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5 cent, 104

Government Stock, 34

ASHES, cwt.

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Liverpool Exports of British Manufac-
tures, from 22d Dec. to 21st Jan.
Cotton Stuffs 306492 pcs. & 975735 yds.
Woollen do... 15823
Worsted do... 4981

Flannel......

Carpeting.... Baize

5060

120 4787

Blanketing 113 pairs,
Hats, 2737 doz.-Hose, 6523 doz. pairs.
Hardware, 18234.-Nails, 590 cwts.
Copper, 9251-Glass, 19274 cwt. 1140 cts
Bar and Bolt Iron, &c....... 697 tons.
Steel, 76 cwts.-Tinplates, 743 boxes.
Lead,..
Earthenware
Refined Sugar...

......

.... 213 tons. 1712 crates, &c. ..10454 cwts. White Salt to Foreign Parts,..1379 tons.

Liverpool Imports, from the 22d Dec. to the 21st January.

Sugar, P. B. 730 hhds. 83 brls. 14 tces. Foreign, 179 cases.-Coffee, B. P. 44 bgs. -Cotton, W. India, 76 bales. American, 5364 bales. Brazils, 4300 bags; 527 bales; 873 serons. East India, 1131 bales.-Rum, 427 punchs. 2 hhds. -Brandy, 2 pipes.-Wine, 10 hhds; 29 pipes; 1 butt: 15 cases.-Molasses, 5 puncheons.-Fustic, 2 tons.-Ashes, 1349 brls-Turpentine, 35 brls.-Rice, 686 bags -Tobacco, 480 hhds. 154 bales. -Iron, 4081 bars-Flax, 143 bales.Hides, 21905.-Madder Root, 18 bales. -Elephants' Teeth, 62, & 11 cwt.Sumac, 2746 bgs.-Brimstone, 1684 tons. -Valonla, 120 tons.-Saltpetre,1649 bgs. -Indigo, 10 chests.-Wool, 58 bales.-Flaxseed, 2112 bags; 20 casks.-Linseed, 650 qrs.-Corn, Wheat, 13277 qrs. -Barley, 6969 qrs. 22 tons.-Oats, 27534 qrs.-Beans, 621 qs.-Peas, 135 qs. Malt, 933 qrs.-Flour, 231 tons; 1364 brls 48 sacks. Oatmeal, 2264 bolls; 37 tons. -Oranges and Lemons, 2045 chests; 4509 boxes.-Raisins, 753 brls. 2301 bxs. 2351 drums; 5058 baskets; 182 casks.Figs, 490 drums; 2 frails; 59 mats.Almonds, 20 bales; 5 bags.-Apples, 116 brls.-Nuts, 100 bags.-Walnuts, 151 caroteels; 11 bags. Currants,

122 butts; 5 casks.

Oil-Cod, 480 csks-Dogfish, 268 csks. Seal, 94 casks; 89 brls. I puncheon.Blubber, 30 casks.-Palm, 303 casks; 10 brls. 280 punchs. 96 butts; 120 pipes; 170 hhds. 96 kegs.-Rape, 10 pipes. Timber, 21 cargoes.

Ireland.

Butter, 21546 frks. 140 crocks, &c.Rapeseed, 113 bgs. 2174 scks. 734 qrs.Cows, 197.-Pigs,1764.-Bacon,347 bales 28 csks.-Beef, 766 tces. 431 brls. 74 tubs. -Pork, 1387 barrels.-Linen Cloth, 382 bales, 574 boxes.-Flax, 231 bales, 168 bags, 10 boxes.

...0 5 0 Silver, in Bars, Standard......0 5 2

Rates of Insurance.-Liverpool. To West Indies...... cent. 35s a 40s U. States of America 40

Britisu America......season closed.

Brazils ...

East Indies.........

Coast of Africa and back..126 Gibraltar

Mediterranean.......... 40

France and Holland...... 40
Baltic...
London.

Ireland West Coast...... 40

East Coast........30

Prices of Stock, London, Jan. 19. Reduced Annuities

Consols

Consols for Acct..........

68

67 ex div.

671 do.

86

102

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Bourdeaux, 25 30. FrankAmsterdam, 11: 19 C. F. Ditto at sight, 11: 16. Antwerp, Course of Exchange, in London, January 18. Ports closed against all kinds of Grain for home consumption. 12: 1. Ex. M. Hamburg, 36: 1: 2 U. Altona, 36:22 U. fort on the Main, 151. Ex. M. Madrid, 341. effect. Cadiz, 344. effect. Barcelona, 34. Gibraltar, 30. Leghorn, 47, Genoa, 441. Venice, Italian Liv. 27. 30. Malta, 46. Naples, 384. Palermo, 116. Lisbon, 52. Oporto, 52. Rio Janeiro, 57. Dublin, 11. Paris, 3 days' sight, 25 0.

25th

PRINTED BY H. FISHER, LIVERPOOL, PRINTER IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY.

Emperial Magazine;

OR, COMPENDIUM OF

RELIGIOUS, MORAL, & PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.

MARCH.] "LITERARY PURSUITS AWAKEN AND IMPROVE OUR MENTAL ENERGIES."

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The vile defamer's pois'nous breath
Diffuses pestilence and death;

Assuming friendship's sacred guise,

His mouth's the vehicle of lies;

An enemy to all that's good,
Destruction is his proper food.

What king so strong,

Abednego.

'Can tie the gall up in the slanderous tongue!

Shakspeare.

AMONG the various vices which deform human nature, and derogate from the happiness of the species, perhaps there is none more extensive in its range, and pestiferous in its influence, than Defamation. It respects neither age, nor sex, nor character, nor condition, but blows its poisonous breath upon all, and generally most copiously upon those who are celebrated either for wisdom or virtue.

[1820.

ruin: in all such cases, tho' publicity would not be defamation, it would unquestionably be a total departure from that charity which covereth a multitude of sins.

What then is defamation? It is intentional misrepresentation, for the purpose of detracting from the reputation of any one.* I have said intentional misrepresentation, because a person the most benevolent, and the most hostile to any thing defamatory, may give circulation to a misrepresented fact, not knowing or supposing it to be such. The authority from whom he received it, might be such as to preclude the suspicion of inaccuracy; and the motive which actuated him in its repetition, might be the most virtuous and commendable. It might possibly be to shew the inexperienced By defamation I do not mean a sim- the dangers to which the imprudent ple relation of the truth, however that are exposed, from the adoption of certruth may operate to the injury or dis- tain principles, the formation of cerhonour of any individual; for the pub-tain habits, or an association with licity of facts, however painful to the persons of bad or doubtful character; delinquent, is often salutary, at once or it might be to throw a little light correcting the offender, and exhibiting into the picture, by shewing that the a beacon for the admonition of others. disgraceful fact possibly arose from Any pain experienced by such publi- peculiar circumstances, that it was city, must be considered as the neces- the result of unexpected and violent sary result of folly and wickedness, temptation, that the fact is a solitary as confirmatory of those scriptures one, and that no one can condemn it which teach that the way of transgres- with greater severity than that with sors is hard,—and as the natural pro- which he condemns it himself, and that moter and guardian of virtue. But although in his character there is much although truth is not defamation, how-to blame, yet there is also much to adever it may affect the reputation or circumstances of the guilty, yet prudence, and especially Christian charity, will in many cases conceal and not publish the infamy of others; and more especially if such infamy be a deviation from general character; or if they have repented of their evil, and have given evidence that they have done so by a change of conduct; or if publicity would produce no good effect on themselves or others; and farther, if such publicity would entail infamy upon such as had no participation in their crime, and thus involve the innocent and the guilty in one common No. 13.-VOL. II.

mire, and that therefore he ought not to be avoided as a pestilence, or execrated as a demon, but pitied, and, if possible, restored as a fallen brother. Defamatory reports circulated by persons actuated by such motives, and accompanied by such palliatives, lose much of their malignity; the poison is not only diluted, and thus weakened,

adopted the definition given of this term by *The reader will perceive that I have not lawyers. According to them, any offensive truth is defamation; hence the maxim-the greater the truth, the greater the libel. As a check on the malignant, perhaps such a definition may be necessary to the good order of society、

H

but it is diluted with charity, which of all antidotes is the most effectual. Defamation is intentional misrepresentation, for the purpose of lowering the reputation of another. The methods of persons who deal much in this article, are many and diversified, but all injurious in their operation, and alike hostile to the golden rule of our Lord-As ye would that others should do to you, do ye even so to them.

One of the grossest species of defamation, is that which has no truth for its foundation, but consists entirely in falsehood, such as that when A was at Z, he was guilty of some act of gross immorality; whereas Z was never visited by A, and at the time referred to A was in the bosom of his own family: or that A overreached B in a certain secular transaction; whereas between A and B there never had been any transaction, or communication on any subject, either directly or indirectly or that A had written a political pamphlet, full of treason; although A had never written a line on politics in his life. This species of defamation frequently does temporary, though it is too gross to do lasting mischief; for there being no semblance of truth, the lie is transparent, and the defamed, like Abednego, comes forth unhurt from the furnace into which he had been thrown, whilst he who threw him in is consumed to ashes. Such defamation generally indicates a high degree of malignity, combined with a small portion of genius.

But that species of defamation which is most prevalent, and which operates most injuriously, is that which has some truth for its basis, but to which something is added, or from which something is taken away, or some circumstances are altered or omitted, the omission or alteration of which occasions an impression to be made directly the reverse of that which otherwise would have been produced. To illustrate these different modes of defamation by apposite examples, will, while it furnishes entertainment, probably produce a deeper impression than would be produced by a series of arguments.

To illustrate defamation by addition, take the following examples. The late Rev. Charles Wesley, in the year 1749, visited Ireland, and preached in several places of that part of the empire, and among the rest, in the city of

Cork. In that city multitudes attend-
ed his ministry, and the false peace of
many was disturbed. The conse-
quence was, that the populace zea-
lously attacked him and his friends.
A prosecution of the persecutors was
instituted; but the Grand Jury refused
to find a bill, though there were 28
depositions to the facts.
Nor was
this all, for they actually made the fol-
lowing extraordinary presentment :-
"We find and present Charles Wesley,
to be a person of ill fame, a vagabond,
and common disturber of his Majesty's
peace, and we pray that he may be trans-
ported." Now, in this very curious
document, there is some truth. It is
not true that he was a person of ill
fame, for his moral character was un-
impeachable; neither is it true that he
was a vagabond, for he was a respect-
able clergyman, and honourably main-
tained; but it is true that he was a
disturber, and a common disturber, if
not of his Majesty's peace, at least of
the peace of many of his Majesty's
wicked subjects. He disturbed the
peace of many who had been saying
" peace, peace," where there was no
peace. Like St. Paul, he occasioned
many a tumult, and, like him, though
never interfering in politics, he conti-
nually aimed at turning the world up-
side down.

The case of John Bunyan furnishes another example. He was imprisoned twelve years and six months for preaching the gospel, and the bill of indictment against him ran thus :-" John Bunyan hath devilishly and perniciously abstained from coming to church to hear divine service, and is a common upholder of several unlawful conventicles, to the distraction of the good subjects in this kingdom, contrary to the laws of our Sovereign Lord the King." Here also is some truth, to which is added much falsehood. It is true that John Bunyan did not go to church; but it is not true that he devilishly and perniciously abstained from going: it is true that he attended meetings, which a persecuting Act of Parliament designated unlawful conventicles, because he thought it better to obey God than man; but it is not true that this was to the distraction of the good subjects in this kingdom. The good subjects could not fail to rejoice in John's efforts to make his fellow subjects good men. If there was distraction any where, it was

among bad subjects, who could not bear that their deeds should be reproved.

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solemnly affirmed, that without a divine revelation, we can neither know God, nor the way to heaven. Calumnia, omitting the words without a divine revelation," reported Demetrius to have said, that no man can either know God, or the way to heaven. Be

was a topic of conversation, gave it as his opinion, that mendicity is a great evil; that many beggars are gross impostors; and therefore, added he, I never gave, and I am determined I never will give, a single penny to any poor person, without first endeavouring to make myself acquainted with his circumstances. Calumnia immediately reported that Benevolus was a cruel unfeeling wretch, for she had heard him say that he never gave, and that he never would give, a single penny to any poor person.

making them say more than they ever uttered, but frequently by making them say much less. She reports only Nothing is more common than for a part of what is spoken, and thus defamers, in reporting what they have makes an injurious impression; whereheard, to make such additions as as, were she to give what precedes and make a false and injurious impression. what follows, the impression would be For example, Philander one day in directly the reverse. Gaius one day the course of conversation stated the affirmed, that without Divine mercy following facts:-Once, he observed, every human being must perish for in coming from Brighton to London, ever. Calumnia, omitting the words on the outside of a stage-coach, it" divine mercy," reported that Gaius being at the time of Epsom races, he had affirmed that every human being saw the race ground covered with must perish. Demetrius, when shewpeople-once he attended the meet-ing the importance of the scriptures, ing of the Naval and Military Bible Society, in the Concert Room of the Haymarket Theatre;—and once, as he was passing through one of the parks in the evening, he was rudely accosted by an unhappy woman, to whom he spoke seriously, which brought her to tears; to whom he gave a trifle to sup-nevolus, when the subject of mendicity port her that night; and promised, on her coming to his house the following day, to put her into a way by which she might virtuously procure a maintenance. Calumnia happened to be present. Away she hastened to the house of a receiver of scandal, and after some grave looks and deep sighs, and much apparent reluctance to communicate any thing injurious to the reputation of any one, for, GOOD CREATURE! she hated to speak evil of any body, and especially of Philander, she at length disburdened her mind by saying, "What I am Penelope, one morning about to go going to communicate will, I suppose, a journey, called upon a friend of almost stagger your faith. I wish that Calumnia, who was exceedingly pressI could not believe it, but I am sorrying for her to take a glass of noyeau. to say, I had it from an authority I Penelope refused, saying she was not cannot question,-from no other than accustomed to take any thing of the himself. I have just left Philander at kind in the morning. But, my dear, the house of Mr. where, not- said Calumnia's friend, you have a withstanding the religious profession great way to go, and I am sure it will he makes, he has openly avowed that do you good; now do suffer me to he is in the regular habit of attending | pour you out a little. Penelope relucthe Haymarket Theatre, and of going tantly consented. She drank her noyto Epsom Races, and that he frequently eau, and departed. She had not been walks with bad women, and actually long gone before Calumnia and her has one in keeping. But all this, my friend met, when the friend of Calumdear friend, I confide to you under nia whispered, that she feared Penelope the seal of secrecy." Whereas the was a lover of the bottle, for that she truth is, Philander never attends either had been with her that morning, and plays or horse-races, but is decidedly had asked her for a glass of noyeau. hostile to both; and as for unhappy Calumnia secretly propagates the rewomen, he pities and prays for them, port, aud the modest and amiable and could he redeem them from pros- Penelope, where she is not intimately titution and misery, he would. known, is secretly suspected of drunkenness.

But Calumnia does not only injure the reputation of her neighbours, by

The talents of Calumnia are exceed

Any one who should discover an effectual specific for the extermination of so dreadful an evil, would rank among the first benefactors of mankind, and stand entitled to a parliamentary reward, as much greater than that bestowed upon Dr. Jenner, for the discovery of vaccination, as the extermination of a moral is more important to the interests of society than that of a bodily disease. Moral remedies have long been tried, but in ten thousand cases in vain. I therefore beg leave to suggest two plans to the consideration of the public, and especially to the consideration of parliament, which, if generally adopted, might do much towards curing the evil; and should the evil, though not entirely cured, be considerably diminished or ameliorated, I hope that parliament, in its wisdom, will not fail to give Abednego a niche by the side of Dr. Jenner, and confer on him a grant of, at least ten thousand a year, to be transmitted to his posterity to the fourth generation.

ingly versatile. She can even quote | families annihilated, and the social exactly the same words, and in the circle dissolved. Her breath is poivery order in which they were spoken, son, in which nothing can vegetate but and produce an effect directly op- suspicion, and jealousy, and maligposite to that which was produced nity, and envy, and malice, and all unby their original delivery. This she charitableness. does at one time, by stating that to have been seriously spoken, which was spoken ironically; and at another, by quoting as ironical that which was serious. Sometimes by ascribing erroneous opinions to a man for offering arguments in their defence, when it was impossible but she should know that he held no such opinions, but that his arguments were intended to humble some conceited Tyro, who poured contempt upon all who held opinions contrary to his own. Polemicus, one day hearing Tyro very dogmatically decide on a theological question, which has divided the learned and pious in every age, took the opposite side, and puzzled and silenced him. Calumnia was present, and soon it was reported that Polemicus had departed from the faith, and had become the zealous defender and propagator of error. At other times she quotes correctly, but by an emphasis upon a particular word, or by a particular intonation of the voice, or a wink of the eye, or a nod, or a shake of the head, she entirely changes the mean- I propose, first, that all incorrigible ing of the sentence, and the unsus- Defamers be immediately separated pecting speaker is made the author of from the other parts of society, and sentiments alike abhorrent to his feel-placed in remote situations, where ings and his principles. She also deals much in hints, in inuendos, and in broken sentences, such as- Well! I could say something, but I forbear: Who would have thought it!-But one should not expect perfection:-I am very sorry, but I don't like to speak evil of any one.' Thus the work of defamation is carried on, and thus she tarnishes the reputation of persons of the highest intrinsic excellence.

they shall not have any opportunity of seeing or hearing any thing of their neighbours, and where their neighbours shall hear nothing of them. The situations I would recommend are the tops of high hills, on which mud huts might be built. Snowden, and the Wrekin, and Malvern, and Cheviot, and the Grampian, would form admirable establishments! And, to prevent all verbal intercourse, I further proThe mischiefs arising from defama- pose, that their provisions shall be retion are incalculable. It has been the gularly sent to them in a cart, driven precursor of every religious persecu- by a man both deaf and dumb. By tion. Good men have never been per- this means, defamation will be resecuted as good men, but have first moved from the abodes of the peacebeen vilified as bad, and then perse-ful, and be concentrated on these difcuted; they have been clothed in the ferent elevations, where skins of wild beasts, and then hunted to death. By defamation, the infernal traffic in human flesh, the Slave Trade, was, by the advocates of that trade, for a series of years, defended. By defamation the peace of individuals has been destroyed, the harmony of

"Tumult, and Confusion, all embroil'd,
And Discord, with a thousand different mouths,'

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shall furnish some portion of their punishment.

For such Defamers as are not yet considered incorrigible, I propose, secondly, that all persons detected in ca

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