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could ever boast, as a new inhabitant into an old house, rotten and corrupted in its very interior, and bearing every mark of dissolution and decay!

Supposing you heard Moses giving such a description of the creation as this; I say, suppose you heard him representing such a glorious fabric reared in such a pitiful manner; and a still more glorious Operator, as engaged for such a space of time in such a trifling and unmeaning employment; Could you defend it upon the principle of reason, or say that it resembled the other works of God? Could you say that the vegetable creation was applied to better purpose, in flourishing for countless ages, for the formation of a stratum of the earth, than for the support of living animals? Or, that the animal creation was better employed in the formation of a few fossil remains, than in being subservient to the uses of man? To aver so, would be to make what we now call wisdom folly, and folly wisdom. But things must not be so turned upside down.

"The

in the Inspector, No. 109. principal flower in this bouquet, was a carnation; the fragrance of this led me to enjoy it frequently and nearly: the sense of smelling was not the only one affected on these occasions; while that was satiated with the powerful sweet, the ear was constantly attacked by an extremely soft but agreeable murmuring sound. It was easy to know that some animal, within the covert, must be the musician, aud that the little noise must come from some little body suited to produce it. I instantly distended the lower part of the flower, and, placing it in a full light, could discover troops of little insects frisking and capering with wild jollity among the narrow pedestals that supported its leaves, and the little threads that occupied its centre! I was not cruel enough to pull out any one of them for examination: but adapting a microscope to take in, at one view, the whole base of the flower, I gave myself an opportunity of contemplating what they were about, and this The phenomena of Nature, I pre- for many days together, without givsume, are susceptible of a far more ra- ing them the least disturbance. Thus tional explanation. And if you, Sir, could I discover their economy, their as a friend to the interests of Revela- passions, and their enjoyments. The tion, feel disposed to give regular pub-microscope, on this occasion, had given licity, in your Miscellany, to the MS. I have prepared; I will engage to demonstrate the subject, not only in a different manner from what has ever been done, but in some measure, at least, in which it ought to be demonstrated. In the event of your so doing, this paper will serve as an introduction to what shall follow.

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what nature seemed to have denied to the objects of contemplation. The base of the flower extended itself under its influence to a vast plain; the slender stems of the leaves became trunks of so many stately cedars; the threads in the middle seemed columns of massy structure, supporting at the top their several ornaments; and the narrow spaces between were enlarged into walks, parterres, and terraces. On the polished bottom of these, brighter than Parian marble, walked in pairs, alone, or in larger companies, the winged inhabitants: these from little dusky flies, (for such only the naked eye would have shown them,) were raised to glorious glittering animals, stained with living purple, and with a glossy gold that would have made all the labours of the loom contemptible in the comparison. I could, at leisure, as they walked together, admire their elegant limbs, their velvet shoulders, and their silken wings; their backs vieing with the empyrean in its blue; and their eyes, each formed of a thousand others, out-glittering the little planes on a brilliant ; above description, and too great almost for

darkness and light, than the preposterous conclusions they sometimes maintain, with the superlatively beautiful and rational account of Moses. And in vain, I fear, does he indulge the hope, that such a union, and such flimsy arguments as can be drawn from it, will ever convince of his error, an unbeliever in the divine record. It perhaps would be otherwise, however, if we would put theory altogether out of the question, and have regard to the facts of Nature and Revelation simply as they stand. Who knows but this might effect what is in vain sought for by the other method? It will not be by telling the infidel, that the earth arose originally "out of water;" and that not only the meek man Moses affirms so, but that it is affirmed by the great philosopher Werner, the founder of a new theory, and the inventor of a set of laws which determine with precision the relative dates of the respective strata; and whose system has gained thousands of proselytes. In vain you lead him to the six days' work of creation, according to Moses, and shew him that vegetables were created on the third day,-marine animals or fishes on the fifth,-land animals on the sixth,-and lastly, man; and then open to him the bowels of the earth, and bid him take a peep of what is to be seen there. In vain you try to demonstrate that, as vegetables were the first created of organized beings, so they hold the first place above the primitive rocks. That as fishes and marine animals were next produced, so they come next in order in the strata of the earth. That as land animals were formed after the fishes, so they are found exterior to them in the earth's crust. And that as man was last produced, and like one born out of due time, so his situation in the crust of the earth is the very newest alluvial soil. In vain, I say, do you avail yourself of such trifling and paltry coincidences. A thinking mind discerns neither sense nor reason in them. It sees them to be all founded in impossibilities and errors; and to be such a gross kind of mixture, that its union resembles the clay and the

iron in Nebuchadnezzar's vision.

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mation of the terrene strata; when Moses assures us, on the highest authority, that both were created within a day of each other? If such was the case, where was the time for the distinct formation of the respective strata, unless you adopt the theory of Mr. Macnab, and give an unlimited extension to the six days of Moses, and call them alves, or ages, or periods of unmeasurable duration? But even here, what reason could be traced in such a scheme?

Suppose you heard Moses declaring, in the precise language of modern Geologists, That ages, and millions of ages, rolled on, while the earth was bringing forth her luxuriant crops, for no other purpose than to form a carbonaceous stratum. Suppose you heard him maintaining, with Werner and Hutton, that there were myriads of ages, during which the terrene mass underwent various fusions, overflowings, and recessions, sometimes by fire, and sometimes by water, in order to form the primitive and other rocks: or, with Cuvier and Macnab, that there were myriads of revolutions of the seasons, in which the earth spontaneously poured forth her luxuriant productions; "the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after their kind;" vast forests springing up, flourishing, and fading, and repeating the same over and over; and all this before any creatures, ages before, millions of ages before, any creatures were formed to reap the benefit of these productions: yea, that the more noble part of animated nature could not be formed, till the vegetable had existed so long as to compose this so much boasted carbonaceous stratum. And then, afterwards, when in the progress of time this came to be deposited by the slow decomposition of vegetables, animals were formed, but of species which have now become extinct: and, that in order likewise to form a stratum of the remains of these, the same process must go on with the animals that went on with the vegetables, to countless ages. And, to complete the whole, after having got the globe thus richly furnished with marine and vegetable petrifactions, sea shells, and bones of animals, like the grotto of a virtuoso, with a first, second, third, fourth, and fifth layer, to form a firm basis for the soles of his feet, he introduces man; man, the

What, for instance, can be more devoid of sense, than to quote the Mosaic order of the creation of fishes before land animals, as an evidence that it corresponds with the order of the for-principal creature of which this world

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could ever boast, as a new inhabitant into an old house, rotten and corrupted in its very interior, and bearing every mark of dissolution and decay!

Supposing you heard Moses giving such a description of the creation as this; I say, suppose you heard him representing such a glorious fabric reared in such a pitiful manner; and a still more glorious Operator, as engaged for such a space of time in such a trifling and unmeaning employment; Could you defend it upon the principle of reason, or say that it resembled the other works of God? Could you say that the vegetable creation was applied to better purpose, in flourishing for countless ages, for the formation of a stratum of the earth, than for the support of living animals? Or, that the animal creation was better employed in the formation of a few fossil remains, than in being subservient to the uses of man? To aver so, would be to make what we now call wisdom folly, and folly wisdom. But things must not be so turned upside down.

"The

in the Inspector, No. 109. principal flower in this bouquet, was a carnation; the fragrance of this led me to enjoy it frequently and nearly: the sense of smelling was not the only one affected on these occasions; while that was satiated with the powerful sweet, the ear was constantly attacked by an extremely soft but agreeable murmuring sound. It was easy to know that some animal, within the covert, must be the musician, aud that the little noise must come from some little body suited to produce it. I instantly distended the lower part of the flower, and, placing it in a full light, could discover troops of little insects frisking and capering with wild jollity among the narrow pedestals that supported its leaves, and the little threads that occupied its centre! I was not cruel enough to pull out any one of them for examination: but adapting a microscope to take in, at one view, the whole base of the flower, I gave myself an opportunity of contemplating what they were about, and this The phenomena of Nature, I pre- for many days together, without givsume, are susceptible of a far more ra- ing them the least disturbance. Thus tional explanation. And if you, Sir, could I discover their economy, their as a friend to the interests of Revela- passions, and their enjoyments. The tion, feel disposed to give regular pub-microscope, on this occasion, had given licity, in your Miscellany, to the MS. I what nature seemed to have denied to have prepared; I will engage to de- the objects of contemplation. The monstrate the subject, not only in a base of the flower extended itself different manner from what has ever under its influence to a vast plain; been done, but in some measure, at the slender stems of the leaves became least, in which it ought to be demon- trunks of so many stately cedars; the strated. In the event of your so doing, threads in the middle seemed columns this paper will serve as an introduc- of massy structure, supporting at the tion to what shall follow. top their several ornaments; and the narrow spaces between were enlarged into walks, parterres, and terraces. On the polished bottom of these, brighter than Parian marble, walked in pairs, alone, or in larger companies, the winged inhabitants: these from little dusky flies, (for such only the naked eye would have shown them,) were raised to glorious glittering animals, stained with living purple, and with a glossy gold that would have made all the labours of the loom contemptible in the comparison. I could, at leisure, as they walked together, admire their elegant limbs, their velvet shoulders, and their silken wings; their backs vieing with the empyrean in its blue; and their eyes, each formed of a thousand others, out-glittering the little planes on a brilliant ; above description, and too great almost for

Wishing you all success in your laborious and important undertaking, I subscribe myself an

ADVOCATE OF TRUTH. Edinburgh, 3, Elder-street, 23d Nov. 1819.

CURIOUS

FACT OF NATURAL
HISTORY.

THE examination of flowers by the mi-
croscope opens a new field of wonder
to the inquiring naturalist; by which
we are enabled to perceive, that the
minutest works of Nature are adorned
with the most consummate elegance
and beauty. As one proof, from innu-
merable others that might be selected,
I beg to subjoin Sir John Hill's inte-
resting account of what appeared on
examining a carnation; first published

admiration. Here were the perfumed
groves, the more than myrtle shades, of
the poet's fancy, realized; here the
little animals spent their days in joy-
ful dalliance; or, in the triumph of
their little hearts, skipped after one
another from stem to stem among the
painted trees; or winged their short
flight to the close shadow of some
broader leaf, to revel undisturbed
the heights of all felicity."

ASTROP.

STRICTURES ON W. P. B.'S REVIEW OF
MR. SUTCLIFFE'S GRAMMAR.

[Concluded from col. 58.]
Page 125, Him, miswritten for he,
occasioned this page to be cancelled,
with sixteen other pages. Mr. B.
quotes my retraction of "who, for
whom say men that I am;" and it is
very strange he should not acknow-
ledge this circumstance! The quotation
proves, that he could not be ignorant
of each page so cancelled.

Page 128. “After a verb infinitive, a noun or pronoun is often understood: as, he cheats' in trade. Here Mr. B. observes, that there is no infinitive.'"-True; because he has passed it over.

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other day.' Ex. 2.
seven weeks; that is, for seven weeks.'
What is this but an avowal that as
active verbs have an immediate regi-
men of the accusative case, so the
neuter verbs govern that case by a
preposition?

Page 129. "Participles govern the accusative case; as, sold to slavery; in-relieving the distressed." Mr. B. here stiffly contends that slavery is governed by the preposition to, &c. That point is not disputed, though sometimes overlooked by the best writers. The late Rev. John Shaw, A. M. head master of the Grammar School at Rochdale, published a copious English Grammar, which the Rev. Mr. Simpson of Macclesfield, used to say was the best in the English language. On illustrating this rule, he selects three examples with a preposition, and one without: I here exactly imitated his four examples. And, as these examples run through all the three improved editions of his work, published during his life, it is believed that he would vindicate his three first examples, on the ground, that the servitude of a slave sold to a new master is not governed by the serThe example is, "Avant who conducts him, and who is father governs his family with indulgence, and his children delight to obey [him." The second example, which should have stood distinct, farther illustrates the rule, that active verbs govern an accusative case, by the neuter verb" he cheats." Because, according to Gebelin, [La forme active sert pour les verbes actifs, neutres, et réfléchis. Docet, il enseigne; rubescit, il rougit; &c.]" the active form serves Page 141. "Adverbs, &c."-" He for verbs active, neuter, and reflec- conducted himself agreeably to his intive; as docet, he teaches; rubescit, he structions, &c." Here, the adverb blushes." Now, it is presumed, with agreeably' governs the whole phrase deference to the contrary opinion, that 'his instructions.' Mr. B. asks, how every neuter verb is limited; and concan it be said, that a whole phrase is sequently defective in its affirmation. in the accusative case? But Mr. B. When we say, "he blushes; he weeps,' fails to say, that this rule is illustrated we leave the cause unexpressed, and from the best authorities, viz. Harris's that cause forms the real accusative to Hermes, the French Encyclopædia, the verb; as, "he blushes, for his cr- &c. It is granted, that adverbs of rors ;" "he weeps for his sins;" cheats in trade."-In support of this and they may be suppressed without he fluctuating position have no regimen, opinion, I cite the Rev. Mr. Fleming, disturbing the sense. But here, the whose little grammar, forty years ago, adverb can neither be suppressed nor had a place in most of our schools. transposed: we cannot say, "He conHis words are, "If neuter verbs seem to instructions." to govern the accusative case, some Why then should youthful rashness preposition is understood; as, 'It hap-venture to attack those venerable and pened the other day; that is, on the learned grammarians?

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also a slave; but that poor Mungo would assuredly regard his slavery as governed by the participle sold. Hence, the preposition can have no more than a subordinate regimen ; and Mr. Shaw would not thank Mr. B. for charging him so pertly, with the violation of a rule he had been teaching all his life, "that prepositions govern the accusative case.

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ducted himself

Mr. Harris's

idea, that agreeably governs the dependent word, is obviously correct.

6

Page 146, 147. "We cannot accord with Mr. S. in the opinion here laid down respecting negatives, ais-ne, say you not, or do you say? Je ne sais pas, I do not know.' In neither of these does do stand in the place of a negative."-Reply. Mr. B. meant to say, "in place of the negative ne." He says above, that Mr. S. has judiciously illustrated the auxiliary verbs; here he hints that Mr. S. does not understand them! Certainly, do is a substitute for ne, and a happy one too; for by it we can close the above phrases, by the mellifluous verbs say and know. It was therefore the felicity of these substitutes do, any, &c. which induced our fathers in the reign of Elizabeth to suppress the double negation. The French, having no such substitutes, retain the ancient form. Their aucun, and n'aucun, cannot happily occupy the position of our any and not any.

Mr. B. errs in representing Mr. S. as wishful to revive and restore the double negative; whereas no more is intended than to say, by way of comment, as the Westminster Greek grammar, [Duæ negativæ apud Græcos plerumque vehementiùs negant] that two negatives deny with greater force.

Mr. B. adds, “ Though a, few rare examples of a double negative may be found in old Latin authors, they are not to be regarded as standards of grammatical accuracy." This remark is quite new, and a very juvenile one indeed. Where is the Latin author without them? only in that language, the double negation is not divided by other words, as in the Greek, the Anglo-Saxon, and the French. Is Cicero no standard author? He says, Nescis non in pace, nec in bello vivere. And, Nihil ne tibi mentem, &c. And, Nunquam nè es reversurus? And, Ne non esset bonum. Is Virgil no standard author? He says,

If ne be not a negative, how would he translate Ut vide ne mentiaris? and, Ne irascamini in via?—Gen. xlv. 24. Here I claim some right from my years, to instruct this young man in etymology, and from learned authority. Gebelin says, [Ni s' est formé de la negation ne, &c.] "The Latin conjunction ni is formed of the negation ne, derived from the nasal n, which is pronounced by forcibly repelling the air from the nostrils. N was therefore of all sounds the most proper, to paint the negation. Hence, ne and non of the Latins, common to our modern languages, are formed in the same way."-Gram. Univ. p. 334. Ne is consequently not only a negative in the example referred to, but in every example without exception.

Page 148. "He loves us, &c." Mr. B. justly remarks here, "that there is no preposition." The fact is, that in the illustration of the 11th rule there are but two examples, and none with accusative pronouns. Therefore these two belong to that rule, and were interpolated in the wrong place. But the moral wrong is greater than the grammatical mistake. Mr. B. was informed, six months prior to the dates of his review, that the page was cancelled, and that the rule now stood at the head of the 148th page. Where now is his doing to another as he would that men should do to him? A minister often from home, and who consequently studies under every disadvantage, ought not to have his faults exposed with injustice.

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Page 150. Mr. B. condemns the calling the verb were a plural verb, and insists on reading, The subjunctive verb." This, it is conceived, would be a mere change of difficulties, as will appear from the etymology of that word. Sub, under; junctus, joined; a circumstance joined to an indicative sentence. Now, it happened during the early part of the last century, that nearly the whole of our writers took no notice of the influence of a conditional conjunction on the verb, but wrote, "If he was in health;" "If he comes to-day."

Necnon Lamyrumque, Lamumque, Et juvenem Serranum, &c. En. lib. ix, v. 334. "Nor even Lamyrus, Lamus, and young Serranus." But Mr. B. still persists to add, that “Ne is not a negative, and requires no Page 174. "Author, for Anacharsis." correspondent word in English." Mr. This being a metonymy in which all B. is quite original and solitary in this writers indulge, Mr. B. could have no remark. It is granted, that ne, sub-right to point it out as a fault. What stituting an idea for the real word, is do we know of Anacharsis but as an often an affirmation; as when we say author? "no harm," meaning "all is well."

Page 175."Study your grammar

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