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lumny, shall, for the first offence, be | fined five shillings; for the second, ten shillings; for the third, one pound; for the fourth, ten pounds, and be compelled to go to church or chapel four successive Sundays, crowned with a paper cap, covered with painted figures of tongues, with dark spots at their end, to indicate the poisoned state of that member; for the fifth, fifty pounds, and to wear by way of ornament a large brass ring in the nose; and for the sixth offence, to be proclaimed incorrigible, and marched off to their cousins on the mountains.

But should both these plans be rejected, I have yet another to propose, with which I shall conclude this Essay. It is contained in an epistle addressed to Calumnia by Zechariah *****.

Neighbour Calumnia,

I call thee neighbour, because to call thee friend would be a perversion and a prostitution of that sacred word. Thou art morally incapable of friendship, for thou art a compound of envy, and deceit, and malice. Devoid of excellence thy self, thou canst not bear excellence in others, and therefore thou maliciously endeavourest, by vile misrepresentation, to reduce others to thy own inglorious level. The aliment on which thou feedest, are the tears, and sighs, and groans, of those victims who are daily immolated on thine altar.

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THE WISDOM OF GOD IN THE FORMA-
TION OF MAN.

[Concluded from col. 18.]

Having formed such a being, we should begin to wish that we had provided for its continuance; for we shall perceive that its operations are attended with a waste of its component parts. How then shall we provide for its continuance ?

Shall we make it attract particles of the same nature with itself, as minerals are supposed to increase?

This could not be done, unless the body were one mass of the same nature throughout: and such a body would be totally unfit for motion or sensation.

Shall we let it suck its nourishment by tubes fixed into the earth, as vegetables do? Such a structure will not To attempt to mend thee would, I allow the animal to seek pleasure and fear, be fruitless, for thou seemest to avoid pain; and it would be the hardened in thy sin, and therefore in-height of cruelty to place a sensible corrigible. What renders thy case being in such a situation. He would more hopeless is, that thou art a pro- be in the same unhappy state as poor fessor of Christianity, which teaches Polydorus, whose sufferings we have thee to love thy neighbour as thyself. all of us shuddered at. But between thy practice, and the doctrines, and precepts, and example, of Him whom thou pretendest to serve, there is not one point of resemblance; and yet thou thinkest thyself a Christian. Alas! thou art no more a Christian than the accuser of the brethren is a Christian. Neighbour Calumnia, let me deal faithfully with thee. Thou art an offence to thy Creator, the curse of thy species, the sport of devils, the execration of the church, and the scum and scorn of the world.

We must have something different from these. We will place a bag (which we will form chiefly of cellular substance, with some muscular fibres and some nerves) in the inside of the body, which shall have the power of reducing various substances sent into it, into a fluid of the same nature, which shall be fit, with some little further preparation, for the support of the body. We will call this bag, the stomach.

We will provide this bag with some tubular appendages of the same mate

testines. From these intestines numberless little vessels shall arise, which shall suck up the nourishing fluid: but where shall they carry it?

I have so little hope of thy amend-rials with itself, which we will call inment, that I do not waste exhortation upon thee, but conclude by informing thee, that it is in my contemplation to propose to friend Vansittart a tax on Calumny, which, so long as thou livest,

Why, we will have near the middle

ingly versatile. She can even quote | families annihilated, and the social exactly the same words, and in the circle dissolved. Her breath is poivery order in which they were spoken, son, in which nothing can vegetate but and produce an effect directly op- suspicion, and jealousy, and maligposite to that which was produced nity, and envy, and malice, and all unby their original delivery. This she charitableness. does at one time, by stating that to Any one who should discover an have been seriously spoken, which was effectual specific for the exterminaspoken ironically; and at another, by tion of so dreadful an evil, would rank quoting as ironical that which was se- among the first benefactors of manrious. Sometimes by ascribing erro- kind, and stand entitled to a parlianeous opinions to a man for offering mentary reward, as much greater than arguments in their defence, when it that bestowed upon Dr. Jenner, for was impossible but she should know the discovery of vaccination, as the that he held no such opinions, but extermination of a moral is more imthat his arguments were intended to portant to the interests of society humble some conceited Tyro, who than that of a bodily disease. Moral poured contempt upon all who held remedies have long been tried, but in opinions contrary to his own. Pole- ten thousand cases in vain. I theremicus, one day hearing Tyro very dog-fore beg leave to suggest two plans to matically decide on a theological ques- the consideration of the public, and tion, which has divided the learned especially to the consideration of parand pious in every age, took the oppo- liament, which, if generally adopted, site side, and puzzled and silenced might do much towards curing the him. Calumnia was present, and soon evil; and should the evil, though not it was reported that Polemicus had entirely cured, be considerably dimideparted from the faith, and had be-nished or ameliorated, I hope that parcome the zealous defender and propagator of error. At other times she quotes correctly, but by an emphasis upon a particular word, or by a particular intonation of the voice, or a wink of the eye, or a nod, or a shake of the head, she entirely changes the meaning of the sentence, and the unsuspecting speaker is made the author of sentiments alike abhorrent to his feelings and his principles. She also deals much in hints, in inuendos, and in broken sentences, such as- Well! I could say something, but I forbear :Who would have thought it!-But one should not expect perfection:-I am very sorry, but I don't like to speak evil of any one.' Thus the work of defamation is carried on, and thus she tarnishes the reputation of persons of the highest intrinsic excellence.

:

The mischiefs arising from defamation are incalculable. It has been the precursor of every religious persecution. Good men have never been persecuted as good men, but have first been vilified as bad, and then persecuted; they have been clothed in the skins of wild beasts, and then hunted to death. By defamation, the infernal traffic in human flesh, the Slave Trade, was, by the advocates of that trade, for a series of years, defended. By defamation the peace of individuals has been destroyed, the harmony of

liament, in its wisdom, will not fail to give Abednego a niche by the side of Dr. Jenner, and confer on him a grant of, at least ten thousand a year, to be transmitted to his posterity to the fourth generation.

I propose, first, that all incorrigible Defamers be immediately separated from the other parts of society, and placed in remote situations, where they shall not have any opportunity of seeing or hearing any thing of their neighbours, and where their neighbours shall hear nothing of them. The situations I would recommend are the tops of high hills, on which mud huts might be built. Snowden, and the Wrekin, and Malvern, and Cheviot, and the Grampian, would form admirable establishments! And, to prevent all verbal intercourse, I further propose, that their provisions shall be regularly sent to them in a cart, driven by a man both deaf and dumb. By this means, defamation will be removed from the abodes of the peaceful, and be concentrated on these different elevations, where

"Tumult, and Confusion, all embroil'd,

And Discord, with a thousand different mouths,"

shall furnish some portion of their punishment.

For such Defamers as are not yet considered incorrigible, I propose, secondly, that all persons detected in ca

lumny, shall, for the first offence, be | fined five shillings; for the second, ten shillings; for the third, one pound; for the fourth, ten pounds, and be compelled to go to church or chapel four successive Sundays, crowned with a paper cap, covered with painted figures of tongues, with dark spots at their end, to indicate the poisoned state of that member; for the fifth, fifty pounds, and to wear by way of ornament a large brass ring in the nose; and for the sixth offence, to be proclaimed incorrigible, and marched off to their cousins on the mountains.

But should both these plans be rejected, I have yet another to propose, with which I shall conclude this Essay. It is contained in an epistle addressed to Calumnia by Zechariah *****

Neighbour Calumnia,

I call thee neighbour, because to call thee friend would be a perversion and a prostitution of that sacred word. Thou art morally incapable of friendship, for thou art a compound of envy, and deceit, and malice. Devoid of excellence thyself, thou canst not bear excellence in others, and therefore thou maliciously endeavourest, by vile misrepresentation, to reduce others to thy own inglorious level. The aliment on which thou feedest, are the tears, and sighs, and groans, of those victims who are daily immolated on thine altar.

To attempt to mend thee would, I fear, be fruitless, for thou seemest hardened in thy sin, and therefore incorrigible. What renders thy case more hopeless is, that thou art a professor of Christianity, which teaches thee to love thy neighbour as thyself. But between thy practice, and the doctrines, and precepts, and example, of Him whom thou pretendest to serve, there is not one point of resemblance; and yet thou thinkest thyself a Christian. Alas! thou art no more a Christian than the accuser of the brethren is a Christian. Neighbour Calumnia, let me deal faithfully with thee. Thou art an offence to thy Creator, the curse of thy species, the sport of devils, the execration of the church, and the scum and scorn of the world.

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THE WISDOM OF GOD IN THE FORMA-
TION OF MAN.

[Concluded from col. 18.]

Having formed such a being, we should begin to wish that we had provided for its continuance; for we shall perceive that its operations are attended with a waste of its component parts. How then shall we provide for its continuance?

Shall we make it attract particles of the same nature with itself, as minerals are supposed to increase?

This could not be done, unless the body were one mass of the same nature throughout: and such a body would be totally unfit for motion or sensation.

Shall we let it suck its nourishment by tubes fixed into the earth, as vegetables do? Such a structure will not allow the animal to seek pleasure and to avoid pain; and it would be the height of cruelty to place a sensible being in such a situation. He would be in the same unhappy state as poor Polydorus, whose sufferings we have all of us shuddered at.

We must have something different from these. We will place a bag (which we will form chiefly of cellular substance, with some muscular fibres and some nerves) in the inside of the body, which shall have the power of reducing various substances sent into it, into a fluid of the same nature, which shall be fit, with some little further preparation, for the support of the body. We will call this bag, the stomach.

We will provide this bag with some tubular appendages of the same mate

testines. From these intestines numberless little vessels shall arise, which shall suck up the nourishing fluid: but where shall they carry it?

I have so little hope of thy amend-rials with itself, which we will call inment, that I do not waste exhortation upon thee, but conclude by informing thee, that it is in my contemplation to propose to friend Vansittart a tax on Calumny, which, so long as thou livest,

Why, we will have near the middle

of the body a roundish hollow muscle: we will call it the heart. It shall have pipes passing from it, which shall divide into smaller ones, and go to every part of the body. The little vessels rising from the intestines, which we will call lacteals, shall bring the nutritive matter, and pour it into the heart. The heart shall contract, and send it through the pipes, to every part of the body. But before this can take place, some previous process is required. The blood received from the stomach must first pass through the lungs, for purposes which will be soon explained. But let us go on as we were going, and our ideas will speedily become cor

rect.

Some of the matter sent by the heart through the pipes, shall remain in every part of the body, and take on itself the nature and disposition of the part to which it is applied.

But as we have not used the whole of what came from the heart, we must provide means of returning; it and this we will do by another set of pipes which we will call veins, and which shall arise from every part of the body, shall unite into one or two large ones, and carry back the blood to the heart. Now, parts of our body are constantly becoming effete and useless where they are, but if we can carry them into our circulating fluid, and modify them a little, they will perhaps again serve some purpose; and moreover, we will have an apparatus for carrying such as are absolutely useless out of the circulation, and out of the body altogether.

To bring these parts into the circulation, we must have another set of vessels distinct from the veins, which we will call absorbents. They shall take up particles of the body, and carry them towards the heart. They shall be of the same nature with the lacteal vessels, which rise from the intestines, and indeed shall be joined with them, as they go towards the heart.

We have then but one set of vessels going from the heart, the arteries, and two going towards it, the veins, and the absorbents, among which latter the lacteals are reckoned. But we need not have separate entrances in the heart for the veins and absorbents; the absorbents shall pour their liquid into a vein near the heart.

We have now then brought our blood to the heart from every part of

a

the body, where it has received fresh supply from the stomach; but the old blood is altered in some of its properties, and is utterly unfit for the purposes of life, until it has undergone the action of the air.

How shall we contrive this,-we find that our single heart is insufficient. We must have as it were two hearts:-one shall receive the blood in the state just mentioned, and send it into an apparatus where the air may effect the necessary change in it-the lungs. The other heart shall receive the prepared blood from the lungs, and send it for the purpose of nourishment to every part of the body.

The first heart, we have said, shall receive the blood from every part of the body with the fluid of the absorbents, and send it into an apparatus for giving it air. This apparatus shall be called the lungs. They shall be bellows, and shall be formed of a number of vesicles, membranous bladders, which shall admit the air, and on which the blood-vessels shall be spread, so that the air shall come in contact, or nearly so, with the sides of the vessels; which will be found sufficient to produce the necessary change in it.

When this change has been effected, veins shall receive the now perfect blood from all the small arteries of the lungs, and carry it to the second heart, which contracting, shall send it anew to every part of the body.

This is the

This is one circulation. discovery of the immortal Harvey: after philosophers for many ages had been contented with absurd theories of the motion of the blood, supposing it like the flux and reflux of the tide, and so forth. Though we have formed two hearts to simplify the circulation, yet we will join them together, as their motions may go on at the same time: we will call the whole, the heart of the animal; and the two hearts, the two sides of the heart.

Let us impress it on our memories, that one side of the heart receives the prepared blood from the lungs, and sends it to nourish the body; and the other side receives the blood from all parts of the body, and sends it to the lungs to be again prepared.

Such are the general and easy notions which a person who would gain a knowledge of Physiology and Anatomy should first fix in his mind.

A frame of bone, to give figure,

strength, and points of attachment, and action for the moving powers, hollow, and full of oil, where such a structure is admissible; its parts moveable by means of joints, which are two ends of bone tipped by cartilage, joined by ligament, and besmeared with synovia, which synovia is secreted, and prevented from escaping by a membranous bag fixed around the ends of the bones. To move these bones, ropes called tendons are attached to them; and to these ropes muscular fibres are fixed, which shortening themselves, draw the most moveable towards the least moveable piece of the frame; the muscular fibres subservient to the will by means of nerves passing from the brain to them.

To unite the muscular fibres to each other, cellular substance is made use of, of which also membranes, blood-vessels, great part of the stomach and intestines, and of almost every soft part of the body, is formed.

The muscles are not very sensible. But the body is surrounded by a very sensible membrane, the skin; exceedingly full of nerves, sent from it to the brain; which give notice to the mind, when any thing destructive to the body approaches.

Fat also is placed by way of cushion, where motion is great; and is used to fill up interstices, and make the surface of the body smooth and beautiful.

The support of the body is effected by a bag, the stomach, forming several sorts of food into a nutritious fluid. This fluid is taken up by absorbing vessels, opening into the appendages of the stomach, the intestines. These absorbents meet those coming from every other part of the body, and all joining together, pour their fluid into the blood, as it is returning to the heart.

The heart sends it through arteries to the lungs, where it is submitted to the action of the air. Veins return it from the lungs to the other side of the heart, which sends it through arteries to every part of the body: from every part of the body veins receive it, and carry it back towards the heart, being joined in their way by the supply from the intestinal absorbents, together with the fluid of the other absorbents of the body. The heart sends it again to the lungs, to be again perfected.

Agricultural Observations.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
MAGAZINE.

SIR,-The two following queries, with
their answers, may probably be ac-
ceptable and useful to some of your
Agricultural readers.

Why is Spade Husbandry preferable to the Plough?-Reply. By the tread of the horses, and the iron share of the plough, a hard bottom is formed, which holds water, and the seed covered thereby rots. The hard track made by the bottom of the ploughshare, impedes the growth of the seed, which cannot strike freely into the earth; and it is the law of nature, that if the root cannot spread, the vegetable power cannot rise in any good proportion. When the spade is used, the ground is open; and the overplus water sinks beneath the roots, which retain sufficient moisture for the use of vegetation, and the roots can, in the loose earth, expand in all directions, and thus grow to perfection.

Why is Drill Sowing preferable to the Broadcast?-Reply. By the Drill all the seed is regularly covered with a proper quantity of soil, and is kept in a proper state of preservation for growth. By the Broadcast, a part lies at the top, and is taken up by the birds, or otherwise destroyed; another part is but thinly covered, and is thrown out by the frost, and lost or washed bare by the rains; another part is trodden low by the feet of the horses when harrowing, and cannot rise; so that from these causes a considerable part is actually lost.

Agricultural Hint.-It is now well known, that plants not only draw through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air, but the leaves also perform the necessary work of altering the water received in at the roots, into the nature and juices of the plant; and hence it is, that the life of the plants depends so immediately on their leaves. The husbandman often suffers for want of this knowledge. A crop of saintfoin is a very valuable thing, and its root being perennial, will yield him increase many years; but it is often destroyed, at first, by suffering it to be indiscreetly fed upon by the sheep, which eating up all the leaves, the roots remain without the means of a supply of air, and the whole plant

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