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which followed, though not exciting the same public interest, very much resembled in its general character that against Theodore, Ring of Abyssinia, in 1868, and illustrated in like manner the power of endurance, resource, and discipline of trained men employed in a very trying service. Between the head of Lake Superior and the Red River, about five hundred miles were to be passed of country without a road (one had been projected by Canada, but a small portion of it only was even marked out) of a region composed of thick forest, swamp, bush-covered rocks, and small lakes of intricate navigation. The route is described by a member of the expedition as "forty-eight miles by road through the forest to Shenandowan Lake, and from thence about three hundred and ten miles by rivers and lakes, with about seventeen portages to the Lake of the Woods. Some of these portages were more than a mile in length, and when it is remembered that all the boats, stores, &c, required for the expedition had to be carried by the soldiers over these breaks in the navigation, an idea can be formed of the physical labour which such an operation would entail. From the Lake of the Woods to Fort Garry was about one hundred miles in a direct line by land, but there was only a road made for about sixty miles of that distance, the unmade portion being laid out over most difficult swamps;" and ultimately it was necessary to avoid the difficulties of this last portion by a circuitous movement down the Winnepeg river.
The expedition reached Fort Garry, the head-quarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, and now of Riel and his rebel followers, on the 23rd of August. They were welcomed enthusiastically by the loyal party, and met with no opposition from the disaffected. Riel had disappeared: the latest accounts represent him as having taken refuge, with a considerable amount of plunder which he had collected, in the neighbouring American territory. The British force did not experience the loss of a single man, thanks in great measure to the foresight and sagacity with which the whole enterprise was conducted. "It had to advance," says an eye-witness, "from its point of disembarkation on Lake Superior for more than six hundred miles through a wilderness of water, rocks, and forests, where no supplies were to be had, and where every pound weight of provisions and stores had to be transported for miles on the backs
of soldiers The total expense was under 100,000/., of which
one quarter only was to be paid by England. There was no reckless waste either in material or money. . . , . It may be safely asserted that no such distance has ever been traversed by an efficient brigade, numbering about 1400 souls, in any of our numerous little wars, at such a trifling cost." Order was re-established, and the "province of Manitobah" added to Canada.
The amount of emigration from the United Kingdom in any
giren rear affords a very important criterion of the social condition
of the "country. I* is annually published by the Land and Eniigra
tion Commissioners; but as the details respecting one year are not presented to the public until towards the middle of the next, the returns for 1869 come properly within the contents of the Annual Register for 1870.
The following are the most remarkable particulars to be collected from it:—
"In the emigration of last year," say the Commissioners, " the most noticeable fact is the large increase in the number of English and Scotch emigrants. For the first time since we have any trustworthy returns, the number of English emigrants exceeded the Irish. With the exception of 1854 the number was the largest that ever left the United Kingdom in a single year.
"The emigration of 1S69 was thus distributed:—
"To the United States . . . 203,001
„ British North America . . 33,891
„ Australia and New Zealand . 14,901
„ all other places . . . 6,234
"Of the emigration to the United States,—
The English formed 3T06 per cent.
"The Irish emigration in 1869, though absolutely larger than in
1868, bore a less proportion to the whole British emigration than in that year. In 1S68 it formed 47 per cent. of the British emigration, but in 1S69 it formed only 39^ per cent. It was also less than the Irish emigration in any of the five years between 1863 and 1867 inclusive Probably the vague expectations entertained by the small farmers and their families (who form a large part of the emigration) as to the effect on their position of the forthcoming Land Bill may have had something to do with this result.
"Of the whole number who emigrated to North America in
1869, amounting to 236,892, no less than 225,685, or 95-27 per cent. went in steamers, and only 11,207, or 4-73 percent. in sailing vessels. The resort to steamers in the emigration to America has been uninterruptedly progressive. In 1863 it amounted to only 45-85 per cent, of the whole number. In 1867 it had increased to 92'86 per cent., in 1868 to 93-16 per cent., and last year to 95-27 per cent."
The following extracts from a report on the present demand for emigrants in some of our most important colonies, made by the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners to the Colonial Office, in August this year, will throw additional light on a subject of the highest interest to a large class of our population.
"The Governor of the Cape of Good Hope says there is no steady demand for European labour in the colony; that the farmers prefer native labour; and that some years ago very great inconvenience was caused by the presence of the labourers who had been introduced for the construction of the railway and other works, and who were left in a state of destitution. There is clearly no opening for emigrants from the United Kingdom in the Cape.
"The Governor of Queensland says that for some years past the immigration into that colony has, in his opinion, been rather in excess of the demand for labour; that unless the arrival of immigrants be accompanied by the Arrival of capitalists ready to employ them, disappointment will follow; that the modern system of enclosing pastoral lands has reduced the demand for shepherds, and that the one class much in demand are female domestic servants.
"The Governor of New South Wales transmits the substance of a series of Reports which he had obtained from residents in the several districts of the colony, generally members of the Legislature or magistrates. The opinions of these gentlemen vary very much, many of them being of opinion that at the present rate of wages no additional labourers could find employment; others considering that there is still a large opening for immigrants of the labouring class.
"The real state of affairs in New South Wales is obvious enough. Wages are at present so high that the amount of capital in the colony available for the purpose of labour is not more than sufficient to pay the existing labourers. The introduction of fresh labourers would, for a time, at least, reduce the rate of wages, and this the labourers are determined to resist. On the other hand, employers are cramped in their operations by the want of additional hands, and unless the want can be supplied, the progress of the colony will be arrested. A determined struggle is therefore continually going on between employers and employed: the one desiring to apply a portion of the public revenue to the introduction of immigrants; the other determined to prevent it. Hitherto the Trades Unions Organization and the numerical preponderance of the labouring class at the poll have enabled them to carry the day. How long this will be the case it is impossible to foresee. Probably, as the wealth of the colony increases, and more men rise from the condition of labourers to be employers of labour, the result may be reversed. But it is clear that the defeat of the labouring class, whenever it happens, would be but temporary, as the immigrants which that defeat introduced would at once recruit its ranks. The result must be a succession of alternate successes and defeats on the part of each, which, unfortunately there is no mediating authority to control or compose.
"Upper Canada, after an apathy of several years, has at last awakened to the importance of encouraging immigration. It has accordingly appointed agents for that purpose in the three divisions of the United Kingdom and on the Continent, and has established a scheme for ascertaining the number and description of labourers required in each district, and for forwarding emigrants accordingly from Quebec, Montreal, and Toronto. It is calculated that Upper Canada could absorb from 30,000 to 40,000 immigrants of a good description annually; but I was informed by the Immigration Agent at Toronto that the demand for the present year had, in his opinion, been injuriously affected by the indifferent description of some of the immigrants of 1869—a fact which it is very important to bear in mind. There is nothing more certain than that the introduction into Canada of men of bad character, or confirmed idle or dissolute habits, would be strongly resented, and would probably lead to a resistance to immigration generally. It is calculated that well-conducted industrious immigrants can earn in Canada on an average one dollar a day throughout the year, provided they are willing in the winter to turn their hands to such work as the climate will allow. New immigrants, unless possessed of capital, are not calculated for settlement on wild land, the clearing of which requires special skill and knowledge.
"In Lower Canada the demand for immigrants is comparatively small, the French Canadian population being generally sufficient for the cultivation of their own lands. The only district in which emigrants from the United Kingdom would be likely to find employment is the eastern townships, and even there not to any great extent.
"In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick there is ordinarily but little opening for immigrant labour. The construction, however, of the intercolonial railway will create a demand for labourers during the next year or two., though to what extent I am at present unable to say.'
Xe* Year's Day at Paris—Ollivier Cabinet-—Assassination »of Victor Noir by Prince Pierre Bonaparte—M. Rochefort and the Marseillaise—Funeral of Victor Xoir—M. Rochefort arrested—Riots of February—Debates on Commercial Treaty —Speech of M. Thiers—Strike at the Creuzot Iron-works—Debates in the Chamber—Trial of Pierre Bonaparte—Death of Count de Montalembert—Senatus Con. suZfum—Plebiscite proposed—Imperial Proclamation-—Beaury Conspiracy—Plebiscite, May 8—Announcement of its result to the Emperor—Imperial Manifesto —Changes in Ministry—Political Parties—M. Gambetta—-Want of confidence in Ministry—Affair of M. Clement Duvernois—Debato on St. Gothard Railway—■ Petition of Orleans Princes—The Drought—M. Prevost Paradol—Budget—Trial of Seditious Operatives.
The new year at Paris opened with its accustomed ceremonies. At noon on Saturday, the 1st January, the Court of the Tuileries was thronged with visitors and attendants, Ministers of State, officers of the household, Marshals and Admirals, Judges and Privy Councillors, Professors, Clergy, and Municipalities, and the representatives of foreign powers, all coming to offer their salutations to the Emperor "Napoleon III. The representatives of the Bonaparte and Murat families were also there, and ladies as well as gentlemen of rank and fashion caused the state rooms to blaze with brilliant costumes. Shortly after the conclusion of mass in the chapel of the palace, the Emperor proceeded to the throne-room, and there delivered, in reply to the congratulations of the Corps Diplomatique, his customary New Year's speech, stating his assurance that he recognized in their address "a new proof of the good relations existing between France and foreign powers," and expressing a hope that the new year would tend to increase concord and the advancement of civilization. On Monday, the 3rd, the Corps Legislatif met, and re-elected M. Schneider as its President. On the same day, the new cabinet of M. Emile Ollivier was officially received by the Emperor and Empress. M. Ollivier, deputy for the Var, a member of the Left Centre or moderate Liberal party, had been entrusted with the post of Prime Minister after the retirement of the Rouher Ministry in December; and his advent to office was looked upon as the final and satisfactory triumph of those enlightened opinions which had for long years aimed at restricting the action of persona] government and extending the liberties of the subject.
The general election of May, 1869, though nominally the expression of the public sentiment of the French people, had, indeed, been notoriously far more the work of the Imperial prefects, seeking to