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own family; now, in all probability, he did not associate his suddenly alarming symptoms witb the effects of an ordinary purge, whilst the imminent danger of death would hardly leave much time for thought and statement. The young druggist's presumption in prescribing jalapine, or indeed prescribing at all (for he can lay no claim to either experience or knowledge of the action of remedies), his making no mention of his administering medicine to M. F. when M. F.'s wife rushed into the shop—his hasty appearance at Dr Rome's bedside when he hears that M. F. is seriously ill—his destruction of the remaining contents of the paper from which he took the dose—his discrepancy of statement as to the frequency of his prescribing jalapine, with the precise fact1 of his having obtained only three grains, and his instancing one man to whom he had given half a grain (and this man not discoverable) are circumstances upon which no comment is necessary. Moreover, the youth's antecedents are not flattering; during his apprenticeship he mistook Tr. Opii. for Tr. Rhcei, and caused the death of a child.
Jalapine is rarely prescribed in Carlisle or the neighbourhood. The statement of the druggist that he found half a grain purge a countryman, is not reconcileable with the fact, that two grains have been given repeatedly to a child, and that four grains have been taken by a young adult of my acquaintance. At the inquest I stated that jalapine and strychnine resemble each other in external appearance, so as not to be detected by the non-professional observer, for whilst the crystals of the one, and the powder of the other would appear strong characteristics, it is common enough to meet with both in a pulverised state, and closely resembling each other in colour, and these specimens in respectable chemists' shops.2
The number of deaths annually caused by the ignorance and carelessness of unqualified persons, druggists, etc., must be considerable in this country, and the sad reflection awaits us that nothing is done by our legislators to prevent these fatalities. "Mantua's law was death" to those who sold poison (did this not include the ignorant who gave it by mistake ?) but that was long ago in unenlightened Italy. At present it would be considered an interference with the liberty of the subject to have any such laws on our statute books. Did such restriction exist, burial clubs would have but a limited business,—the post obits of
"Some old lady
1 Mr Todd did send Armstrong three grains of jalapine.
8 The examination of several specimens of strychnine and jalapine led to the following results :—Of strychnine there were three specimens of white crystals, four of white powder, two greyish-white powder, and one in crystals the same colour. Of jalapine there were four specimens of nearly white powder, three of a light brown resembling Dover's powder, and one of a jalap brown colour. In one shop the two drugs resembled each other so closely, as not to be distinguishable.
NEW SERIES.—NO. II. FEBRUARY 1855. Q
would be a kind of u hope deferred," and nuptial ties might remain indissoluble till natural death or chancery suits settled the matter, and these are tedious and expensive modes when you want the Gordian knot cut in Alexandrian fashion. It would appear to be part of our "glorious constitution" that every one, young or old, patrician or sanscullote should have it in his power to imitate the purchase, and verify the last words of Romeo :—
"Oh true apothecary!
Article IV.—An Experimental Inquiry into the Existence of a Sixth Sense, here calhd Hie Sense of Force. By Richard F. Battye, Esq., London.
I.—Upon Nerves Distributed To Synovial Membranes, As
BEING A SPECIAL SEAT OF THIS SENSE.
In the spring of 1^844, my attention was first directed to the subject discussed in the present paper, from having been struck with the contrasting mechanism between the hand of a young Chimpanzee in Regent's Park Zoological Gardens, and that of man.
Though the homologies of the hand in the two beings are strictly numerical, to which indeed, in the bones of the extremities homology chiefly refers, yet, so far as function is concerned, no approximate analogy can be sustained; the thumb in the Chimpanzee being merely a counterpoise to the metacarpal region; but in man the same member is a counterpoise to the fingers, as well as to the metacarpal region.
From observing this marked proportional difference in the mechanism, and consequent function of the two instruments, I was strongly impressed with the conviction, that in man there exists some fixed and definite geometrical relations between the thumb, fingers, and palm of the hand, not common to the Chimpanzee. Of course, previous reading from various authors had led me naturally to suppose that some difference existed between the two, but not of that marked character which observation supplied.
Having been some weeks previously engaged in noting down a few reflections upon the structures and mechanism of the hand and foot in man; not having then, nor for several years after, read the beautiful and philosophical remarks made by Mr F. O. Ward upon the same instruments in his masterly, but disagreeably small work, Human Osteology; I was, from such previous exercise, the more disposed at once to attempt the reduction of theory to practice, and forthwith, after having arrived at my apartments, I tried a variety of measurements upon the hand with a pair of compasses, which resulted in demonstrating, at least, so I thought, the correctness of my previous hypothesis.
In the latter part of this paper, one series of these experiments will be given, the same which terminated in directing me to conceive the possibility, and finally, the probability of demonstrating by experiment, or induction, a sense hitherto, so far as the literature of Physiology is concerned, undefined and indeterminate, though most certainly suspected and anticipated; since it is well known that the late Dr Thomas Brown, from theoretical grounds conceived the possibility, or rather the probability of the existence of a sixth sense; and that Sir C. Bell, whose philosophic mind was fully awake to the value of such an hypothesis, especially from such a mind as Brown's, (himself nevertheless having, independent of Brown, arrived at the same theoretical conclusion), resolved upon applying experiment to elucidate theory upon the true Baconian system of induction.
It need not be said in what a glorious result that rude, but best mode of testing theory terminated, since it ended in the discovery of that arrangement in the nervous system which has justly placed him, with Magendie, amongst the foremost of physiologists. But, whilst mention is thus made of Sir C. Bell, it ought not to be forgotten, that to his last days he imagined that he had disclosed to demonstration the missing sense, which he conceived, as residing in the nerves distributed to the muscular tissue; and hence he called it muscular sense.
Without, then, positively contradicting or denying such a sense in muscles, it is not, perhaps, going too far to say that, if it could have been reduced to experiments of a more definite and crucial character, it would have been received with more confidence, than hitherto has been its lot.
More recently, Professor Weber of Berlin has made a series of experiments, to determine the relative degrees of cold and heat to which various parts of the integument are susceptible, and also of weight. The experiments very closely accord with similar experiments made by the writer previously to his first seeing them referred to in Todd and Bowman's, and more recently in Carpenter's and Valentin's (by Brinton) Physiologies, and he can only wonder that the prosecution of those experiments did not lead the learned professor to results of a more comprehensive and decisive nature. But, as it is truly said, the "battle is not to the strong, nor the race to the swift," an inscrutable Providence lying between human perfections and accomplishments and success, which alone can explain, in the present case, if the writer should be correct, why the palm was not borne away by a more erudite and accomplished brother in the profession, whilst walking on the path where its branches lay scattered abroad for him to gather, and carry away.
Besides the opinions of these two worthy authors, and their disciples, little has been advanced of a precise character upon a sixth sense, as standing in relation to force, and therefore, further anatomical and medical literature need not be canvassed upon the subject. It only remains, then, to state the extent to which this sense is adapted to determine different kinds or degrees of force; and also, in so doing, what are the mechanical arrangements requisite for the determining such distinctions in force; since, for kifids, the regulating agents are considered to be strictly mechanical, though applied by, and performed through, the medium of living material. Before proceeding further, I will endeavour to explain what is here implied by the terms kind or degree of force in relation to sensation or feeling; and afterwards endeavour to apply them to the sense herein maintained and discussed as demonstrating, or, at least, as favouring the position or idea of its existence, leaving to experiment the province of direct demonstration and complete induction.
In the first place, we are conscious of two different kinds of feeling in reference to force. The one is that of having power or strength to readily, or with ease, overcome the obstacle or resistance desired to be surmounted; as a child, in handling a light cane, or throwing a small marble, feels that he has power to overcome its resistance at once, and with little effort. This gives to the user the feeling or consciousness of strength or power over that object; and indicates the superiority in such instance, of the muscular force over the gravitating to the child employing it. This, therefore, might be very appropriately called the feeling, or sense of power or strengtlu
On the other hand, by way of contrast, suppose a child, from ten to twelve years of age, has to lift a weight or from 28 to 42 lbs., he does it with difficulty, but by putting forth all his strength, he will accomplish it; or, in place of using two hands, he has to hold with one arm extended, a weight of from 3 to 4 lbs., the latter will be almost as difficult as the former, and in both instances the force employed to overcome the resistance will be put forth under circumstances of great effort and labour; and to the party so exercised, there will be a feeling or consciousness of great force being required to overcome the resisting body, which feeling is usually expressed by stating that the body is very heavy, or of great weight. Hence, this feeling or consciousness might be called the feeling or sense of weight.
Again, supposing an adult person applies his muscular force, aided by the mechanical arrangements of nis osseous structures, to move a portion of rock, say 10 to 20 tons in weight, or to more a wall well built, and a foot and a half wide, he would be aware that neither object moved, though his eyes were shut; and, also, he would be aware that he was putting forth all the force his muscular system was capable of applying, to move the opposing obstacle, but without effect. This consciousness, or feeling within, of applying force, and applying it to its utmost extent, though no evident result follows in the body against which it is applied, might be called the consciousness or sense of exercising force, without any very accurate idea of the amount of that force, from the want of a' standard whereby to judge.
In the cases above cited, a consciousness of force has existed in connection with muscular action. In the first case, there was great excess of muscular force to the resistance to be surmounted, and is popularly called strength or power. The second case presents us with an instance of little excess of force remaining, when the resisting body, against which it has been applied, is overcome; and in popular language, the feeling within is expressed by describing the body without, as being overcome with difficulty by the force applied, and is variably described as the resistance being heavy, or of great weight. Whilst, in the third case, the obstacle to be overcome by muscular force, being, by virtue of its gravity, or attractive force, considerably plus over the muscular force, remains unaffected by the external force applied to it; and in current phraseology, is laconically described by the expressions, "it is too much for you ;" "push away, my boy, you'll not hurt it;" or, " better save your breath for another time ;" "it's no use trying;" all which expressions are only so many different ways of stating that muscular force is exercised, without any perceptible result following in the body against which it is applied.
In the foregoing sketch, relating to the effect of muscular action upon our feelings, I do not suspect that any will question the correctness of the statements therein advanced, or be disposed to deny, under the circumstances indicated, in a healthy person, that such feelings, as are there expressed, do exist; and that, in the occurrences of every day life, incidents are happening which lead to the expression of such feelings, when the incidents giving rise to them, place them before the mind, as here pointed out.
If, tnen, there are such sensations, etc., as have been indicated, following certain definite forms of muscular action, and those sensations are of a different nature from any with which we are supplied by the five recognised senses, what does it signify, but that there is a further source for our correct knowledge of the external world, than is to be found in the beautiful and exquisite channels of information, given to us in the orthodox senses—seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch t
But it will be said in reply,, and with truth, that our knowledge of power or force, as Hume has affirmed, arises from our experience of known or observed phenomena being followed by uniform results. This the writer does not for a moment question; but for the knowledge of such facts, we are not indebted to sight alone, or to hearing, etc., etc., for both deaf and blind persons are equally conscious of possessing force, and in their actions accommodate themselves to the indications with which such feelings supply them. Hence, such abstractions leave the matter where they found it, and, in the present paper, their consideration may be respectfully declined.
Without, then, further ratiocination, a more varied mode of illustration may tend to throw the subject out into fuller relief.
Let it be supposed that there are five balls, each two inches in diameter, perfectly smooth, covered with a thin layer of caoutchouc,