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thrown upon any of the unknown Coafts of America, they never venture upon the Fruit of any Tree, how tempting foever it may appear, unlefs they observe that it is marked with the Pecking of Birds; but fall on with. out any Fear or Apprehension where the Birds have been before them.
BUT notwithstanding Animals have nothing like the use of Reason, we find in them all the lower parts of our Nature, the Passions and Senses in their greatest Strength and Perfection. And here it is worth our Observation, that all Beasts and Birds of Prey are wonderfully subject to Anger, Malice, Revenge, and all the other violent Pasfions that may animate them in search of their proper Food; as those that are incapable of defending themfelves, or annoying others, or whose Safety lies chiefly in their Flight, are suspicious, fearful and apprehensive of every thing they see or hear ; whilst others that are of Alistance and Ufe to Man, have their Natures softned with something mild and tra&table, and by that means are qualified for a Domestick Life. In this case the Paffions generally correspond with the Make of the Body. We do not find the Fury of a Lion in so weak and defenceless an Animal as a Lamb, nor the Meekness of a Lamb in a Creature so armed for Battel and Assault as the Lion. In the same manner, we find that particular Animals have a more or less exquisite Sharpness and Sagacity in those particular Senfes which most turn to their Advantage, and in which their Safety and Welfare is the most concerned,
NOR muft we here omit that great Variety of Arms with which Nature has differently fortified the Bodies of several kind of Animals, such as Claws, Hoofs and Horns, Teeth and Tusks, a Tail, a Sring, a Trunk, or a Proboscis. It is likewise observed by Naturalists, that it muft be some hidden Principle, distinct from what we call Reafon, which inftru&ts Animals in the Ufe of these their Arms, and teaches them to manage them to the best Advantage ; because they naturally defend themselves with that part in which their Strength lies, before the Weapon be formed in it; as is remarkable in Lambs, which tho' they are bred within Doors, and never faw the Actions of their own Species, push at those who approach them with
their Foreheads, before the first budding of a Horn appears.
I shall add to these general Observations, an Instance which Mr. Locke has given us of Providence, even in the Imperfections of a Creature which seems the meanest and moft despicable in the whole animal World. says he, from the Make of an Oyster, or Cockle, conclude, that it has not so many nor so quick Senses as a Man, or fevetal other Animals: Nor if it had would it in that State and Incapacity of transferring it self from one place to another, be better'd by them. What good would Sight and Hearing do to a Creature, that cannot move it self to, or from the Object, wherein at a distance is perceives Good or Evil? And would not Quickness of Sensation be an Inconvenience to an Animal, that must be still where Chance has once placed it, And there receive the Afflux of colder or warmer, clean or foul Water, as it happens to come to it.
I shall add to this. Instance out of Mr. Locke, another out of the learned Dr. Moor, who cites it from Cardan, in reJation to another Animal which Providence has left De. fective, but at the same time has fhewn its Wisdom in the Formation of that Organ in which it feems chiefly to have failed. What is more obvious and ordinary than a Mete? and yet what more palpable Argument of Providence than she? The Members of her Body are so exactly fitted to her Nature and Manner of Life: For her Dwelling being under Ground where nothing is to be seen, Nature has so obscurely fitted her with Eyes, that Naturalifts can scarce agree whether she have any sight at all or no. But for amends, what is the capable of for her Defence and Warning of Danger, thehas very eminently conferred upon her; for she is exceeding quick of Hearing. And then her hort Tail and Mort Legs, but broad Fore-feet armed with sharp Claws, we see by the Event to what Purpose they are, she so swiftly working herself under Ground, and making her way so fast in the Earth, as they that behold it cannot but admire it. Her Legs therefore are short, that she need dig no more than will serve the meer Thickness of her Body; and her Fore-feet are broad that she may scoup away much Earth at a Time ; and little or no Tail she has, because she courfes it not on the Ground, like the Rat or Moufe, of whofe Kindred me is, but lives under the Earth, and is fain to dig her self a Dwelling there.
And she making her way thro' so thick an Element, which will not yield easily, as the Air or the Water, it had been dangerous to have drawn so long a Train behind her; for her Enemy might fall upon her Rear, and fetch her out before She had compleated or got
full Possession of her Works. I cannot forbear mentioning Mr. Boyle's Remark upon this last Creature, who, I remember, somewhere in his Works observes, that though the Mole be not totally blind (as it is commonly thought, she has not Sight enough to diftinguish particular Objects. Her Eye is said to have but one Humour in it, which is supposed to give her the Idea of Light, but of nothing else, and is so formed that this Idea is probably painful to the Animal. Whenever she comes up into broad Day she might be in Danger of being taken, unless she were thus affected by a Light striking upon her Eye, and immediately warning her
to bury her self in her proper Element. More Sight would be useless to her, as none at all might be fatal.
I have only instanced such Animals as seem the most imperfect Works of Nature; and if Providence Mews it felf even in the Blemishes of these Creatures, how much more does it discover it self in the several Endowments which it has variously bestowed upon such Creatures as are more or less finished and compleated in their several Faculties, according to the Condition of Life in which they are posted ?
I could wish our Royal Society would compile a body of Natural History, the best that could be gathered together from Books and Observations. If the several Writers among them took each his particular Species, and gave us a diftinct Account of its original, Birth, and Education; its Policies, Hoftilities and Alliances, with the Frame and Texture of its inward and outward Parts, and particularly those that diftinguish it from all other Animals, with their peculiar Aptitudes for the State of Being in which Providence has placed them, it would be one of the beft Services their Studies could do Mankind, and not a little redound to the Glory of the All-wise Contriver.
It is true, such a Natural History, after all the Disquifirions of the Learned, would be infinitely Short and De. fective. Seas and Desarts hide Millions of Animals from our Observation, Innumerable Artifices and Stratagems
are a&ted in the Howling Wilderness and in the Great Deep, that can never come to our Knowledge. Besides that there are infinitely more Species of Creatures which are not to be seen without, nor indeed with the help of the finest Glasses, than of such as are bulky enough for the naked Eye to take hold of. However, from the Consideration of such Animals as lie within the Compass of our Knowledge; we might easily
form a Conclusion of the ret, that the same Variety of Wisdom and Goodness runs through the whole Creation, and puts every Creature in a Condition to provide for its Safety and Subsiftance in its proper
Station. TULLY has given us an admirable Sketch of Natural History, in his second Book concerning the Nature of the Gods; and that in a Style so raised by Metaphors and Defcriptions, that it lifts the Subject above Raillery and Ridicule, which frequently fall on such nice Observations when they pass through the Hands of an ordinary Writer, L
Friday, July 20.
Man's firft Care should be to avoid the Reproaches
of the World: If the last interferes with the former, it ought to be entirely negle&ed; but otherwise there cannot be a greater Satisfaction to an honeft Mind, than to see those Approbations which it gives it self feconded by the Applauses of the Publick : A Man is more fure of his Conduét, when the Verdiet which he passes upon his own Behaviour is thus warranted and confirmed by the Opinion of all that know him.
My worthy Friend Sir R OG ER is one of those who.is not only at Peace within himself, but beloved and esteemed by all about him. He receives a suitable Tribute for his
u. niversal Benevolence to Mankind, in the Returns of Affe. &ion and Good-will, which are paid him by every one that lives within his Neighbourhood. I lately met with two or
three odd Instances of that general Relped which is thewn to the good old Knight. He would needs carry Will. Wimble and my
self with him to the County-Aflizes : As we were upon
the Road Will. Wimble joined a couple of plain Men who rid before us, and conversed with them for fome Time ; during which my Friend Sir ROGER acquainted me with their Characters.
THE first of them, fays he, that has a Spaniel by his Side, is a Yeoman of about an hundred Pounds a Year, an honest Man: He is just within the Game Act, and quali fied to kill an Hare or a Pheafant: He knocks down a Dinner with his Gun twice or thrice a Week ; and by that Means lives much cheaper than those who have not so good an Estate as himself. He would be a good Neighbour, if he did not destroy lo many Partridges : In fhort, he is a very fenfible Man; fhoots flying, and has been several Times Fore-man of the Petty-Jary.
THE other that rides along with him is Tom Touchy, a Fellow famous for taking the Law of every Body. There is not one in the Town where he lives that he has not sued at a Quarter-Sessions. The Rogue had once the Impudence to go to Law with the Widow. . His Head is full of Costs, Damages and Ejectments: He plagued a couple of honeft Gentlemen so long for a Trespass in breaking one of his Hedges, till he was forced to sell the Ground it enclosed to defray the Charges of the Prosecution : His Father left him fourscore Pounds a Year ; but he has cast and been caft so often, that he is not now worth thirty. I fuppose he is going upon the old Bufiness of the Willow. Tree.
AS Sir ROGER was giving me this Account of Tom Touchy, Will. Wimble and his two Companions stopped Mort till we came up to them. After having paid their Refpe&ts to Sir ROGER, Will, told him that Mr. Touchy and he muft appeal to him upon a Dispute that arose between them. Will. it seems had been giving his Fellow Travellers an Account of his angling one Day in such a Hole; when Tom Pouchy, instead of hearing out his Story, told him, that Mr. fuch an One, if he pleased, might take the Law of him for fishing in that part of the River. My Friend Sir ROGER heard them both, upon a round Trot; and after having paused fome Time told them, with an