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4 scruples (80 grains). Some mice of the genus dendromys (Smith) live on trees; the upper incisors are grooved, the fore feet 3-toed with a thumb-like wart, and the long tail is thinly haired and ringed; here belongs the M. meaomelas (Licht.).—Among the American or sigmodont mice will be mentioned here only the genera reithrodon (Waterh.) and hesperomys (Waterh.), as neotoma and sigmodon belong properly among the rats on account of the large size of all their species. In reithrodon the ears and tail are short and hairy, and the upper incisors are grooved longitudinally in front; 3 species of rat-like size have been found in the extreme southern portion of South America, while the North American ones resemble slender house mice; the body is depressed, limbs short, head broad and short, tail about as long as the body, thumb rudimentary and with a short nail, and heel hairy; the North American species are found in the southern states on the Atlantic border, and from St. Louis westward to the Rocky mountains, and to the Pacific territories. The harvest mouse (R. humilis, Baird) is about 2J inches long, with the tail a trifle less; in color and general appearance it so nearly resembles a small house mouse, that it can only be distinguished at the first glance by the grooved incisors; the eyes are small; it is rarely injurious to the farmer, preferring grass lands to grain fields for its habitation. In hesperomys or the vesper mice, the typical species have long tails scantily haired, large ears, the quick motions of the common mouse, and generally white feet and a whitish tail. The old genus was of very great extent, embracing a large portion of the American muridm; the South American species, most of them too large to be considered mice, have been arranged by Burmeister under the genera calomys, habrothrix, and oxymUtertu, established by Waterhouse, the first resembling the common mouse, the 2d the meadow mice (arnicolm), and the 3d the lemmings. Baird divides even the North American species into 3 groups, as follows; hesperomys (Waterh.), containing 13 species; onychomys (Baird), and oryzomys (Baird), each with a single species. In hesperomys the form is mouse-like, tail not less or even longer than the body without the head, claws weak, hind legs and feet long, and soles naked or less than half hairy. The white-footed or deer mouse (H. leucopus, Le Conte) is between 3 and 4 inches long, with tail about the same; the color of the adult is yellowish brown above, darker on the back, the lower parts of the body and tail and the upper surface of the feet white; the young are dark slaty; the eyes and ears are large, and the fur long and soft. It is distributed from Nova Scotia to Virginia, and as far west as the Mississippi, and is a common inhabitant of houses and barns; it is nocturnal in its habits, as active as a squirrel, nesting in trees, in the fields, in barns and houses, and making a dwelling resembling a bird's nest; it feeds principally on grain, seeds, nuts, and

acorns, and is very fond of maize; it produces 2 or 3 broods in a season, according to latitude, 5 or 6 at a birth ; it is not very injurious to the farmer, most of the mischief commonly attributed to it being due to the arvicola or meadow mice ;. great numbers are destroyed by the smaller carnivorous mammals and birds. Allied species are found in Texas, California, the southern states, and on the Pacific coast. The cotton mouse (H. gossypinus, Le Conte) makes its nest under logs and in trees, often robbing the Georgia planter of more than a pound of cotton for a single nest. The hamster mouse (//. myoidcs, Gapper) has been mentioned under HamSter. The prairie mouse (H. Michiganensit, Wagner) is 3 J inches long, with a tail of 1| inches, and the smallest of the genus; the color is grayish brown above, whitish beneath, with the cheeks yellow. The Missouri mouse (H. leueogaster, Pr. Max.), the type of the group onychomys, has the clumsy form of the arcicola, tail less than half the head and body, claws large and fossorial, the posterior * of the soles densely furred, and the skull without crest; the body is 4 inches long and the tail 3i inches; grayish brown above, passing into yellowish red and fulvous on tho sides; feet and under surface of body and tail white; the eyes are large, the ears rather short, and the whiskers long; it lives on the seeds and roots of wild plants, and sometimes on corn. The rice-field mouse (II. palustris, Wag.), the type of oryzomys of Baird, has a rat-like form, ears nearly buried in the fur, coarse hair, tail longer than head and body, hind feet long, soles naked, and upper margin of the orbit raised into a compressed crest; it is over 5 inches long, and the tail about the same; the color is rusty brown above, and whitish below. It is found in the rice fields of Carolina and Georgia, burrowing in the dams just above the water line; it scratches up the newly planted rice, eats it in the milky 6tate, and gleans it from the fields in autumn; it is a good swimmer and diver; it eats also seeds of marsh grasses, and sometimes small mollusks and crustaceans.

MOUTON, Georges. See Lobat/.

MOVERS, Franz Kabi, a German orientalist, born in Koesfeld, Westphalia, July 17, 1306, died in Breslau, Sept. 28, 1856. He was the son of a watchmaker, and a member of the Roman Catholic church. He studied at Monster, was ordained in 1829, and officiated in the pulpit from 1830 to 1839, when he was appointed professor of Old Testament theology at the Catholic faculty of Breslau, which office he held till his death. His principal work, Die Phonizur, presents a comprehensive view of Phoenician history. The 1st volume (Breslau, 1840) treats of the religion and the divinities of the Phoenicians; the 2d volume bears the title of Das Phonizisehe Alttrthum, and is divided into two parts, embracing the political history (1849) and the colonial history (1860) of that nation; the 1st part of the 3d volume (1856) treats of navigation and commerce.

MOWATT (RITCHIE), Aiwa Cora, an American actress and authoress, born abont 1621 in Bordeaux, France, where her father, Samuel G. Ogden, a merchant of New York, was then established in business. She was the 10th of a family of 17 children, and her earlychildhood was passed in an elegant chateau in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, in the private theatre attached to which sho frequently participated in the juvenilo dramatic performances with which her brothers and sisters were accustomed to amuse themselves. When she was about 6 years of age the family returned to New York, and Miss Ogden in the intervals of her daily studies devoted much timo to reading and private dramatic entertainments. At the age of 14, while yet at school, she attracted the attention of James Mowatt, a lawyer of New York, to whom, with tho consent of her parents, she was soon after engaged, with the understanding that sho was not to be married until she had reached the age of 17. Before the appointed time, however, she made a runaway match with him. During the first two years of her married life she continued her studies with great diligence, and published also two poems, "Pelayo, or tho Cavern of Covadongo," an epic in 6 cantos, and tho "Reviewers Reviewed," a satire directed against tho critics of the former poem. At the end of this period her health began to fail, and sho mado a visit of a year and a half to Europe, during whioh sho wrote for private performance a play entitled "Gulzora, or tho Persian Slave," which was afterward published. Not long after her return financial difficulties overtook her husband, and as a means of providing for their support sho gave a series of public dramatic readings in Boston, Providence, New York, and other cities. The exertions incident to this career, however, produced n serious illness, and for two years sho was a confirmed invalid. She employed herself during this interval in contributing articles to the nmgazines ■under the pseudonyme of Helen Berkley, and also wrote a 5 act comedy entitled " Fashion,"

Srodneed at tho Park theatre, New York, in lurch, 1845, with considerable success. In June of the same year she made her pnblic debut at this theatre as Pauline in the " Lady of Lyons," and thenceforth for many years was a popular actress on the American stage. In 1847 she made an extended professional visit to England, where in 1851 her nusband died; and in the latter part of 1854 she played a series of farewell engagements in tho United States and left the stage. Sho was soon after married to Mr. W. F. Ritchie of Richmond, Va., and has since lived in retirement. Her remaining works are: "Armand," a drama produced in 1847, and in which, as in " Fashion, she took a prominent part; tho "Fortune Hunter, a Novel of New York Society" (lost ed., 1854); "Autobiography of an Actress" (New York, 1855); .and "Mimic Life, or Beforo and Behind the Curtain" (Now York, 1856).

MOWTNG And REAPING MACHINES, mechanical devices now in general use in the United States and parts of Europe for cutting grain or grass by animal power. Though this important invention was suggested by the ancient Romans, it is believed that tho first experiments tending toward practical results were mado in Europe in tho early part of the present century; whilo for its general usefulness and present perfection the world has acknowledged its obligations to tho genius and enterprise of American inventors. The names of Smith, Bell, Gladstones, and Scott are well known as connected with the experimental working of this machine in England; and those of Hussey, McCormick, Ketchum, and Manny are familiar to nearly every American farmer, as among the many inventors who have improved it and demonstrated its practical utility. Tho first machines were constructed with the idea of imitating the hand process ns nearly as possible. Cutters similar to tho ordinary scytho or sickle were employed, and a rotary motion communicated to them through suitable mechanism, from tho wheels supporting the machine. This plan of communicating power to the cutting device is still used, but the form and movement of the cutters have been materially changed. A scries of small shears wcro substituted for tho scythe or sickle, and these were again superseded by a single scries of two-edged pointed knives, standing at right angles with and attached to n horizontal rod or long plato of metal, tho whole resembling a saw plate with very coarso teeth. These cutters work through mortised, stationary fingers or guards, a series of which are permanently fixed to the front of the machine, and, being longer than the cutting teeth, project a short distance forward, thus gathering small portions of tho grass or straw between them where it is clipped off by the rapid reciprocrating passage of tho cutters. This device proved superior to either of the others, and with its various modifications has been universally adopted by manufacturers. Tho names of Adams of New York, Ten Eyk of New Jersey, and Lane of Maine are among tho earliest that appear as connected with the invention of harvesters in tho United States; but in 1838 Obed Hussey, then of Cincinnati, O., patented a machine to which ho applied the saw-toothed cutters and guards. This machine was at once put into practical operation, and, after annual experiments and modifications, was in 1885-'6 favorably noticed by the press. On July 12, 1837, a public exhibition of its operation was mado under the direction of the board of trustees of the Maryland agricultural society for the eastern shore of Maryland, and was witnessed by several hundred persons, principally farmers, who expressed great satisfaction with the result. The board also awarded a handsome pair of silver cups to tho inventor. During tho same season this machine cut in a satisfactory manner 180 acres of oats and barley on a farm in Maryland. Though this implement would hardly compare with the reaper of the present day, it may be said to have proved its utility, and laid a firm foundation for the experiments which have led to more modern inventions.—Owing to the variety in form and the multiplicity of patented modifications of the several parts of the modern machines, we will give a general description only of their construction and operation. These machines consist of a strong framework, so constructed as to support a driver's seat, the cutting mechanism, and, when used for harvesting grain, a platform on which the grain falls when cut, and from which it is raked or otherwise removed as often as a sufficient quantity for a bundle has accumulated thereon. This framework is somewhat longer than the width of the swath to be cut, which is usually 5 feet, more or less, and of sufficient width for the platform, say 3 feet, except when used for cutting grass, when the platform is dispensed with, as the mown grass is allowed to fall over the cutters directly upon the ground. On the front edge of the frame is fixed the cutting apparatus, consisting of a series of iron guards or pointed fingers which are permanently fastened to the frame and extend 7 inches, more or less, beyond its edge, parallel to each other, horizontal and pointing forward. They are about 8J inches apart, of suitable size, say 1£ inches, at the base, lessening toward the point. Each guard has a horizontal mortise through it, and being on a line with each other they all form a continuous horizontal mortise or slit through the whole line of guards. The cutters are formed of thin triangular plates of steel, fastened to a straight flat rod or plate of metal. These steel plates are arranged side by side, resembling a saw with teeth 8 inches wide at their base and 4 inches long, sharp on both sides, and terminating in a point. This saw or cutting plate is passed through the slits in the guards with the teeth pointing forward and their points coming even with the centres of the guards. One end of the saw is connected to a crank, which receives a rapid motion through intermediate cog wheels, from the tractive force and motion of the main or driving wheel. The framework with all its mechanism is supported by two or more wheels, the driving wheel being much larger than the other, and the axles so constructed as to admit of the platform, cutters, &c., being horizontal and suspended within a few inches of the ground. The pole is so attached to the framework as to allow the team to walk before the machine on the stubble of the last swath, while the platform with the cutters on its front edge extends on the right at right angles with the direction of the horses, so that the guards and cutters are presented to the standing grain or grass. A large reel, in front

of and parallel with the series of cutters, is sometimes attached to the framework, and, being connected by a band or otherwise to the driving wheel, is made to revolve with it in the right direction to bend back the top of the standing grain or grass, past the cutters and over the platform, which tends to assist the cutting and to insure the backward fall of the grass upon the platform, or the ground in the rear of the machine. A seat for the driver is usually attached directly behind the team, above and over the driving wheel. Some of the machines used for harvesting grain have two seats, one for the driver of the team, and the other so attached to the framework as to seat the raker in a convenient position to remove the grain from the platform.—The litigations among patentees and others interested in the many improvements in these machines, have been so numerous and complicated that we must refer the reader to the records of the courts for all the particulars in relation to the specific claims and awards of the several inventors. But in justice to the genius and enterprise of the modern American inventors whose names appear at the commencement of this article, we may say that since McCormick's award for the best harvester at the industrial exhibition in London in 1851, an active competition for excellence has been carried on at our annual agricultural fairs, which has resulted in a pretty general distribution of prizes. Some patents have been granted for machines for reaping and threshing grain at the same operation, and many for a binding apparatus as an attachment to the reaper; but if any of these have proved successful, they are yet to be brought into general notice.

MOXA, any substance whose gradual combustion on or near the skin is used as a remedy in disease. The mode of treatment was brought into Europo from China and Japan by the Portuguese, but has now fallen into comparative disuse on account of its severity, although in neuralgic and certain other complaints it is still sometimes recommended as an effective counter-irritant. The Chinese use for moxas a cone formed from the down of the leaf of a plant of the mugwort kind (artemitia moxa, De Candolle); but the down or pith of many other plants may be used, and the pith of the common sunflower answers very well. In the United States and Europe the operation is usually performed with a roll of cotton wool, which is held upon the skin by an instrument, set fire to at the top, and suffered to burn down. The moxa has often been used in conjunction with acupuncture, the combustible substance being perforated by the needle which is pushed into the flesh to convey the heat directly to the seat of the disease.




Macon, Ga IS

Macon, Franco 18

Macon, Nathaniel 18

Maconnals 19

Macoupin oo. 19

Macphcrson, James 19

Macrauchenia 31

Macready, William Charles 81

Macrlnua 83

Macrobius, Ainbrosius Aureiius

Theodoslus S3

Mactyelre, Holland Nlranions, D.D. 33

Macrlckar, John, D.D 83

Macwhorter, Alexander, D.T>. 33

Madagascar 38

Madame 39

Madden, Sir Frederic 29

Madder 89

Maddor, Indian, seo Muujeet

Madeira 80

Madeira, a river 89

Madison co, N. Y 83

Madison co., Va. 83

Madison co., N. 0 83

Madison co., Ga. 88

Madison co., Fl«. 88

Madison co, Ala. 88

Madison co., Miss. 88

Madison co., La. 88

Madison co., Tex. 88

Madison co., Ark. 88

Madison oo., Tenn. 88

Madison co., Ky. 88

Madison co., Ohio. 88

Madison co., I nd. 88

Madison co.. Ill 88

Madison co.. Mo 88

Madison co., Iowa 84

Madison, Ga, 84

Madison, Ind. 84

Madison, Wis 84

Madison, James, D.D 84

Madison, James 84

Madison University, sco Hamilton,

N. Y.

Madler, Johann Helnrich... .*. 41

Madoo 43

Madonna 43

Madoz, Pascusle 43

Madras 4-2

Madrazo, Jose y Aguda 44

Madrepore, see Coral.

Madrid 44

Madrigal 4T

Madura 4T

Madvlg, Johann Nloolaus 4T

Meander 49

Mieccnas, Calus Cllnlns 48

Mo-lar 48

Maelstrom 43

Maerlant, Jakob. 49

Maes, Nicolas 49

Maastricht 49

Maffel, Francesco Scipione CO


Manchineel 184

Manclni, Laura Beatrice Oliva..,. 134

Manco Capac 134

Mandamus 135

Mandans 186

Mandara 186

Mandarin 136

Mandate 187

Mandelay 133

Mandevfilc, Bernard de 188

Mandeville, Sir John 138

Mandlngo 189

Mandoline 189

Mandragoro, see Mandrake.

Mandrake 189

Mandrill, see Baboon.
Manes, see Manicha?ans.

Manes 189

Manetho 189

Manfred 189

Manganese 140

Mangel Wurzel, seo Beet

Mangles, James 141

Mango 142

Mangosteen 142

Mangouste, see Ichneumon.

Mangrove 142

Mangum, Willie Person 148

Manichasans 143

Manigault, Gabriel 145

Manila 146

Manilius, Marcus 147

Manin, Daniele 147

Manioc, see Cassava.
Mania, see Pangolin.

Manitou 143

Manltoulin 149

Manitowoc co 143

Monley (De la Klviere), Mrs 148

Manley, John 149

Manlil 149

Manliua, Marcus Capitoli nus 149

Manly, Basil, D.D 149

Mann, A. T 149

Mann, Horace, LL.D 149

Manna 151

Mannheim 151

Manning, Henry Edward 152

Manning, James, D.D 152

Manometer 152

Manresa 158

Mans, Le 153

Mansel, Henry Longuevllle 153

Mansfeld, Family of. 158

Mansfeld, Peter Ernst 154

Mansfeld, Ernst 154

Monsfield, Conn 154

Mansfield, Ohio 154

Mansfield, William Murray 154

Manslaughter 156

Mantchooria 157

Mantegna, Andrea 159

Manteu, Gideon Algernon 159

ManteufTel, Otto Theodor von..... 160

Mantlnea 160

Mantua 160

Manu, see Brahma.

Manuel I. Comnenus 1G2

Manuel Palseologus 162

Manumission 163

Manures, see Agricultural Chemis-

Manuscript 169

M -i tin LiaB, Aldus 164

Manutlus, Paulus 164

Manutius, Aldus, the Younger.... 164

Manzoni, Alessandro 164

Map 165

Mapcs, Walter 167

Maple 167

Marablos 169

Marabou 169

Marabout 169

Maracaybo 169

Maracaybo, Lake of 170

Maranhao 170

Marunon, see Amazon.

Marat. Jean Paul 170

Marathon co. 171

Marathon 171

MarattL Carlo 171

Marble 171


Maine de Biran, Francois Pierre

Gonthier 65

Maintenon, Francoise d'Aubignc.. si
Mainz, see Mentz.

Maistre, Joseph de 67

Malstre, Xavler do 67

Maltland, Sir Richard. 83

Maize 83

Majesty 89

Major 69

Majorca 69

Maki, see Lemur.

Malabar 90

Malabar Coast 92

Malacca 92

Malacca, Straits of 98

Malacht 93

Malachite 98

Malacology 93

Malacoptcrygfans 95

Malaga 96

Malan, Citsar Henri Abraham,

D.D 96

Malan, Solomon C. 97

Malaria 97

Malay Archipelago, 6eo Archi-

Malay Language 99

Malay Peninsula 100

Malays 101

Malbone, Edward Q 108

Malcolm, Sir John 103

Malcom, Howard, D.D 104

Malczc wskf, AntonI 104

Maldives 104

Malebranche, Nicolas 105

Malesherbes, Chretien Ouillaume

de Lamoignon de 106

Malherbe, Francois de 107

Malibran, Maria Fellclta 1"7

Mallard, see Duck.

Mallary, Rollln Carlos 109

Mallary, Charles D., D.D 109

Mallet, Darid 103

Mallet, Paul Henri 108

Mallou*, Nossif 109

Mallow 109

Malmesbury, James Harris. Earl

of 109

Malmesbury. James Howard Har-
ris, Earl of 110

Malmesbury, William of 110

Malmo 110

Malmsey 110

Malone, Edmond 110

Malpighf, Marcello 110

Malplaquet 110

Malt, see Brewing.

Malta Ill

Maltby, Edward, D.D 113

Malte-Brun, Conrad 118

Maltc-Brun, Victor Adolphe. 113

Malthus, Thomas Robert 118

Malus, Etienne Louis 114

Malvoisln, William do 114

Malwah 114

Mamc, Alfred Henri Armand 115

Mamelukes 115

Mamianl, Terenzlo della Rovere.. 116

Mammalia 117

Mammalogy 121

Mammary Glands 126

Mammee Apple 126

Mammoth 127

Mammoth Cave, see Cave.
Man, see Anatomy, Anthropology,
Comparative Anatomy, Ethnol-
ogy, Mammalia, Philosophy, and

Man, Isle of 129

Man-of-War Bird, ace Frigate Bird.

Managua 128

Managua, Lake 128

Manakin 129

Manasseh (two) 129

Manatee 129

Manayunk 181

Manby, George William 181

Mancha, La 181

Manche, La. 181

Manchester, N. H. 181

Manchester, Eng, 132


Marble, Playing 177

Marblehead 177

Marbois, Barbc, see Barbe-Mar-

bo is.

Marburg 177

Marc Antonio, see Raimondl.

Marcellus, Marcus Claudius 177

March 178

March, the month 173

March, Earl of, see Mortimer,

Marcion, see Gnostics.

Marcomannl 179

Marcus Aurellas, see Antoninus.

Marcy, William Learned 179

Mardin 179

Maremmo ISO

Marengo co. ISO

Marengo 169

Marcotis, Lake, see Birket-el-Ma-

Marot, Ungues Bernard, ace Bas-


Margaret Queen of Navarre 161

Margaret of Anjou lfel

Margaret of Austria lift

Margaret of Denmark IS

Margaret of Parma 13

Margaret of Valois 1*4

Margarin 184

Margarita 1*4

Margaritono d'Arezxo. 164

Margate laS

Margrave, see Marquis.

Marhelncke, Phlilpp Konrad IK

Maria Christina lfeS

Maria do1 Medici 186

Maria Louisa ;--

Maria Theresa 156

Mariana, Juan ls»

Marianne Islea, sec Ladrones.

Marie, Alexandre Thomas 168

Marie Amelia 166

Marie Antoinette 166

Marienbad 1*

Marienzell 190

Marietta 1W

Marietto, Augusta Edouard IVI

Marignano, see Melegna.no.

Marigold 191

Marin co 192

Mariner's Compass, sec Compass.

Mario, Giuseppe 193

Marion co., \ a. 19S

Marlon (list, 8. C IK

Marlon co., Ga. 199

Marion co., Fla. 198

Marion co , Ala. 198

Marion co., Miss. 198

Marlon co.. Ark 799

Marlon co., Tenn. 193

Marion co, Ky 193

Marion co., Ohio 193

Marion co., Ind. 196

Marion co., Ill 193

Marion co., Mo 198

Marion co., Iowa 193

Marion co., Oregon 193

Marlon, Ala. 194

Marion, Francis

Mariposa co


Marius, Cains 197

Marivaux, Pierre Carlct de Cham-

blalnde J 199

Marjoram 900

Mark Antony, see Antony.

Mark, Saint 200

Marl 901

Marlborough district 201

Marlborough, Duke of, see ChurcL-i.


Marlowe, Christopher 201

Marmont, Auguste Frederic Louis

Vlesse de 201

Marmontel, Jean FrancoU 902

Marmora, Sea of 90

Marmora, Island of 90

Marmoset M

Marmot 90*

Marne 194

Marne. Haute, see Haute-M»ru«.

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