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Mr. STEFAN. How much additional money would that mean?

Mr. LYNN. We are not asking for additional money. This is just authorization to buy the clothing out of our annual appropriation.

Mr. STEFAN. You would absorb that, would you?
Mr. LYNN. Yes, sir.
Mr. STEFAN. Proceed.

Mr. LYNN. The amount of $323,200 asked for 1949 is $200,400 more than the amount of $122,800 allowed for 1948.

INCREASE FOR PERSONAL SERVICES

Of this increase $5,400 is in the item for personal services and is requested for within-grade promotions, increased holiday pay and night work differential; also for one additional position of engineer to provide assistance in the work of maintenance, repair, and operation of equipment and to help prevent excess accumulation of leave on the part of other employees. Detailed justifications are to be found on pages 30 and 31.

ADDITIONAL ACCOMODATIONS FOR LAWYERS

New nonrecurring items, five in all, totaling $195,000 are $3,000 for improvements and alterations to provide additional accommodations for lawyers. Detailed justification and break-down are found on page 33.

The two rooms and anteroom now available to members of the

Supreme Court bar as study and dictation rooms are no longer adequate for the number of lawyers desiring such space. This estimate proposes five small rooms, with movable steel partitions, in the third-floor corridor, air-conditioned, lighted, and sound-proofed for dictation and study. Mr. STEFAN. What do these lawyers do now?

Mr. LYNN. The court authorities advise that there are now so many more lawyers who want to be accommodated that they do not have adequate room for them.

Mr. STEFAN. Where are they being accommodated now?

Mr. LYNN. They have three small rooms on the third floor. These are additional rooms that they want constructed.

Mr. STEFAN. Their accommodations now are crowded, are they?
Mr. Lynn. That is what I understand; yes, sir.
Mr. STEFAN. Proceed.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ALTERATIONS TO INCREASE LIBRARY CAPACITY

Mr. Lynn. The next item is $75,000 for improvements and alterations to increase the library capacity. Detailed justification and break-down are found on pages 34 and 35.

Since the building was occupied in 1935, the library has increased nearly 100 percent or from 75,000 to 149,955 volumes. Under this estimate, it is proposed to provide accommodations in the main reading room for an additional 10,000 volumes by lengthening the 33 existing bookcases and installing 12 additional bookcases; at the same time installing structural supports for a future second tier of bookcases; also installing approximately 2,000 feet of stock steel shelving in areas outside the main reading room.

Mr. STEFAN. What would be the situation if that were not done in the next fiscal year, but put over until the following year?

Would it be a great inconvenience if they did not have it?

Mr. Lynn. I think the Court should have some increase to take care of their immediate needs. Additional books are coming in continually and are being added to the collection.

Mr. STEFAN. You mean by that, that they do not need all of it at this time?

Mr. LYNN. Mr. Chairman, of course, that is a matter for your committee to decide. I would like to suggest, if the committee does not feel that they can go along and provide the full amount, that as an alternative, half the amount be granted to permit building bookstacks at either end of the room which would provide immediate accommodation for 6,200 additional volumes.

Mr. STEFAN. Where are the volumes being put now for which you say there are no bookcases? Do they have plenty of space now? Mr. LYNN. They do not have plenty of space now. Mr. STEFAN. Where are they storing those volumes now?

Mr. KRAMER. They are scattered in 10 or 12 different places throughout the building.

Mr. STEFAN. And what you are trying to do is to have them all concentrated in one space!

Mr. KRAMER. Yes, sir, in the main library.

Mr. STEFAN. Your suggestion of providing half the money requested is that it would provide some relief?

Mr. Lynn. It would be quite some relief; yes, sir.

IMPROVEMENTS AND ALTERATIONS IN TELEPHONE EXCHANGE

The next item is $3,500 for improvements and alterations in the telephone exchange, detailed justification of which and break-down are to be found on pages 36 and 37. The exchange is located on the ground floor, which is not air-conditioned.

With the occupancy of the building nearly doubled since 1939, the exchange has been enlarged from a two-position, single switchboard to a three-position, double switchboard which has created a crowded and uncomfortable condition especially in the summer season.

It is planned to install a connecting door between rooms and partition one of the rooms to provide toilet and lavatory facilities and an office and rest room for the operators; also to relocate the telephone racks. The telephone company will relocate the racks at its expense.

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AIR CONDITIONING GROUND FLOOR

The next item is $110,000 for air conditioning the ground floor, and increasing the capacity of the refrigeration plant and other related improvements. Detailed justification and break-down are to be found on pages 38 to 42, inclusive.

Mr. STEFAN. I should like to ask you the same question I asked Mr. Justice Burton. How many employees occupy the rooms that are to be air conditioned?

Mr. Lynn. Fifty-one in the administrative office of the United States courts, and 47 Supreme Court employees, including the press.

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Mr. STEFAN. They are in there now, are they?
Mr. LYNN. Yes, sir.

Mr. STEFAN. And to provide the air conditioning you think it is necessary to have $110,000?

Mr. LYNN. Yes, sir. The ground floor was not air-conditioned as it was not intended for office use. The administrative office of the United States courts is occupying certain sections of the building and as they could not be entirely accommodated in available space on the first and second floors, they have had to use space on the ground floor as offices where the conditions are very trying in the summer season. This is also true with respect to the rooms on the ground floor occupied by Supreme Court employees.

Mr. STEFAN. We have put in the record the letter sent to you by Mr. Whitehurst, the Assistant Director, and it provides a break-down of the items and the reasons why they are necessary.

Mr. LYNN. Yes, sir; I am familiar with that. The storage vaults are also on this floor and the National Archives advises that the vaults should be air-conditioned for the proper preservation of the records.

Mr. STEFAN. You mean that if they are not air-conditioned the documents will deteriorate?

Mr. LYNN. All libraries now realize that it is necessary to aircondition vaults of libraries for the preservation of books.

Mr. STEFAN. Mr. Justice Burton and Mr. Justice Black presented to the committee just a short while ago some documents dated 1776. Were they kept in vaults that were air-conditioned. Except for the outside cover, they were apparently in excellent condition, I thought, considering the age of the documents. You say that unless you have air-conditioning these documents will deteriorate?

Mr. LYNN. Mr. Chairman, I am not saying that as my personal opinion. That is the expression of the National Archives organization. It is now an accepted fact that libraries and vaults containing valued documents should be air-conditioned.

Mr. STEFAN. Very well; proceed.

REPLACEMENT OF COOLING AND EXHAUST FANS

Mr. LYNN. The next item is $3,500 for the replacement of four cooling and exhaust fans, detailed justification and break-down of which are to be found on page 44. These four fans are about 13 years old and are used primarily as condenser-water cooling fans. The air handled by these fans is heavily saturated with moisture from the hot condenser water which causes the fans to rust. We have had them scraped and painted each season, but this is only a temporary repair. It is proposed to replace the steel fan wheels with stainless steel wheels, repair the housings, and replace the wood bases with reinforced concrete.

Mr. STEFAN. Are these all exhaust fans?
Mr. LYNN. Yes; cooling and exhaust fans.

GENERAL REPAIRS, PAINTINGS, SNOW REMOVAL, ETC. Mr. STEFAN. You may proceed with the next item.

Mr. Lynx. There is no change in the annual items of general annual repairs, annual painting, snow removal, supplies and materials and annual equipment.

Mr. STEFAN. Have you completed all the repairs around the building now? There is no big repair job, or any plans for a big repair job in the future?

Mr. Lynn. No, sir; no big repair jobs except what we have estiinated for next year.

Mr. STEFAN. You drew the plans for that building, did you not?

Mr. Lynn. No; but the plans were approved by the Supreme Court Building Commission.

Mr. STEFAN. It was done under your direction?

Mr. Lynn. Yes; I served as a member of the Commission and acted as executive and contracting officer. We had a contract with Cass Gilbert, of New York City, for the design of the building and preparation of the plans. Mr. STEFAN. But it was done under your

direction? Mr. LYNN. Yes.

PRESENT CONDITION OF BUILDING

Mr. STEFAN. What is the condition of the building now?

Mr. LYNN. Very good. It is a monumental building, substantially built. Of course, there are always annual repairs necessary on any structure and its mechanical equipment.

Mr. STEFAN. What percentage of that building is marble?

Mr. LYNN. A very large percentage. The exterior is all marble, and much of the interior.

Mr. STEFAN. What was the cost of the building and grounds ?
Mr. Lynn. The building, furnished and equipped, cost $9,646,400.
The site cost $1,768,700.

Mr. STEFAN. What would it cost if you built it today?
Mr. Lynn. It would cost at l'east twice that much.

You know, Mr. Chairman, we were rather criticised for building such a large building for the Supreme Court, but as it has turned out, the building is now filled to capacity, since the use of the building has been extended to include the administrative office of the United States Courts.

Mr. HORAN. For my information, why do you not use aluminum instead of stainless steel?

Mr. LYNN. The manufacturers of the fans advised us to use stainless steel. It may be that the strength of the stainless steel has something to do with it. Those fans revolve at a very high velocity. I know several years ago we replaced some of the blades in the turbines at the Capitol power plant and the manufacturer of the equipment advised us to use stainless steel.

Mr. HORAN. What was the reason?
Mr. LYNN. I could not tell you offhand. I know that was the advice.

Mr. HCRAN. A lot of our aluminum comes from Spokane, Wash., now, I believe, and I think that it would be considerably cheaper.

Mr. LYNN. I will be glad to look into that matter, Mr. Horan, and get the answer.

AIR CONDITIONING GROUND FLOOR

REFRIGERATION FOR AIR CONDITIONING

Mr. HorAn. I notice that you want 150 tons, additional, of refrigeration for that air-conditioning. Is not that high?

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Mr. KRAMER. No, sir; that estimate was based on the quantity of space to be conditioned and also to make up, or provide, additional conditioning in the rooms where they had to increase the lighting. The result is that they have not been able to get proper temperature control.

Mr. HORAN. One hundred and fifty tons of refrigeration from the standpoint of cold storage would be enough to cold store the whole building

Mr. KRAMER. There are now 374 tons in the building.
Mr. HORAN. This will give you over 500 tons.

Mr. KRAMER. Yes. The Social Security Railroad Retirement has 4,200 tons. The Post Office Department has about 450 to 500 tons. That is not great in air-conditioning tonnage.

Mr. HORAN. That is an awful lot of refrigeration for air-conditioning

I want to ask if you could supply us a little information to indicate the foundation for your judgment on this and why so much tonnage is required.

Mr. LYNN. I will be very glad to give you a memorandum.

Mr. HORAN. I understand that the doors are opening and closing all the time.

Mr. Lynn. And the additional number of people in the building and the lighting must be considered. The justification is on page 39.

Mr. HORAN. I have read it. I have a working knowledge of that subject. I did not realize that you had that much tonnage.

Mr. LYNN. I will get a report from my air-conditioning engineer on that.

Mr. HORAN. I would like to know more about it. (The matter referred to is as follows:)

SUPPLEMENTAL STATEMENT-AIR CONDITIONING

The $110,000 requested for air conditioning for 1949 is based on an estimated requirement of 100 tons of refrigeration for the ground floor (no part of which is air-conditioned, except a section of the cafeteria), and 50 tons of refrigeration for an existing deficiency on the other floors.

The ground floor is at present occupied by 51 employees of the administrative office of the United States courts, and 47 employees of the United States Supreme Court, a total of 98 employees. In addition, the large cafeteria dining room on this floor, not air-conditioned, has an average occupancy of 80 persons during the period 11:30 a. m. to 2 p. m. daily. Further, on Mondays when the Court is in session approximately 50 members of the press are gathered on the ground floor, where the press telephone booths and other facilities are located. As stated in the justifications, the valued records of the Court and other documents are also located on this floor.

In computing the tonnage requirement, there were taken into consideration size; occupancy and use of rooms; electric-light wattage; heat gain through sun on windows, through outside walls, through infiltration of outside air, through partitions from unconditioned space; and heat extracted from outside air.

Heat computations are figured in British thermal units (B. t. u.)—1 B. t. u. being the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1° F., and 12,000 B. t. u. per hour being the equivalent of 1 ton of refrigeration.

In arriving at the estimate, the total rooms facing the outside of the building, subject to sun load, were divided into four sections. Refrigeration tonnage for each of these sections is based on an outside temperature of 95° F. dry bulb and 80° F. wet bulb, and inside conditions of 78° F. dry bulb and 50 percent relative humidity. The grand total heat load of each section is estimated at 188,635 B. t. u. per hour, which when divided by 12,000 B. t. u. per hour, gives an estimated refrigeration requirement of 15.7 tons for each of these sections, or a total of 63 tons for all outside rooms.

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