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conceives" that the deist or the atheist, who openly and honestly rejects the Bible, must incur less of the divine displeasure than the man (a Unitarian) who professes to believe the scriptures, and yet labours to undermine its very foundation." I have not quite so good an opinion of deists and atheists as Mr. B. seems to have. What he considers as open honesty, I consider as brazen blasphemy. Granting that there may be (and there is no doubt) an honest deist; the fool atheist, who openly denies the existence and perfections of that Being who created him, and whose paternal goodness supplies him with all his blessings, surely does not deserve the name of honest. Even to suspect that there is no presiding intelligence over the affairs of the universe, is a mark of mental imbecility; but openly to deny it, is a conduct, to express the baseness of which, language has no name. I do not pretend to underrate the conduet of Unitarians, in purging, as they think, Christianity from its corruptions. What they consider the blemishes of Christianity, I consider its basis and beauty. Whatever degree of wickedness there is in their conduct, they certainly do not designedly and knowingly undermine the foundation of the Bible. We must leave them in the hands of God, who will certainly do right when he judgeth.

A Unitarian, of considerable literary acquirements, was, not long since, reclaimed by affectionate argument; and no other means ought ever to be employed. Bigotry, that imp of hell, never performed such an achievement, nor ever will; God will never own its work. The spirit manifested by the Bishop of Landaff, in his answer to Thomas Paine, is most amiable; and to all orthodox writers I would say, Go thou, and do likewise. I am, Sir, &c.

MODERATUS.

ANECDOTE OF ZENO.

TRUE philosophy consists in the love of wisdom. This opinion was entertained by the founder of the Stoics, whose doctrines the following anecdote places in a proper light.---Zeno, on being told that Love was unbecoming a philosopher, replied "If this were true, the fate of the fair sex would be lamentable, for they would only then be loved by fools."

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plicated machinery, and imparting warmth to those who are engaged in the employment connected with it.

In the annexed figure, our readers are presented with the plan of a new Steam Apparatus, erected in the office of this Magazine, for the purpose of Copper-plate printing.

and on which the plate is laid to be heated for working.

D, A stop-cock affixed to each box, to admit and adjust the quantity of steam required.

E, A cock and pipe, to regulate the emission of a portion of the steam into the air; by which the heat of the whole range may be increased or di

F, A chamber for the reception of the condensed steam; from which it is conveyed by the connecting pipe. G, The work bench.

H, Three feet six inches, the height of the steam-box from the floor.

There is a small air-cock connected with each box, through which the air that may collect in the pipes is expelled by the force of the steam.

To those who are conversant with this art, it is well known, that a cer-minished. tain degree of temperature in the plate, is necessary to give beauty to the impression. For this purpose every man had formerly his pot of burning charcoal placed before him, the fumes of which he was compelled to breathe. These, it is well known, are highly pernicious to human health, frequently producing dizziness and fainting; and in many instances, when closely confined, and strongly impregnated with that deleterious fluid, carbonic acid gas, numerous instances have been recorded, of their proving fatal to individuals. In addition to this, the lighter particles, and the dust arising from the action of the fire, cannot but communicate filth to every part of the room where a considerable quantity of charcoal is used.

The boiler is 6 feet long by 3 feet wide, and 4 feet 3 inches high; supplying the steam to this apparatus, as well as to a range of 160 yards of other pipes, for the purpose of warming the general printing-office, consisting of six stories of rooms. And it is worth observing, that the expenses attending the use of steam, in heating the whole of these premises, are more than covered by the saving effected in the insurance, in consequence of its adoption.

By this substitute, all the advantages arising from the use of charcoal are completely secured, without any of its inconveniences. In this office, the room is now sufficiently warm for the accommodation of the workmen, and the facility of their business, while the air, freed from the noxious effluvia, retains a degree of purity which cannot but contribute to their health; the room at the same time exhibiting an appearance of cleanness, which was impossible on the old system. The present method is simple, whole-linders, and even in some other bodies, some, economical, and elegant; as much superior to the former, as the principle of heating by steam is to that of common coal fires.

Answer to a Question respecting the
Weight of Cattle.

We therefore anticipate the more extensive application of Steam in the various manufactories of the country, where economy, safety, and regularity, are desired.

Reference to the Figure.

AA, The walls at the extremities of the room, which is fifty feet long. BB, A three-inch pipe to convey the steam from the boiler.

CC, Are 10 hollow cast-iron stands or boxes, into which the steam enters,

MR. EDITOR. SIR,-Willing to oblige your subscriber A. B. C. who is desirous to have his mode of calculation, col. 1045. No. 11. explained, I would observe, that in all similar bodies, and in all cy

(the dimensions being taken in similar parts of those bodies) if the square of the girths be multiplied by the lengths, the products will be the proportional bulks; and if the bodies be of the same specific gravity, the same products will be the proportional weights. Hence, if one of these products be multiplied or divided by a number which reduces it to a weight of a given denomination, any of the other products will be reduced to the same denomination of weight by the same process. Now multiplying by 24 and cutting off two figures, is the same as multiplying by 24 and dividing by 100, and if this process reduces the product of the square of the girth and the

conceives" that the deist or the atheist, who openly and honestly rejects the Bible, must incur less of the divine displeasure than the man (a Unitarian) who professes to believe the scriptures, and yet labours to undermine its very foundation." I have not quite so good an opinion of deists and atheists as Mr. B. seems to have. What he considers as open honesty, I consider as brazen blasphemy. Granting that there may be (and there is no doubt) an honest deist; the fool atheist, who openly denies the existence and perfections of that Being who created him, and whose paternal goodness supplies him with all his blessings, surely does not deserve the name of honest. Even to suspect that there is no presiding intelligence over the affairs of the universe, is a mark of mental imbecility; but openly to deny it, is a conduct, to express the baseness of which, language has no name. I do not pretend to underrate the conduct of Unitarians, in purging, as they think, Christianity from its corruptions. What they consider the blemishes of Christianity, I consider its basis and beauty. Whatever degree of wickedness there is in their conduct, they certainly do not designedly and knowingly undermine the foundation of the Bible. We must leave them in the hands of God, who will certainly do right when he judgeth.

A Unitarian, of considerable literary acquirements, was, not long since, reclaimed by affectionate argument; and no other means ought ever to be employed. Bigotry, that imp of hell, never performed such an achievement, nor ever will; God will never own its work. The spirit manifested by the Bishop of Landaff, in his answer to Thomas Paine, is most amiable; and to all orthodox writers I would say, Go thou, and do likewise.

I am, Sir, &c.

MODERATUS.

ANECDOTE OF ZENO.

TRUE philosophy consists in the love of wisdom. This opinion was entertained by the founder of the Stoics, whose doctrines the following anecdote places in a proper light. ---Zeno, on being told that Love was unbecoming a philosopher, replied - -"If this were true, the fate of the fair sex would be lamentable, for they would only then be loved by fools."

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plicated machinery, and imparting warmth to those who are engaged in the employment connected with it.

In the annexed figure, our readers are presented with the plan of a new Steam Apparatus, erected in the office of this Magazine, for the purpose of Copper-plate printing.

To those who are conversant with this art, it is well known, that a certain degree of temperature in the plate, is necessary to give beauty to the impression. For this purpose every man had formerly his pot of burning charcoal placed before him, the fumes of which he was compelled to breathe. These, it is well known, are highly pernicious to human health, frequently producing dizziness and fainting; and in many instances, when closely confined, and strongly impregnated with that deleterious fluid, carbonic acid gas, numerous instances have been recorded, of their proving fatal to individuals. In addition to this, the lighter particles, and the dust arising from the action of the fire, cannot but communicate filth to every part of the room where a considerable quantity of charcoal is used.

By this substitute, all the advantages arising from the use of charcoal are completely secured, without any of its inconveniences. In this office, the room is now sufficiently warm for the accommodation of the workmen, and the facility of their business, while the air, freed from the noxious effluvia, retains a degree of purity which cannot but contribute to their health; the room at the same time exhibiting an appearance of cleanness, which was impossible on the old system.

The present method is simple, wholesome, economical, and elegant; as much superior to the former, as the principle of heating by steam is to that of common coal fires.

We therefore anticipate the more extensive application of Steam in the various manufactories of the country, where economy, safety, and regularity, are desired.

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and on which the plate is laid to be heated for working.

D, A stop-cock affixed to each box, to admit and adjust the quantity of steam required.

E, A cock and pipe, to regulate the emission of a portion of the steam into the air; by which the heat of the whole range may be increased or diminished.

F, A chamber for the reception of the condensed steam; from which it is conveyed by the connecting pipe. G, The work bench.

H, Three feet six inches, the height of the steam-box from the floor.

There is a small air-cock connected with each box, through which the air that may collect in the pipes is expelled by the force of the steam.

The boiler is 6 feet long by 3 feet wide, and 4 feet 3 inches high; supplying the steam to this apparatus, as well as to a range of 160 yards of other pipes, for the purpose of warming the general printing-oflice, consisting of six stories of rooms. And it is worth observing, that the expenses attending the use of steam, in heating the whole of these premises, are more than covered by the saving effected in the insurance, in consequence of its adoption.

Answer to a Question respecting the Weight of Cattle.

MR. EDITOR. SIR,-Willing to oblige your subscriber A. B. C. who is desirous to have his mode of calculation, col. 1045. No. 11. explained, I would observe, that in all similar bodies, and in all cylinders, and even in some other bodies, (the dimensions being taken in similar parts of those bodies) if the square of the girths be multiplied by the lengths, the products will be the proportional bulks; and if the bodies be of the same specific gravity, the same products will be the proportional weights. Hence, if one of these products be multiplied or divided by a number which reduces it to a weight of a given denomination, any of the other products will be reduced to the same denomination of weight by the same process. Now multiplying by 24 and cutting off two figures, is the same as multiplying by 24 and dividing by 100, and if this process reduces the product of the square of the girth and the

length to the weight in English stones, in any case found by trial, it will always do so, provided the cattle be of similar figure, and of the same specific gravity: but as this is not so accurate, the rule can only be considered as an approximation to assist in guessing the weight.

If the dimensions were taken in inches, and the product divided by 7200, the same result would be obtained. Thus, 90

72 {

90

liquely through both its sides; place the part cut off upon paper, and with a pen draw a line round it: thus you will produce the conic section called an ellipsis, as described by Hutton, Bonnycastle, and all other writers on that subject.

ON THE ETERNAL SONSHIP OF CHRIST.

In consequence of a short article communicated by Pudicus, and inserted in col. 924, of our preceding volume, we have received several papers on

8100 square of girt in inch. this subject, which, if published, would length.

64

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SIR,-If none of your correspondents have noticed the inquiry of M. P. vol. I. col. 806, I beg to advise him to believe Dr. Hutton and Mr. Bonnycastle, or to think no more on the subject; or, which would be more satisfactory, to study Mathematics for himself. If he take the last course, he will soon find, that the figure defined by those Mathematicians has the properties they ascribe to it, and that the error, which so greatly perplexes him, is in the ideas he has admitted; ideas not at all suggested by the definition: every diameter of that figure will have its ordinates equal at equal distances on each side of the centre. It seems to me very probable, that many proceed far in error by cherishing false ideas, forcibly presented to the mind, and embraced as certain truths, even while it is evident to the persons who admit the ideas, that an error exists somewhere. THOS. EXLEY.

Bristol, Jan. 6, 1820.

occupy more of our room than we can devote to its discussion.

In looking over these articles, we have been compelled to observe, that in general the authors of those which advocate the Eternal Sonship, proceed either to defend the doctrine of the Trinity, or to establish the divinity of Christ. By these means we have little more than a repetition of the arguments, criticisms, and expositions, which have already faded before the public eye, while the question itself is left undecided.

The doctrine of the Trinity, and the Divinity of Christ, we conceive, are alike admitted, both by those who advocate, and those who oppose, the phrase, " Eternal Son ;" and, unless we are much deceived, it is to place these doctrines on what has been thought more tenable ground, that the doubts of the latter have been urged against the terms in question.

It has been observed by Pudicus, that the subject seems to be " more of a Philological than of a Doctrinal nature." In this light we have long surveyed it; and the various articles, which, both in print and in manuscript, have fallen under our inspection, have tended uniformly to confirm us in this opinion. Under this impression, we have extracted what we conceive to be the essence of the question, and we wish our correspondents who have any thing to advance on either side, to confine their observations chiefly to the points stated below.

1. If human relationships had not existed, what idea would have been conveyed by the term Son?

In reply to the above Query, A. B. 2. Does the term Son, necessarily of Painshaw, has furnished the follow-imply commencement of existence in ing observations.that being or person to whom it is justly applicable?

Form a cone of a piece of turnip, or any other substance, cut that cone ob

3. What is the meaning of the terms

יך

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