
SECURITY MEDAL Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Executive Order 10431, the following regulations are hereby issued to govern the award of the National Security Medal:
1. The National Security Medal may be awarded to any person without regard to nationality, including a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, who, on or after 26 July 1947, has made an outstanding contribution to the National intelligence effort. This contribution may consist of either exceptionally meritorious service performed in a position of high responsibility or of an act of valor requiring personal courage of a high degree and complete disregard of personal safety.
2. The National Security Medal with accompanying ribbon and appurtenances, shall be of appropriate design to be approved by the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council.
3. The National Security Medal shall be awarded only by the President or his designee for that purpose.
4. Recommendations may be submitted to the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council by any individual having personal knowledge of the facts of the exceptionally meritorious conduct or act of valor of the candidate in the performance of outstanding services, either as an eyewitness or from the testimony of others who have personal knowledge or were eyewitnesses. Any recommendations shall be accompanied by complete documentation, including where necessary, certificates, affidavits or sworn transcripts of testimony. Each recommendation for an award shall show the exact status, at the time of the rendition of the service on which the recommendation is based, with respect to citizenship, employment, and all other