« 이전계속 »
2.6 ASSISTANCE TO LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES
Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to:
(a) Cooperate with appropriate law enforcement agencies for the purpose of protecting the employees, information, property and facilities of any agency within the Intelligence Community;
(b) Unless otherwise precluded by law or this Order, participate in law enforcement activities to investigate or prevent clandestine intelligence activities by foreign powers, or international terrorist or narcotics activities;
(c) Provide specialized equipment, technical knowledge, or assistance of expert personnel for use by any department or agency, or, when lives are endangered, to support local law enforcement agencies. Provision of assistance by expert personnel shall be approved in each case by the General Counsel of the providing agency; and
(d) Render any other assistance and cooperation to law enforcement authorities not precluded by applicable law.
2.7 CONTRACTING Agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to enter into contracts or arrangements for the provision of goods or services with private companies or institutions in the United States and need not reveal the sponsorship of such contracts or arrangements for authorized intelligence purposes. Contracts or arrangements with academic institutions may be undertaken only with the consent of appropriate officials of the institution.
the purpose of determining their suitability or credibility;
(g) Information arising out of a lawful personnel, physical or communications security investigation;
(h) Information acquired by overhead reconnaissance not directed at specific United States persons;
(i) Incidentally obtained information that may indicate involvement in activities that may violate federal, state, local or foreign laws; and
(j) Information necessary for administrative purposes.
In addition, agencies within the Intelligence Community may disseminate information, other than information derived from signals intelligence, to each appropriate agency within the Intelligence Community for purposes of allowing the recipient agency to determine whether the information is relevant to its responsibilities and can be retained by it.
2.4 COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Agencies within the Intelligence Community shall use the least intrusive collection techniques feasible within the United States or directed against United States persons abroad. Agencies are not authorized to use such techniques as electronic surveillance, unconsented physical search, mail surveillance, physical surveillance, or monitoring devices unless they are in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such procedures shall protect constitutional and other legal rights and limit use of such information to lawful governmental purposes. These procedures shall not authorize:
(a) The CIA to engage in electronic surveillance within the United States except for the purpose of training, testing, or conducting countermeasures to hostile electronic surveillance;
(b) Unconsented physical searches in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:
(1) Searches by counterintelligence elements of the military services directed against military personnel within the United States or abroad for intelligence purposes, when authorized by a military commander empowered to approve physical searches for law enforcement purposes, based upon a finding of probable cause to believe that such persons are acting as agents of foreign powers; and
(2) Searches by CIA of personal property of nonUnited States persons lawfully in its possession.
(c) Physical surveillance of a United States person in the United States by agencies other than the FBI, except for:
(1) Physical surveillance of present or former employees, present or former intelligence agency contractors or their present or former employees, or applicants for any such employment or contracting; and
(2) Physical surveillance of a military person employed by a nonintelligence element of a military serv. ice.
(d) Physical surveillance of a United States person abroad to collect foreign intelligence, except to obtain significant information that cannot reasonably be acquired by other means.
2.5 ATTORNEY GENERAL APPROVAL The Attorney General hereby is delegated the power to approve the use for intelligence purposes, within the United States or against & United States person abroad, of any technique for which a warrant would be required if undertaken for law enforcement purposes, provided that such techniques shall not be undertaken unless the Attorney General has determined in each case that there is probable cause to believe that the technique is directed against a foreign power or an agent of a foreign power. Electronic surveillance, as defined in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), shall be conducted in accordance with that Act, as well as this Order.
2.8 CONSISTENCY WITH OTHER LAWS Nothing in this Order shall be construed to author. ize any activity in violation of the Constitution or statutes of the United States.
2.9 UNDISCLOSED PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZATIONS
WITHIN THE UNITED STATES No one acting on behalf of agencies within the Intelligence Community may join or otherwise participate in any organization in the United States on behalf of any agency within the Intelligence Community without disclosing his intelligence affiliation to appropriate officials of the organization, except in accordance with procedures established by the head of the agency concerned and approved by the Attorney General. Such participation shall be authorized only if it is essential to achieving lawful purposes as determined by the agency head or designee. No such participation may be undertaken for the purpose of influencing the activity of the organization or its members except in cases where:
(a) The participation is undertaken on behalf of the FBI in the course of a lawful investigation; or
(b) The organization concerned is composed primarily of individuals who are not United States persons and is reasonably believed to be acting on behalf of a foreign power.
2.10 HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION
No agency within the Intelligence Community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The subject's informed consent shall be documented as required by those guidelines.
2.11 PROHIBITION ON ASSASSINATION No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination.
2.12 INDIRECT PARTICIPATION No agency of the Intelligence Community shall participate in or request any person to undertake activi. ties forbidden by this Order.
PART 3-GENERAL PROVISIONS
3.1 CONGRESSIONAL OVERSIGHT The duties and responsibilities of the Director of Central Intelligence and the heads of other departments, agencies, and entities engaged in intelligence activities to cooperate with the Congress in the conduct of its responsibilities for oversight of intelligence activities shall be as provided in title 50, United States Code, section 413. The requirements of section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended (22 U.S.C. 2422), and section 501 of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended (50 U.S.C. 413), shall apply to all special activities as defined in this Order.
3.2 IMPLEMENTATION The NSC, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence shall issue such appropriate directives and procedures as are necessary to implement this Order. Heads of agencies within the Intelligence Community shall issue appropriate supplementary directives and procedures consistent with this Order. The Attorney General shall provide a statement of reasons for not approving any procedures established by the head of an agency in the Intelligence Community other than the FBI. The National Security Council may establish procedures in instances where the agency head and the Attorney General are unable to reach agreement on other than constitutional or other legal grounds.
3.3 PROCEDURES Until the procedures required by this Order have been established, the activities herein authorized which require procedures shall be conducted in accordance with existing procedures or requirements established under Executive Order No. 12036 (formerly set out above). Procedures required by this Order shall be established as expeditiously as possible. All procedures promulgated pursuant to this Order shall be made available to the congressional intelligence committees.
3.4 DEFINITIONS For the purposes of this Order, the following terms shall have these meanings:
(a) Counterintelligence means information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
(b) Electronic surveillance means acquisition of a nonpublic communication by electronic means without the consent of a person who is a party to an electronic communication or, in the case of a nonelectronic communication, without the consent of a person who is visably (sic) present at the place of communication, but not including the use of radio direction-finding equipment solely to determine the location of a transmitter.
(c) Employee means a person employed by, assigned to or acting for an agency within the Intelligence Community.
(d) Foreign intelligence means information relating to the capabilities, intentions and activities of foreign powers, organizations or persons, but not including counterintelligence except for information on international terrorist activities.
(e) Intelligence activities means all activities that agencies within the Intelligence Community are authorized to conduct pursuant to this Order.
(f) Intelligence Community and agencies within the Intelligence Community refer to the following agencies or organizations:
(1) The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA);
(4) The offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs;
(5) The Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State;
(6) The intelligence elements of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Energy; and
(7) The staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence.
(g) The National Foreign Intelligence Program in. cludes the programs listed below, but its composition shall be subject to review by the National Security Council and modification by the President:
(1) The programs of the CIA;
(2) The Consolidated Cryptologic Program, the General Defense Intelligence Program, and the programs of the offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance, except such elements as the Director of Central Intelligence and the Secretary of Defense agree should be excluded;
(3) Other programs of agencies within the Intelligence Community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or by the President as national foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities;
(4) Activities of the staff elements of the Director of Central Intelligence;
(5) Activities to acquire the intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations by the United States military forces are not included in the National Foreign Intelligence Program.
(h) Special activities means activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives abroad which are planned and executed so that the role of the United States Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly, and functions in support of such activities, but wluich are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.
(i) United States person means a United States citizen, an alien known by the intelligence agency concerned to be a permanent resident alien, an unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens, or a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for a corporation directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.
3.5 PURPOSE AND EFFECT This Order is intended to control and provide direction and guidance to the Intelligence Community. Nothing contained herein or in any procedures promulgated hereunder is intended to confer any substantive or procedural right or privilege on any person or organization.
3.6 REVOCATION Executive Order No. 12036 of January 24, 1978, as amended, entitled “United States Intelligence Activi. ties,” is revoked.
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 12334
Ex. Ord. No. 12334, Dec. 4, 1981, 46 F.R. 59955, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12701, Feb. 14, 1990, 55 F.R. 5953, which established the President's Intelligence Oversight Board, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12863, $ 3.3, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 48441, set out below.
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 12356
PFIAB. The IOB shall consist of no more than four For Ex. Ord. No. 12356, see note under section 435 of
members appointed from among the membership of this title.
the PFIAB by the Chairman of the PFIAB. The
Chairman of the IOB shall be appointed by the Chair. Ex. ORD. No. 12863. PRESIDENT'S FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE man of the PFIAB. The Chairman of the PFIAB may ADVISORY BOARD
also serve as the Chairman of the IOB. The IOB shall
utilize such full-time staff and consultants as author. Ex. Ord. No. 12863, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 48441,
ized by the Chairman of the PFIAB. provided: By the authority vested in me as President by the
SEC. 2.2. The IOB shall: Constitution and the laws of the United States of (a) prepare for the President reports of intelliAmerica, and in order to enhance the security of the gence activities that the IOB believes may be unlawUnited States by improving the quality and effective- ful or contrary to Executive order or Presidential diness of intelligence available to the United States, and
rective; to assure the legality of activities of the Intelligence (b) forward to the Attorney General reports reCommunity, it is ordered as follows:
ceived concerning intelligence activities that the
IOB believes may be unlawful or contrary to ExecuPART I. ASSESSMENT OF INTELLIGENCE
tive order or Presidential directive; ACTIVITIES
(c) review the internal guidelines of each agency SECTION 1.1. There is hereby established within the within the Intelligence Community that concern the White House Office, Executive Office of the Presi. lawfulness of intelligence activities; dent, the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory (d) review the practices and procedures of the InBoard (PFIAB). The PFIAB shall consist of not more spectors General and General Counsel of the Intellithan 16 members, who shall serve at the pleasure of gence Community for discovering and reporting inthe President and shall be appointed by the President telligence activities that may be unlawful or confrom among trustworthy and distinguished citizens trary to Executive order or Presidential directive; outside the Government who are qualified on the and basis of achievement, experience and independence. (e) conduct such investigations as the IOB deems The President shall establish the terms of the mem- necessary to carry out its functions under this order. bers upon their appointment. To the extent practica
SEC. 2.3. The IOB shall, when required by this order, ble, one-third of the PFIAB at any one time shall be
report to the President through the Chairman of the comprised of members whose term of service does not
PFIAB. The IOB shall consider and take appropriate exceed 2 years. The President shall designate a Chair
action with respect to matters identified by the Direcman and Vice Chairman from among the members.
tor of Central Intelligence, the Central Intelligence The PFIAB shall utilize full-time staff and consult
Agency or other agencies of the Intelligence Commuants as authorized by the President. Such staff shall be headed by an Executive Director, appointed by the
nity. With respect to matters deemed appropriate by President.
the President, the IOB shall advise and make approSec. 1.2. The PFIAB shall assess the quality, quanti
priate recommendations to the Director of Central Inty, and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis
telligence, the Central Intelligence Agency and other and estimates, and of counterintelligence and other in
agencies of the Intelligence Community. telligence activities. The PFIAB shall have the author
Sec. 2.4. The heads of departments and agencies of ity to review continually the performance of all agen
the Intelligence Community, to the extent permitted cies of the Federal Government that are engaged in
by law, shall provide the IOB with all information the collection, evaluation, or production of intelligence that the IOB deems necessary to carry out its responor the execution of intelligence policy. The PFIAB
sibilities. Inspectors General and General Counsel of shall further be authorized to assess the adequacy of
the Intelligence Community, to the extent permitted management, personnel and organization in the intel. by law, shall report to the IOB, at least on a quarterly ligence agencies. The heads of departments and agen
basis and from time to time as necessary or appropricies of the Federal Government, to the extent permit- ate, concerning intelligence activities that they have ted by law, shall provide the PFIAB with access to all reason to believe may be unlawful or contrary to Execinformation that the PFIAB deems necessary to carry utive order or Presidential directive. out its responsibilities. Sec. 1.3. The PFIAB shall report directly to the
PART III. GENERAL PROVISIONS President and advise him concerning the objectives, conduct, management and coordination of the various
Sec. 3.1. Information made available to the PFIAB, activities of the agencies of the Intelligence Communi
or members of the PFIAB acting in their IOB capacty. The PFIAB shall report periodically, but at least
ity, shall be given all necessary security protection in semiannually, concerning its findings and appraisals
accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Each and shall make appropriate recommendations for the
member of the PFIAB, each member of the PFIAB's improvement and enhancement of the intelligence ef- staff and each of the PFIAB's consultants shall exeforts of the United States.
cute an agreement never to reveal any classified inforSEC. 1.4. The PFIAB shall consider and recommend mation obtained by virtue of his or her services with appropriate action with respect to matters, identified the PFIAB except to the President or to such persons to the PFIAB by the Director of Central Intelligence,
as the President may designate. the Central Intelligence Agency, or other Government SEC. 3.2. Members of the PFIAB shall serve without agencies engaged in intelligence or related activities, compensation but may receive transportation exin which the advice of the PFIAB will further the ef- penses and per diem allowance as authorized by law. fectiveness of the national intelligence effort. With re- Staff and consultants to the PFIAB shall receive pay spect to matters deemed appropriate by the President, and allowances as authorized by the President. the PFIAB shall advise and make recommendations to SEC. 3.3. Executive Order No. 12334 of December 4, the Director of Central Intelligence, the Central Intel- 1981, as amended, and Executive Order No. 12537 of ligence Agency, and other Government agencies en- October 28, 1985, as amended (50 U.S.C. 403 note), are gaged in intelligence and related activities, concerning revoked. ways to achieve increased effectiveness in meeting na
WILLIAM J. CLINTON. tional intelligence needs. PART II. OVERSIGHT OF INTELLIGENCE
ACT REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
The National Security Act of 1947 is referred to in Sec. 2.1. The Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB) is section 47e of this title; section 469 of Appendix to hereby established as a standing committee of the this title; title 21 section 1503.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in title 10 sections 113, 125, 155.
8 401a. Definitions
(6) The term “National Foreign Intelligence Program” refers to all programs, projects, and activities of the intelligence community, as well as any other programs of the intelligence community designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of a United States department or agency or by the President. Such term does not include programs, projects, or activities of the military departments to acquire intelligence solely for the planning and conduct of tactical military operations by United States.
Armed Forces. (July 26, 1947, ch. 343, § 3, as added Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102-496, title VII, $ 702, 106 Stat. 3188; amended Oct. 14, 1994, Pub. L. 103-359, title V, $ 501(a)(1), 108 Stat. 3428.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT This Act, referred to in text, means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.
This title, referred to in par. (5)(B), probably should be “this Act", meaning act July 26, 1947, see above, be. cause this section is not a part of any title of act of July 26, 1947.
AMENDMENTS 1994–Par. (4)(E). Pub. L. 103-359 substituted "the Central Imagery Office” for “the central imagery authority within the Department of Defense".
As used in this Act:
(1) The term "intelligence" includes foreign intelligence and counterintelligence.
(2) The term “foreign intelligence" means information relating to the capabilities, intentions, or activities of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons.
(3) The term "counterintelligence" means information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.
(4) The term “intelligence community” includes
(A) the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, which shall include the Office of the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, the National Intelligence Council (as provided for in section 403-5(b)(3) 1 of this title), and such other offices as the Director may designate; (B) the
Central Intelligence Agency; (C) the National Security Agency; (D) the Defense Intelligence Agency; (E) the Central Imagery Office; (F) the National Reconnaissance Office;
(G) other offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national intelligence through reconnaissance programs;
(H) the intelligence elements of the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Energy;
(I) the Bureau of Intelligence and Research of the Department of State; and
(J) such other elements of any other department or agency as may be designated by the President, or designated jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or agency concerned, as an element of the intelligence community.
(5) The terms "national intelligence" and "intelligence related to the national security"
(A) each refer to intelligence which pertains to the interests of more than one department or agency of the Government; and
(B) do not refer to counterintelligence or law enforcement activities conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation except to the extent provided for in procedures agreed to by the Director of Central Intelligence and the Attorney General, or otherwise as expressly provided for in this title. 2
AUTHORITY OF SECRETARY OF STATE Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and refer. ences to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103-236, set out as a note under section 265la of Title 22.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in section 403-2а of this title.
SUBCHAPTER I-COORDINATION FOR
8 402. National Security Council (a) Establishment; presiding officer; functions; com
position There is established a council to be known as the National Security Council (hereinafter in this section referred to as the “Council").
The President of the United States shall preside over meetings of the Council: Provided, That in his absence he may designate a member of the Council to preside in his place.
The function of the Council shall be to advise the President with respect to the integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to the national security so as to enable the military services and the other departments and agencies of the Government to cooperate more effectively in matters involving the national security. The Council shall be composed of
(1) the President;
So in original. Probably should be section “403-3(bX3)". * See References in Text note below.
(g) Board for Low Intensity Conflict
The President shall establish within the National Security Council a board to be known as the “Board for Low Intensity Conflict". The principal function of the board shall be to coordinate the policies of the United States for low intensity conflict. (h) Participation of Director of Central Intelligence
The Director of Central Intelligence (or, in the Director's absence, the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence) may, in the performance of the Director's duties under this Act and subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council. (July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title I, § 101, 61 Stat. 496; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, $ 3, 63 Stat. 579; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, $ 1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; Oct. 10, 1951, ch. 479, title V, $ 501(e)(1), 65 Stat. 378; Oct. 1, 1986, Pub. L. 99-433, title II, $ 203, 100 Stat. 1011; Oct. 18, 1986, Pub. L. 99-500, $ 101(c) [title IX, § 9115()], 100 Stat. 1783-82, 1783-125, and Oct. 30, 1986, Pub. L. 99-591, § 101(c) [title IX, § 9115(f)], 100 Stat. 3341-82, 3341-125; Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99-661, div. A, title XIII, § 1311(f), 100 Stat. 3986; Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100-690, title I, § 1003(a)(3), 102 Stat. 4182; Oct. 24, 1992, Pub. L. 102-496, title VII, $ 703, 106 Stat. 3189.)
(3) the Secretary of State;
(6) the Chairman of the National Security Resources Board; and
(7) the Secretaries and Under Secretaries of other executive departments and of the military departments, the Chairman of the Munitions Board, and the Chairman of the Research and Development Board, when appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to serve at
his pleasure. (b) Additional functions
In addition to performing such other functions as the President may direct, for the purpose of more effectively coordinating the policies and functions of the departments and agencies of the Government relating to the national security, it shall, subject to the direction of the President, be the duty of the Council
(1) to assess and appraise the objectives, commitments, and risks of the United States in relation to our actual and potential military power, in the interest of national security, for the purpose of making recommendations to the President in connection therewith; and
(2) to consider policies on matters of common interest to the departments and agencies of the Government concerned with the national security, and to make recommendations to the President in connection there
with. (c) Executive secretary; appointment; staff employees
The Council shall have a staff to be headed by a civilian executive secretary who shall be appointed by the President. The executive secretary, subject to the direction of the Council, is authorized, subject to the civil-service laws and chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, to appoint and fix the compensation of such personnel as may be necessary to perform such duties as may be prescribed by the Council in connection with the performance of its functions. (d) Recommendations and reports
The Council shall, from time to time, make such recommendations, and such other reports to the President as it deems appropriate or as the President may require. (e) Participation of Chairman or Vice Chairman of
Joint Chiefs of Staff The Chairman (or in his absence the Vice Chairman) of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may, in his role as principal military adviser to the National Security Council and subject to the di. rection of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council. (f) Participation by Director of National Drug Con
trol Policy The Director of National Drug Control Policy may, in his role as principal adviser to the National Security Council on national drug control policy, and subject to the direction of the President, attend and participate in meetings of the National Security Council.
AMENDMENT OF SECTION For repeal of amendment by section 1506 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.
REFERENCES IN TEXT The civil-service laws, referred to in subsec. (c), are set forth in Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. See, particularly, section 3301 et seq. of Title 5.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (h), means act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, as amended, known as the National Security Act of 1947. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 401 of this title and Tables.
CODIFICATION Pub. L. 99-591 is a corrected version of Pub. L. 99-500.
In subsec. (c), provisions that specified compensation of $10,000 per year for the executive secretary to the Council were omitted. Section 304(b) of Pub. L. 88-426 amended section 105 of Title 3, The President, to include the executive secretary of the Council among those whose compensation was authorized to be fixed by the President. Section 1(a) of Pub. L. 95-570 further amended section 105 of Title 3 to authorize the President to appoint and fix the pay of the employees of the White House Office subject to certain provisions.
In subsec. (c), "chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5" substituted for “the Classification Act of 1949, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 89-554, $ 7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
AMENDMENTS 1992–Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102-496 added subsec. (h).
1988–Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 100-690, $$ 1003(a)(3), 1009, temporarily added subsec. (f) and redesignated