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for the gradual intellectual improvement of animals: wild animals who live long in the neighbourhood of man, becoming, as he urges, from year to year, and from generation to generation, the more cunning and the more crafty. He further believes that animals do think and reason; moreover, have also a certain limited language of their own. That animals with so much in their favour have not progressed, he thinks is not difficult to understand; for it is want which leads to progress—not the actual possession of the thing wanted. Man, however savage, remembers the gratification of some new pleasure, and wants it again, bat the brute, with wants simpler than those of any savage, does not as certainly remember his want. The difference between the reasoning of the man and the animal is probably no more than this—both reason; but the one, from the greater amount or organization of his brain, is able to carry on from year to year the new material he has acquired by thought, and to store up this new gain for the acquisition of still further results.

"Primitive Man;" "Mammalia: their various Orders and Habits," are two very nicely executed little works by M. Louis Figuier, though we may be permitted to differ, and to a considerable extent too, from some of the views he has advanced. Thus we are quite ready to value his labours for what they are worth, but think he had better have avoided, compiling—as he professes to bo compiling—-popular books, such disputed questions as the development of species. We do not much object to one of his sentences—" Show me an ape who can speak, and then I will agree with you in recognizing it as a fact that man is nothing but an improved ape;" but we do not accept "the pro-historic period of the polished-stone age" as an adequate definition of the great Megalithic monuments of Europe, such as Stonehenge or Carnac. Further, we think the illustrations of his books are too fanciful—indeed, are not seldom for this reason useless, and that some must be amended in a future edition: the woodcut of the Menhirs at Carnac is simply ridiculous.

"On some Defects in General Education," by E. Quain, F.E.S. The Hunterian Oration by such an able medical man as Dr. Quain, is sure to attract general attention, and will be accepted by many with little judgment, beyond a general appreciation of his ability. It behoves us, therefore, to be Bure that, when Dr. Quain deviates from his own special pursuits, he does so with any advantage to his hearers or pupils. We beg, therefore, to express great doubt of his judgment when be questions the value, as a discipline for youthful minds, of the study of Latin. Had Dr. Quain asserted, that the mode of teaching Latin in England, indeed, of almost all languages, is far from what it ought to be, and that there is a crying want of teachers better acquainted with even the most elementary principles of Philology, wo should quite have agreed with him. It is not so much the thing to be taught, as a sound method of teaching, that we really want The value of Latin, as the key to so many of the current languages of Europe, and as the foundation of so much of what is best and greatest in English literature, can hardly be overestimated. Moreover, as a dead language, we can reason about it, and use it in the investigation of the laws of comparative Philology, with the same certainty with which Dr. Quain would reason from the bones of extinct to those of living creatures in lectures on comparative anatomy. While, however, we differ from Dr. Quain on the question of the value of teaching Latin, we cordially endorse all he urges on the evils of competitive examinations and on the abuse of athletic sports at College, and more especially at Schools. "When," says he, "athletic exercises become the principal occupation, when they take the place of intellectual labour instead of being its auxiliary, then no thinking man can do otherwise than object to their excess and misuse, and object

very earnestly There is a natural inclination, in early age, to active

out-door occupations. Young people rush, not unnaturally, from the irksome drudgery of the school to the play-ground; for in the school there is little to

engage the faculties of the mind then most active The gratification

of another instinct possesses the mind."

PART II.

CHRONICLE

Of Remarkable Occurrences
In 1870.

JANUARY.

4. Theft Op Colonel Hickie's Child At Maidenhead.—At the Berkshire Epiphany Quarter Sessions, held at the Assize Courts, Reading', Elizabeth Barry, aged 39, nurse, was indicted for unlawfully and by force taking away a female child, of the ageof seventeen months, named Amelia Maria Victoria Hickie, the daughter of James Francis Hickie, with intent to deprive the said James Francis Hickie of the possession of the said child, at Maidenhead, on the 8th of October, 1869. The Court was crowded in every part to hear the trial of this extraordinary case.

The prisoner, who had rather a prepossessing appearance, pleaded guilty to taking the child, but denied the latter part of the indictment, that she did it to deprive Colonel Hickie of his child; and she expressed a desire to defend herself from this charge before the

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Colonel Hickie stated that he was in Ireland at the time of the abduction of the child. The prisoner was a nurse in his employ, and he left her at home with his wife at Kidwell Park, Maidenhead. On hearing of the loss of his child, he immediately offered a reward for its discovery. It was his youngest child at the time of its abduction, and was aged seventeen months. On the 17th of October he received a telegram, in consequence of which he went direct to Liverpool, and received his child from the hands of Major Greig, the Chief Constable of Liverpool. The child's hair had been cut, it was looking pale and bad, and there were marks of bruises on its body. The child's clothes had also been altered.

Louisa Cooper, cook in Colonel Hickie's service, said she saw the prisoner leave the house at Maidenhead, on the afternoon of the 8th

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of October, with the child; and she did not see the child again until it was brought home by Colonel Hickie, on the 19th of October, looking poorly, and with its hair cut. She knew the prisoner received notice to leave Mrs. Hickie's service shortly before the 8th of October, and she heard the prisoner say, " I have not done with Mrs. Hickie yet, and that she will know before I have left the house."

"William Holdway, of the Maidenhead police force, proved apprehending the woman in Liverpool, when she said she took the child away as a companion, because she thought of settling down at Liverpool at needlework. She was sorry then that she had taken the child.

Catherine O'Brien, residing at 7, St. Jude's-place, Liverpool, said the prisoner came with the child and took lodgings at her house on the 9th of October, and remained there eight days. The prisoner told her that she was married, that her husband was on board a New York steamer, and that she was going to take in needlework. The prisoner got in but very little food for the child, and on the third day witness saw the prisoner beat the child. She said it had got a bad temper, like its father. The child was very much neglected, and the prisoner gave way to drink very much. She was in drink five days out of the eight. On one occasion witness saw the child eating some dry bread and drinking cold water. At the latter part of the time the child got very poorly. On the last Sunday the prisoner was there witness went into her room and noticed a mole on the upper part of her lip, as described in the papers. She saw the prisoner beat the child several times. The detective apprehended the prisoner on the same Sunday afternoon.

The prisoner cross-examined this witness as to the food she had in the house and gave to the child, and as to the drink she took. The witness maintained her original statement, and said that when she remarked the mole on the woman's face she immediately asked for a sheet of paper and envelope, and commenced to write.

The prisoner entered into a long, rambling defence, in an agitated voice. She admitted taking the child, but said she regretted it from the first. She treated the child well, and gave it plenty of wholesome food. With regard to her being in drink, she pointed out that her extreme excitement and anxiety about the child might have been mistaken .for intoxication. She went to the priest, and asked him to come to her, that she might tell him all about the affair, and give up the child. As he did not come, she sat down and wrote to Mrs. Hickie, that she could have her child on applying at 7, St. Jude's-place, Liverpool. She was going to post this letter when taken into custody by the detective. She was extremely sorry for the offence, and would willingly undo it if she could. At the conclusion of her statement she burst into tears.

Mr. R. Benyon, M.P., the Chairman, in summing up, pointed out that the only question for the jury to decide was whether the prisoner took the child against the father's will, and this she admitted. The matter of the ill-treatment of the child was merely stated in aggravation of the punishment, if the jury found her guilty.

The jury, after a short consultation, found the woman guilty.

The Chairman, in sentencing the prisoner, 6aid she had been found guilty, not so much by the jury as by her own conscience, of having taken away this child from the custody and possession of its parents; and a greater offence, or more iniquitous proceeding on her part could scarcely be committed. She had rendered herself liable to seven years' penal servitude, but the Bench were willing to remember mercy, if they could consistently; and, taking into consideration that she had already been imprisoned three months, she woidd be committed for fifteen calendar months' imprisonment, with hard labour.

The prisoner was taken away from the dock weeping.

5. Burglary At The American Minister's.—A robbery was committed in the evening at the residence of the Hon. J. Lothrop Motley (the American Minister), 17, Arlington-street. There was every reason to believe that the thief or thieves must have concealed themselves on the premises some time before the robbery was perpetrated, and that they escaped by the back way leading into the park. Property to the amount of about 1000/. was carried off, the property consisting of jewellery, &c. The thieves left behind them a "jemmy" and a long rope.

8. Shocking Accident.—An appalling accident, by which five colliers lost their lives, occurred at No. 1 Voiheiw Pit, the property of the Dowlais Iron Company, this evening, when, at about six o'clock, the colliers were ascending from the workings. Some in their impatience, it would appear, rushed to the shaft which was not used for the ascent of men, but for drawing coal. This shaft had, however, been in use all day in hauling up coal, and had given no evidence of defectiveness. At the time stated five men, among whom was the manager, resorted to the coal shaft, which was the lesser of the two, and, having given the signal, were unfortunately drawn up; but when they had reached to within about twentyseven yards of the top of the shaft, the rope suddenly broke, and the poor fellows were hurled back to the bottom, and were killed instantaneously. In age the deceased ranged from fifteen to forty years. It was stated that the rope was cut by coming in contact with a broken "sheave."

9. Accouchement Op The Princess Mary Of Teck.—The following bulletin was issued:—

"Kensington Palace, January 9, 12 p.m. "Her Royal Highness the Princess Mary Adelaide was safely debvered of a Prince at eleven o'clock this evening.

"Her Royal Highness and the infant Prince are doing perfectly well.

"arthur Farre, M.D.
"edwd. H. Hills."
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