페이지 이미지

meetings of which, at King's College, he would frequently preside down to a very recent date. He also contributed several papers upon his favourite study to the "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society." To the very last he retained his kindliness of heart, untainted and uncorroded by all that he must have seen in his long and active lifo of the weak and warped side of human nature; and his gonial and lively humour was as playful during the last Guildhall sittings at which he presided as when he first made his appearance at the Bar, or took his seat upon the Bench in the Court of Exchequer.

The late Chief Baron was twice married—firstly, in 1813, to Frances, daughter of Mr. F. Rivers, of Spring Gardens, who died in 1827; and secondly, in 1835, to Sarah Ann, daughter of Captain Richard Lanslow, of Hatton, near Hounslow, Middlesex. He had a large family by each marriage j we believe upwards of twenty by both wives.


The sudden death, by his own hand, of tho newly-appointed French Minister to the United States of America, M. Prevost-Paradol, excited a profound sensation of rogrot, with many painful speculations upon the cause of so terrible an act. He had been well known during the past ten or twelve years to most Englishmen acquainted with the political literature and journalism of France as one of the ablest and sinoerest champions of constitutional freedom, and one of the severest censors of the despotic Empire. Ho was an accomplished scholar, a successful author, critic, essayist, and historian, and a member of the French Academy; he lived in tho best society of his a#e, and had gained a European fame. He had many personal friends among us, and a host of admirers in the reading world. It is scarcely a twelvemonth since he visited this country and delivered two lectures, in English, at the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, upon the social and political condition of France. He since contributed to the most influential of London daily papers a series of letters "from a French correspondent," revealing tho state of opinion among Liberals, and the growing disposition to claim the realization of a Parliamentary Government. When the formation of M. Ollivier's first Ministry, about the beginning of this year, appeared to open a prospect of establishing liberty upon this foundation, M. Prevost-Paradol accepted from

his old political associates, then coming into office, a high post in the diplomatic service. It was the appointment of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington; and, besides the personal distinction it conferred upon him, and the career of honourable effort in the public service to which it admitted him, the emoluments of thi3 post furnished him with the means of providing for his motherless daughters, to whom he was tenderly attached- Tho appointment was offered and accepted in January, since which time great changes had come over the spirit of the French Government, causing the secession of several of M. Emile Ollivier's Liberal colleagues from his Administration, and threatening a relapse to the old system of autocratic rule under the Empire, with a mere show of Parliamentary action. M. Prevost-Paradol was solicited and warned by niany of his friends to resign the official appointment he had taken, and to return to the ranks of the Opposition. He conceived, however, that, having become a member of the diplomatic service, he was thenceforth exempted from responsibility for the domestic polities of tho Empire, and that he would be enabled, with a clear conscience, to represent the national interests abroad. Under this persuasion he left France at length, with his family and suite, on board the frigate "Lavnlette," for America. Tho first news that greeted him on landing was that which had come across the Atlantic by tho submarino telegraph during his voyage, announcing tho French declaration of war against Prussia, in spite of M. Emile Ollivier's statement, two days before, that Franoe was satisfied by the withdrawal of the Prince of Hohenzollern. This was an instance of the real character of the Government he had undertaken to represent, which must have had a very painful effect on the sensitive mind of M. Prevost-Paradol. He said little about it, but brooded in deep sadness over the state of affairs. On the 16th of July, the new Ambassador was officially presonted to the President. M. Prevost-Paradol said ho rejoiced at being selected for this mission at a time when the traditional friendship between France and the United States was darkened by no cloud. He would faithfully endeavour to strengthen the political sympathy and to enlarge the industrial and commercial relations betwoen France and the United States. President Grant replied by assuring M. Prevost-Paradol of bis cordial support in every effort to increase the commerce and to perpetuate tho tradi

tional amicable relations between the two countries. These were but words of course. The unhappy Frenchman, less of a diplomatist than of an earnest politician, a patriotic citizen and literary soldier of liberty, had other things at heart. Three days later, at midnight, on the 19th, he shot himself in the breast with a reTolTer, and died in a few minutes, leaving a written message or note to desire M. Bcrthemy to take his place. He had directed his valet a day or two before to take care of his papers and money, in case any thing happened to him. The extreme heat of the weather at Washington may have affected his brain; but there was no evidence of insanity in his language or behaviour, and the business of his office had not been heavy. The verdict of the Coroner's jury at the inqueBt simply recorded that he came to his death by a wound from a pistol in his own hand.


This distinguished officer's services extended over many of the most stormy times of England's naval history during the wars with France at the end of the last and the beginning of the present century. In later times his services when in command in tho Pacific were of a very high order. When our relations with France had become of a very precarious nature in consequence of the misunderstanding which grew out of the Pritchard affair, these difficulties were mainly adjusted through the careful management of Sir George Seymour. So, again, in tho arduous negotiations which we were carrying on with the United States of America relative to the fishery question, that these were brought to a satisfactory conclusion was chiefly to bo ascribed to the tact, ability, and decision shown by the subject of this memoir, to which the Earl of Malmesbury and the Earl of Clarendon (the Foreign Minister of the day) bore conspicuous testimony in the House of Lords, and for which Sir James Graham, the First Lord of the Admiralty, bestowed on him the good service pension.

The object of our memoir was born on the 17th of September, 1787, and was eldest son of Vice-Admiral Lord Hugh Soymour, one of Lord Howo's captains at the battle of the 1st of June, 1794, fifth son of Francis, first Marquis of Hertford, and of Lady Anne Horatia, third daughter of James, second Earl of Waldegravo.

He entered the navy on the 10th of October, 1797, as first-class volunteer,

and from March, 1798, to May, 1802, served on the Channel and West Indian stations as midshipman in his father's flagship, the Sansparcil, and Prince of Wall's. In the latter ship he was at the capture of Surinam in 1799. In 1802-3 he served in the Endymion, 40, Isis, 50, and the Victory, bearing the flag of Lord Nelson. In the Endymion he contributed to the capture of La Colombe and La Bacchante, corvettes, L'Adour, and Le General Moreau, privateer, of 16 guns. In 1804 he was acting lieutenant in the Madras, 64, and Donegal, 74, Captain Sir R. Strachan, and Captain Pultoney Malcolm, in which latter ship he was made lieutenant in October, 1804, and was present at the capture of the Spanish frigates Matilda and Amphitrite; afterwards sailed with Lord Nelson in 1805 to the West Indies and back in search of the combined fleets of France and Spain, and assisted in taking El Bayo, of 100 guns. He joined the Northumberland, 74, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Hon. Alexander Cochrano, in February, 1806, and was in the action of St. Domingo, where he was dangerously wounded by an iron splinter shattering his lower jaw, and for which he received a pension. For his conduct ho was appointed commander of the Kingfisher, and in that ship greatly distinguished himself in running under tho batteries of the Isle d'Aix, and succeeded in rescuing Lord Cochrane's ship, the Pallas, 32, which had been utterly disabled by French frigates.

In July, 1806, he was promoted to be post-captain in the Aurora, in the Mediterranean, and in 1807 was employed on the Coast of Calabria. In February, 1808, being transferred to the Pallas, ho took part in the embarkation of Sir John Moore's army at Corunna. The Pallas, on the 11th of April, 1809, was employed in support of the fireships in the Basque Boads, and belonged to the attacking force in the success gained on the 12th in the Boads off the Isle d'Aix. His eminent services on this occasion are related in Lord Dundonald's autobiography. His next services were during the Walchcren Expedition and the attack on Flensburg, and shortly afterwards, in command of the Manilla, 36, he was on the Lisbon station, rendering services to the army under Lord Wellington. In 1812 he took command of the Fortune, and soon afterwards of the Leonidas, 46, in which he captured the American privateer Paul Jones, 16, and some other American vessels. In 1814 he sailed in the Leonidas for the West Indies.

At the conclusion of the war Captain Seymour was named one of the original Companions of the Bath. In 1819 he was appointed Sergeant-at-Arms to the Houbo of Lords, and in 1827 held the temporary command of the Briton frigate on a special mission to St. Petersburg. He was in 1830 appointed Master of the Robes to King William IV., and remained so till the King's death in 1837. His Majesty, being a member of the same profession, fully appreciated Sir George's character and services. In 1841 Sir George was advanced to flag rank, and, resigning his appointment as Sergeantat-Arms, became a Lord of the Admiralty until May, 1844, when he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in the Pacific, with his flag in the Collingwood, 80, and having become a Yice-Admiral in 1850, he was, in 1851, appointed to the command of the North Amencan and West Indian stations. His important services on these two stations have been above alluded to. In 1856 wo next find him Commander - in - Chief at Portsmouth, with his flag in the Victory, the same ship in which he had the honour of serving under Lord Nelson more than half a century before. During this command it fell to his lot to organize the great review of the magnificent fleet prepared to carry on the war against Russia. In May, 1857, he became a full Admiral.

Since then his advice and opinion were frequently sought for by committees on naval a flairs of both Houses of Parliament, his lengthened experience and sound judgment having made him one of the highest authorities in such matters that this country could boast of.

The honours conferred on him, besides his pension for wounds, included his investiture as G.C.H. in 1834, and G.C.B. in 1860. He was made Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, and subsequently Vice-Admiral of the same, and in November, 1866, Admiral of the Fleet.

Sir George Soymour, whose death occurred on the 20th of January, married in 1811 Georgina Mary, second daughter of Admiral Sir G. C. Berkeley, G.C.B., by whom he left issue two sons and three daughters.


Major-General Sir Charles Ashe Windham, K.C.B., whoso name was so familiar to English ears some fifteen years ago as "the Hero of the Redan," was the third son of Vice-Admiral Windham, and brother of Mr. William Henry Windham, of Felbrigge, Norfolk (who was M.P. for East Norfolk in the first Reformed Parabout him a charmed life. At length, finding it hopeless to obtain support by sending messengers, he coolly walked across the open space before the ramparts in the midst of a well-sustained fire, to demand assistance in person. The "Royals" were then placed at his disposal; but no sooner were they put in formation than the men in the Bedan were obliged to abandon the work. The opportunity had been lost.

liament). His uncle, the Right Hon. William Windham, many years M.P. for Norwich, St. Mawes, New Romney, Higham Ferrers, Ac, will long be remembered as having been Secretary of State for the War and Colonial Departments in Lord Grenville's Ministry of " AH the Talents." The family name was Lukin, until it was exchanged about half a century ago for that of Windham; and the Windhams or Wymondhams have been seated in Norfolk, according to Sir Bernard Burke, since the twelfth century.

The future General was born in Norfolk in the year 1810, and received his early education at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. In December, 1826, we find him gazetted to a commission as Ensign and Lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards. He was promoted to Lieutenant and Captain in May, 1833, obtained his Majority in November, 1846, and was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in the following month. He obtained these steps by purchase, as also his Colonelcy in June, 1854, a few weeks after the proclamation of the war against Russia.

In the same summer he accompanied the British Forces to the Crimea, and during the earlier part of the campaign he acted as Assistant-QuartermasterGeneral to the Fourth Division. A vacancy, however, occurring, General Simpson, who had lately succeeded Lord Raglan in the chief command, appointed Colonel Windham to a brigade in the Second Division. When, after the battle of the Alma, Lord Raglan resolved, following the advice of Sir John Burgoyne, to make a flank march on Balaklava, and to send to Admirals Dundas and Lyons, requesting them to support that movement by bringing the fleet round to that point, Colonel Windham was the officer selected for the duty of carrying the despatch on "that occasion. He was subsequently engaged at Inkermann, where he was publicly thanked by Sir George Cathcart for his gallant services; he was by the side of that General when he received his mortal wound; and ou his death the command of a division devolved npon him.

It was not, however, till a subsequent date that his name came to be known far and wide in England. On the 8th of September, 1855—just a year after the battle of the Alma—the tricolor flag was waved from the Malakoif as the signal for the English to advance against tho Redan. General Windham was tho first to enter the stronghold, and amid the shower of bullets and cannon balls that flew around him he seemed to bear

The correspondents of the press were not slow in recording the heroic bravery of Windham on this occasion, and on the arrival of General Codrington's despatches at the Horse Guards, the subject of tbiB memoir was rewarded by promotion to the rank of Major-General, for his distinguished conduct in having, with the greatest intrepidity and coolness, headed the column of attack which assaulted the enemy's defences on the 8th of September, 1855. For the same service he received the honour of the usual modal with clasps; and he was immediately appointed by the Commander-in-Chief to the command of Karabelnaia,—the British portion of Sebastopol. On the retirement of Sir Henry Bentinck ho was nominated to the permanent command of the Fourth Division.

On the resignation of the late Sir Henry W. Barnard, in the November following, General Windham was appointed Chief of the Staff of the Army in the East, and in virtue of his office became the responsible head of the two departments of the Adjutant-General and the Quartermaster-Genoral.

On his return to England at the conclusion of the war, General Windham was received in London with all appropriate honours, and in his own county he was presented with a handsome sword,

a subscription for the purpose of a testimonial among the gentlemen and yeomen of Norfolk having in a few days reached 1000J.

At the General Election of April, 1857, his native county again showed its appreciation of his public character, for the constituency of East Norfolk returned him to Parliament in the Liberal interest without a contest. On that occasion he professed himself an advocate of electoral, legal, and military reform, and of the permanent embodiment and establishment of the militia. In Parliament he took part in several discussions relating to army commissions, and advocated the system of public competition instead of private patronage.

In the following month of August General Windham left England for India a few days after Lord Clyde, in order to undertake the command of a column. His services in support of Lord Clyde at Cawnpore and at the relief of Lucknow, when he defeated the Gwalior Contingent, and subsequently as Commander at Lahore in the Punjaub, will long be remembered.

He was promoted in 1863 to the rank of Lieutenant-General, and nominated a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1865; Colonel of the 46th Foot in 1861, and in 1867 was appointed to the oommand of the British Forces in North America.

Sir Charles Windham, who died on the 1st of February, was twice married—firstly, in 1819, to Marianne Catharine Emily, youngest daughter of the late Yico-Admiral Sir John Poo Beresford, K.C.B., M.P., who died in 1865 j and, secondly, in 1866, to Charlotte Jane, daughter of the late Be v. Henry Des Vceux.





This was a judgment by the full Court of Divorce and Matrimonial Causes on a novel point, and one of great general interest. The question which it decided had reference to the right of a petitioner to sue for a divorce, when the respondent was at the time or shortly after the service of the citation insane. The previous history of this case was as follows:—

A petition had been presented by Sir Charles Mordaunt, of Walton-hall, in the county of Warwick, for a dissolution of his marriage with Harriet Sarah, Lady Mordaunt, on the ground of adultery. The petitioner alleged the marriage on the 6th of December, 1866, at St. John's Episcopal Church, Perth; cohabitation at Walton Hall, and at 6, Belgrave-square: and adultery with Viscount Cole in May, June, and July, 1868, at Chesham-place, and in July, 1868, and January, 1869, at Walton-hall; and adultery with Sir Frederick Johnstone, in November and December, 1868, at Walton-hall, and in December, 1868, at the Alexandra Hotel, Knightsbridge; and adultery also with some person between the loth of June, 1868, and the 28th of February, 1869. The citation was served on Lady Mordant at Walton-hall on the 30th of April, 1869. An application was afterwards made on her behalf to stay the proceedings, on the ground that she was not of sound mind, and was, therefore, unable to plead and to give instructions for her defence, and the application was supported by affidavits. Counter affidavits were filed on behalf of the petitioner, with the view of showing that Lady Mordaunt was feigning insanity in order to avoid pleading to the petition, and on the 27th of July, 1869, an order was made that her ladyship's father Sir Thomas Moncrieffe, should appear as her guardian ad litem, for the purpose of raising the question as to her state of mind. On the 30th of July 1869, Sir Thomas Moncrieffe accordingly entered an appearance, and alleged that at the time when the citation in this suit was served on the respondent, to wit, on the 30th of April, 1869, the respondent was not of sound mind, and that she had not since been and was not then of sound mind. The petitioner having taken issue on this allegation, the question was ordered to be tried before the Court by a special jury.

« 이전계속 »