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rising on the ruins of their conquerors; such a review of things cannot fail of being interesting to the contemplative mind." (Preface.)

These prefatory paragraphs, which exhibit no unfair specimen of the author's style, confirm the observations we had previously made, and shew that he was well aware of the arduous task he had undertaken. In the prosecution of his work, he has had recourse to the researches of other writers: among whom he mentions with much respect, the names of Whitaker, Owen, Maurice, Faber, Roberts, Davies, Turner, and Burgess, from whom he has received assistance; and through whose aid he has been enabled to bring his work to that state of perfection which it has attained.

On the name of our island, the author adverts to the derivations given by Bochart, Gale, Camden, Borlase, and M'Pherson; but without making many remarks on the probabilities which accompany their conjectures, he proceeds as follows:

"It is now proper to bring forward, what appears to me the most probable hypothesis; and here it must be observed, that, according to the genius of the ancient British tongue, the name of our island is not written with a B, as its radical initial, but a P, which is capable of assuming the sound of B, as its soft: the proper name in its radical form is Prydain, or Ynys Prydain. This name, according to our Cambrian lexicographers, Mr. Walters and Mr. Owen, imports comely, or beautiful, from the word pryd, beauty, and the termination ain, which answers, as they teach us, to the word ful, at the end of many English words. Those who are little accustomed to the dryness of etymological criticisms, will perhaps have no aversion to so pleasing an interpretation. No one will disapprove of the patriotic appellation here supposed to be given by our ancestors to their country, which we have still better reason than they had to esteem the finest and happiest island of the globe."-pp. 4. vol. Ï.

In support of this derivation, Mr. Hughes adduces the authority of some ancient documents, which seem to give plausibility to his opinion; and the observations which he makes in favour of his hypothesis, appear in an imposing form.

From what particular source this

island derived its population, is the next subject which falls under his consideration; but on this nothing decisive is advanced. The opinions of the learned are given in concise detail; but uncertainty spreads her mantle over authentic information, and consigns us over to the twilight of probable conjecture.

"The precise period of time when this island received its first inhabitants, it is impossible to ascertain; but from a variety of considerations, we are led to infer, that Britain must have been peopled at an early period, not many centuries after the flood. Its contiguity to the continent of Europe would, of itself, lead to such a conclusion."-pp. 15. vol. I.

According to the accounts preserved in some ancient fragments, he informs us, that three colonies originally came over from the continent, at times not very distant from each other. The first of these were the Cymry, or Cymbrians, who came from the German Ocean. The second were the Lloegrwys, the Leogrians, or Ligurios, who came from the land of Gwasgwyn, and were a race originally sprung from the continental Cymry. The third were the Brython, or Britons, who came from the land of Llydaw (Letavia, Armorica, or Bas Bretagne). These also are stated to have sprung from the primordial race of the Cymry. Prior to the coming of the Cymry, it is asserted, that this island was wholly destitute of human beings, but that the country was full of bears, wolves, otters, and wild oxen or buffaloes.

But whatever obscurities may hang upon the primitive history of these aboriginal tribes, certain it is, that when Cæsar invaded this country, he found it full of inhabitants, divided into various tribes and nations, and chiefly remarkable for that spirit of fierceness which seemed to be diffused throughout the general mass. Nor were they wholly destitute of civil government, nor unacquainted with the arts of war. The forces which they were able to collect, and the formidable resistance which they made to the progress of their invaders, prove, that, though rude and barbarous, they were hardy, resolute, active, and courageous, equally capable of defending their country, and of appreciating its value.

On the probable manner in which the world was peopled after the deluge,

when the tide of human beings began | to roll from the plains of Shinar, Mr. Hughes has made many judicious remarks, independently of that detailed account which he has given of the progress of population. In thus collecting the scattered fragments of history, his industry must have been considerable; and from the close and connected manner in which they are embodied, his success appears to have corresponded with his application.

But although we have no authentic records of the internal manners, customs, religion, and laws, of the ancient Britons, prior to the days of Cæsar, it is well known that this country was peopled many centuries before the Roman invasion; and that the Phoenicians and Greeks traded with the inhabitants of its western shores for ages previous to this event. So early as the days of Homer, the Greeks were acquainted with the use of tin, this metal being particularly mentioned by the venerable poet in his description of the shield of Achilles.

"The famous Tyrian purple, it is supposed, with great reason, owed its unfading lustre to the use of British tin, which is employed as an essential ingredient in the new scarlet dye of our fine cloths: these owe the permanency of their colours to the retentiveness given by the finest grain-tin, dissolved in aquafortis."-pp. 47. vol. I.

At what precise period the intercourse between the natives and foreign nations began, it is now in vain to inquire. There can be little doubt that the Phoenicians visited the Cassiterides, or Scilly islands, and, most probably, the western shores of Cornwall, and traded with the inhabitants for tin, upwards of six hundred years prior to the Christian æra. Some assert that this intercourse had subsisted not less than a thousand years; but this opinion seems to rest on the uncertain evidence of probable conjecture.

Dr. Borlase, whose authority is respectfully given, speaks of this subject in the following manner. "The conquests of the Phoenician Hercules in the western parts of Africa, where he is said to have vanquished Antæus, happened three hundred years before the Argonautic expedition, and this was a whole generation before the Trojan war; so that the Phoenicians, according to Bochart, must have been very conversant in the west of Africa

before Joshua's time. That they went as far west as Tingis, now Tangier, at the straits leading into the Mediterranean sea, about the time of Joshua, appears likely, at least if there were really two pillars with this Phoenician inscription: "We are those who fled from the face of Joshua, the son of Naue."-pp. 44. vol. I.

On this point, and on the customs, manners, genius, and civil polity of the inhabitants, on their acquaintance with the useful arts, their agricultural pursuits, trade, and manufactures, the author's observations are luminous and diversified. The numerous opinions of ancient and modern writers, on these, and on various other subjects connected with them, seem to have been collected with fidelity, and arranged with care; but on such topics original matter is not now to be expected. In all his delineations and historical details, the prominent features of a barbarous age constantly present themselves to our view; and in the perusal of the account, we fancy ourselves transported into a region, inhabited by men, emerging, by their instinctive vigour, from the rudest state, into the refinements of savage life.

[To be concluded in our next.]

Review.-"Memoirs of Adkins Lancaster, who fell asleep in Jesus, April 15th, 1819, aged six years and six months; containing original Letters, written by himself: to which is prefixed, an Address to Parents. By his Father." 24mo. pp. 108. Blanchard, London, 1819.

THERE is something so singular in the biography, and original letters, of a child no more than six years and six months old, that it excites attention, without awakening any sanguine hopes, and warns expectation to prepare for a disappointment, without deluding it with idle promises of gratification.

The impressions under which we began the perusal of this book, were far from being of a favourable nature. We expected to find in its pages the lamentations of a parent, who, through the false optics of natural affection, had discovered excellencies which no other eye had seen; and who was about to call upon the world to sympathize in his personal share of a calamity which has befallen thousands,

who had more prudence than to make their appeal to public feeling. For parental affection and local bereavement, every one will allow that considerable indulgence should be granted. But when all reasonable deductions are made, some important lessons may be gathered from this little volume, in which both parents and children are deeply interested.

The introductory part contains an address to parents, founded on several plain passages of scripture, from which the author urges the necessity of impressing upon the minds of children, in early life, the awful concerns of eternity. It is argued, that children are capable of receiving serious impressions, and of comprehending many of those duties which they owe to God, at a much earlier period than is generally supposed; and that, if parents were earnest and persevering in their endeavours to imbue the infant mind with a knowledge of genuine religion, more instances would appear than we now perceive, of children enjoying the favour and love of God; and the account which follows in the biographical narrative, fully illustrates the propriety of the preceding admonitions. The natural disposition of this child seems to have been constitutionally amiable; but just as the tender plant was beginning to unfold its blossoms, it was transplanted into another soil.

This little work, which is designed chiefly for the instruction of children, is written in a very plain and familiar style, accommodated to their capacities. And we cannot doubt, that the sentiments it contains, if properly improved, will render it highly beneficial to many who are more than six years

of age.

Thirteen Letters, written by this child, are introduced to the reader's notice. Of genuine originality they bear many specific marks. The father, we may presume, has corrected the orthography; but in all other respects, their simplicity, and even their grammatical inaccuracies, plead so strongly in their favour, as to awaken admiration. They exhibit, in a pleasing light, "the young idea," as it " begins to


A work of this kind bids defiance to criticism. It was written with a design to be useful to children; and we think it well calculated to answer this purpose.

No. 12.-VOL. II.

FOR THE NEW YEAR. How short and how fleeting the year,

Unheeded, unthought of, 'tis past; And the sound but just skim'd on my ear To the day that is number'd its last! But the circle returns on its course,

And the days are revolving again, And thus is renew'd the still source, Whence issue both pleasure and pain. What changes with time do ensue,

How varied each aspect I see!
Each object presents to my view,
A suitable lesson to me!

For time must be brought to its close,
And ages will cease to be more,
All nature will bask in repose,

And varying seasons be o'er.
But yet over all shall survive,

In beauty, which rain unfurlsReligion for ever shall live,

And be the survivor of worlds; And, proof 'midst the general scene, 'Gainst such devastation and woe, Midst misery, calm and serene,

Unspeakable joy she shall know. Oh, then, this is wisdom indeed, To be cloth'd with such virtue as this, And now while the offer is made,

To take the first proffer of peace, Then years will not waste me away,

But bear me with joy on their wing, And I shall behold the glad day, Whence life, never ending, shall spring, Jan. 1, 1820. MENTOR,



SIMPLICITY! thou earliest friend of man!
By Palemon.

Ere ostentation's vaunting reign began;
Who led his footsteps through his native groves,
Attun'd his pleasures, and inspir'd his loves;
While nature's pulse of undegen'rate fire,
Stole through the breast, and woke her wildest

No pow'r effeminate, with gradual force,
Tam'd his stern courage from its native course;
But wildly strung, his bosom harp, sublime,
Caught at each object the responsive chime :
Till arts refin'd, and science polish'd MAN,
And true to nature, through his feelings ran,
The morn of arts, ere letters led the way,
And learning's sun illum'd a brighter day.

Sees rural scenes and native manners change,
Refinement points to many a bright design,
With glorious aims, and origin divine,
Sprung from philanthropy and christian love,
The streams on earth, the fountain is above.
Away with war! the sound of rude alarms!
Thy flutt'ring bosom thrills with no sweet

But while the Muse laments, and in her range

charms: F

The tale of victory-the trumpet's clang,
Tells but of murder-of the widow's pang!
Of orphans made-of sunder'd lovers' sighs-
The fragrance of the conq'ror's sacrifice!--
Hail sweeter thoughts, my willing pen obey;
Inscribe a tribute to this gospel day:

A day, inscrib'd with all that might presage,
The consummation of a golden age
Not that Saturnian age which poets feign,
But of Messiah's universal reign,
When sin from his dominion shall be hurl'd,
And peace direct the empire of the world.
And Thou who breath'st the spirit of my song,
To whom my genius, blessings, life, belong;
O God! alone my patron and my friend,
To thy pure influence may I ever bend,
Adore thy counsel, and admire thy ways,
And own thy love with eloquence of praise;
Inspire my future song, and still impart
Thy gracious dictates to my grateful heart!
And may thy providence o'er fancy's hours
Illume my morning of poetic pow'rs.

Through distant ages, by whatever cause,
Or strange revulsions of unchanging laws,
Nations and states have sunk to slow decay,
Or by some sad event been swept away;
Or torn by factions-or, severer doom!
Invading arms have swept them to the tomb :
These long impending woes collected hence,
Of sin and guilt the awful recompense;
Delay'd till the collected fury broke,
And urg'd the final consummating stroke.

Whatever cause,-whatever sins combin'd To scatter states, and vitiate mankind, Through ev'ry change, a secret guiding hand, So kept, directed, interpos'd, and plann'd ; That while the clouds of ignorance o'erspread, And darts of terrors glitter'd round the head; While patriot virtues from the land were flown, Or sunk abash'd beneath a tyrant's frown; While godlike virtue hid her pallid face, Or sunk in superstition's cold embrace : E'en then, through persecution's bitt'rest storms, Menac'd and chas'd by all its horrid forms, Whose haggard jaws, extended to devour, Announc'd the victim's sacrificial hour; E'en then, some noble few, by heav'n upborne, Have smil'd triumphant on the worldling's


Have preach'd, and all around, the truth of

Ador'd his sceptre, and endur'd his rod ;
And meet for glory amidst suff'rings grown,
Have worn the christian's and the martyr's


Proclaim'd to all around, a perfect heart,
Compris'd life's noblest, and life's happiest part.
In history's mirror, if unstain'd and clear,
The corruscated truths reflected there,
Warn by example, or deserving praise,
On them new ages retrospective gaze,
And proud to copy, to improve their aim,
They consecrate their glories with their name.
Then, one pre-eminent in splendour shines,
Cheer'd his dark age, and still our own refines.
Illustrious ALFRED! long a hist❜ry's scroll
The names of British worthies shall enrol,

And learning, legislature, conduct sage,
Is proudly claim'd by each aspiring age.
A noble race of honour'd names shall stand,
In long succession-planets of our land;
Whose lustre bright'ning thro' their several

Illume fresh systems through succeeding years.
Still as the sire surveys the patriot train,
Ambition's current swelling every vein,
He points his sons to emulate thy fame,
And in each bosom lights a gen'rous flame.
Thy name, encircl'd with a honour'd wreath,
Green and unfading, smiles at time and death.
And Britain's genius gladly stoops, and strews
On Alfred's tomb the flow'rs of Britain's Muse.

Here pause, my Muse-unwilling to offend,
Thy willing vot'ry shall his song suspend;
And ere his verse a serious flight pursues,
Ambition's frown his wand'rings may refuse.
And as a bird escap'd from cage away,
Perches awhile upon the nearest spray,
Chirps for delight, and trims his loosen'd wing,
Then flies and mingles with the tribes of spring;
Thus I, on fancy's pinions scap'd from cares,
Rest-till a farther flight my genius dares.


OF Him encircl'd in the realms of light,
Midst flaming thrones, and dazzling seraphs

I sing, the infinite Almighty Three,
One God, one undivided Deity!

For him attun'd our varied harps are strung, And heav'n's great King, or Bethlehem's babe, is sung;

Whilst from our hearts the warm devotions rise,
Aided by the blest Spirit of the skies.
His varied name our dread, our triumph moves,
Jehovah thunders, and Emmanuel loves!
The Spirit guides; what wonders we explore!
The Son redeems; Jehovah frowns no more!
We fear, we love; we tremble and adore!

Encircled Thou beyond these shores of light,
Ere sprang this earth from dark chaotic night;
Before thy great creative pow'rful name
Launch'd forth revolving this terrestrial frame,
The electric flash, the fulminating roar,
Or Ocean roll'd his mountains on the shore;
Ere the Galaxy round the heav'ns had thrown
Its lucid belt, its star-bestudded zone;
Or planets had their splendid circles found,
Or danc'd the Pleiades their twinkling round;
Ere wand'ring comets had their course begun;
Ere Sirius rag'd, or milder Venus shone;
Or to Arcturus brilliancy was giv'n,
Or flam'd Orion's Orb* along the heav'n;
Or ere the lovely Regent of the night,
In silent wonder held the astonish'd sight,
What time along the azure arch sublime,
In peerless pomp she led the starry line,
Her regal car through pathless air did guide,
And charm'd resistless the expanded tide,

Regal, or Rigal, a star of the first magnitude in the constellation of Orion, which is here, by way of eminence, designated Orion's Orb.

The enamour'd ocean felt her wide domain,
And roll'd obedient to her ruling chain;

Or the more glowing orb, great Source of day,
Ere he had tried his heliocentric ray,
Or his effulgence from the east return'd,
Or up the skies his flood of glory burn'd,
Or through the ecliptic did his axle roll,
Or flung his light alternate on each pole ;-
O thou Supreme, 'twas thus at thy command,
Thy creatures these, sprung from thy forming

Thy forming hand, thou great primeval Cause! Let there be light! and light immediate rose : Thus didst thou work, thou gav'st thy fiat


And worlds appear'd obedient to their Lord.
Thy creatures these if thus divinely bright,
What must Thou be, thou great transcendent

Glory of glories! what exalted strain,
What soul of fire thine origin explain?
From everlasting! O, the length immense
Disarms our reason, and confounds our sense:
Nor mortal can the daring flight sustain,
But from th' o'erwhelming thought recoil
with pain,

And die as stars before the solar beam.
Nor could the seraph more successful be,
The finite cannot grasp infinity!
For should the greatest of created name,
Whether of seraph or cherubic flame,
The first archangel round the throne that sings,
Attempt to set the ETERNAL to his strings,
With daring hands in strains of living fire,
Pour all the torrent of his flaming lyre,
And all his great, his mighty pow'rs combine,

The self-existent Godhead to define:

Discord would be in heaven! its countless train
Would stand abhorrent of the impious strain:

What more than phrenzy doth thy song inspire?
What madness urge thy emulative lyre?
Soon would his harp its wonted pow'rs deny,
His pinions flag, his tongue in silence lie;
And deeply conscious of the dire disgrace,
Beneath his wings would hide his blushing face.
For not the pow'rs of his capacious mind,
Norlength, nor breadth, nor depth, nor height,
could find;

But lost, confounded in that boundless sea!
Thou art, O GOD, thine own immensity!




S. T. of Saltash, in adverting to the supposed pre-appointment of Judas, to betray our Lord, implied in a query inserted No. 8, col. 764, makes the following observations.

"In answer to J. O.'s Query, it may be observed, that the original expression is ὁμελλων αυτον παραδιδοναι, “ the person about to betray him."

On the Necessity of Studying the Holy Scriptures, combined with Observations upon the depraved principles of those who would endeavour to deprive their fellow-creatures of that salutary


"Ultimum et unicum remedium."

THE last and only remedy which we can fly to, amidst the trials and afflictions to which human nature is liable, ing which, there are monsters in the doubtless is Religion; notwithstandcreation who would wantonly deprive us of this never-failing support, and drive our little barks upon those quicksands, which sooner or later must inevitably wreck their own! To say

that these pestilential defamers of the purest of all religions, are incapable of doing any mischief in the world, would be to assert that a putrid fever was not infectious. At the same time I am of opinion, that an observation of Mr. Burke's upon a different occasion, is, in this instance, applicable;


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(said that great man) "half a dozen grasshoppers under a fern in the field, ring with their importunate chink, while thousands of great cattle chew the cud in silence, pray do not imagine, that those that make the noise are the only inhabitants." And, because these unprincipled defamers of pure Christianity meet with a few uncultivated adherents, let us not for a moment imagine that hosts will not arise, to oppose and confute their allegations!

When Atheists and Deists are endeavouring to assail the venerable fabric of our religion, it surely becomes the duty of Christians, of every denomination, to unite in opposing their force, and, however contrary may be their external forms of adoration, to combine in one general mass in the attempt to overthrow the doctrines which they endeavour to support. "To reject the gospel," says an admired theological writer,* "because bad men pervert it, weak men deform it, and angry men quarrel about it, because they do not accord in every tittle; displays as much folly, as if a person should cut down a tree bearing abundance of delicious fruit, and furnishing a refreshing shade, because caterpillars disfigured the leaves, and spiders made their webs amongst the branches."

In that sacred volume, which has so *The Rev. D. Boyne, in his Essay on the Divine Aut rity of the New Testament.

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