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There may, at length, be no additional expence to the city, seeing that out of the produce of the seat-rents all the charges of the evening arrangement will in time be defrayed. There will even be no additional fabrics to build, in the first instance, which the people are not yet in readiness to fill, were they erected in any sensible proportion to the existing deficiency. Thus, by a very cheap and simple arrangement, may the number of ecclesiastical labourers be doubled in every city of our land; and, with the distinctness of the day and evening congregations, the number of sitters belonging to the establishment at length be doubled also. We are not aware of a speedier method for reclaiming the outcasts and wanderers of a city population to congregational habits; nor can we think how an approximation equally rapid, and, at the same time, equally practicable, can be made in towns to the parochial system. It would instantly improve the condition of the minister as to his relationship with the parish, who will gain more by it, in point of recognition, within his own locality, in a single month, than he could do by preaching to a mixed congregation for a whole lifetime. And it would gradually extend a taste and a demand for the services of Christianity, among a people who had no taste and no demand for them before. It is altogether a chimerical apprehension, that it may only change day-sitters into evening-sitters, and cause those who have now a full participation of ordinances to be satisfied with less. It would change total non-attendants into attendants upon an evening service, who, at length, not satisfied with their deficiency from others, would have a demand for more. Instead of diminishing the taste which now is, it would create the taste which must still be called into existence. Instead of superseding the use of new churches for the people, it would prepare a people for the new churches, and turn out to be the most effectual nursery of their future congregations.
And here let it be remarked, how effectually it is that Sabbath-evening schools subserve the prospective arrangement which we are now contemplating. It requires a much harder struggle than most are aware of to prevail on grown-up people, who ne
ver have attended church, to become the members either of a day or an evening congregation. But the compliance which cannot be won in manhood, for attendance on a church, we win in boyhood, for attendance on a school; and, when the boy becomes a man, a second effort is not necessary. It were, in fact, a far more congenial transition for him to pass from the evening school to the evening church, than if he never had attended school at all; and far more congenial for the member of an evening to become the member of a day congregation, than if, brought up in the utter want of congregational habits, he never had attended either the one or the other. Thus it is that the Sabbath-school system, which many regret as a deviation from the regularities of an establishment, is the very best expedient for feeding an establishment, and making it at length cominensurate with the moral and spiritual necessities of our population. It connects the susceptibility of youth with a result, which, but for the possession of an element so manageable, might never be arrived at. It appears like the first and the firmest step to a great moral renovation in our land. And a parochial system, which might never have been reared in towns, out of such stubborn materials as the depraved and inveterate habits of our older, is thus likely to be formed and extended out of the softer materials of our younger generation. pp. 114-124,
EXTENSION OF THE SLAVE TRADE IN AMERICA.
As I can have no doubt that the readers of the Edinburgh Magazine have sincerely deplored the permission allowed by the American Congress to import slaves into the new state of Missouri, it will, I think, give them some consolation to hear that the measure is equally deprecated by all our Transatlantic brethren in the northern states. In proof of this I will transcribe for insertion in your respectable publication, some particulars respecting that lamentable transaction communicated to me in a letter, dated April 20, and which are unquestionably authentic. The gentleman from whom I received them, and who
does me the favour to correspond with me occasionally, is a minister of high character at Dorchester in Massachusetts, and in their University of Cambridge. Adverting to the execrable traffic in slaves, my friend thus expresses himself: "The whole subject has lately passed in review before our Congress, and a long session has been occupied in its discussion. This has been occasioned by an application for the admission of the Missouri territory as one of the United States, with the permission to hold slaves. It was generally believed that Congress could not grant such an indulgence; that it would be a violation of the bill of rights on which our constitution was founded, as well as of the principles of justice and humanity, and repugnant to the very spirit of liberty which is the pride and boast of a professed nation of freemen. Both in the senate and congress the question was agitated in warm debate, and in some most impressive speeches. All that learning, humanity, a regard to sound policy, and a respect to our free government could adduce in favour of restricting slavery in the State, exhibited with the most powerful and impressive eloquence, failed, alas! of effecting their benevolent purpose. Their pleadings fell upon deafened ears, and moved not hearts indurated by selfishness. The bill for the admission of the Missouri into the Union passed the House of Representatives without the restrictive clause prohibiting slavery, though only by a majority of four votes. Against the restriction 90-for it 86-so that Missouri is permitted to become a slave-holding state !!" My friend goes on to say, "It is impossible to describe the feelings of surprise and regret which this decision has occa sioned in all the New England States. The friends of humanity and freedom are palsied with the shock. Not only will this be the means of continuing and extending the most disgraceful practice of keeping slaves, but of opening a new mart for the sale, and thus furnish slave-traders and kidnappers with inducements to procure, per fas aut nefas,' new supplies by importation." He then mentions
the following fact, almost surpassing belief: "In connection with this lamentable result is another most painful occurrence. You have doubt
less heard of the most distressing fire ever known in this country, which extended its ravages in Savannah, the capital of Georgia. A tender feeling of compassion for the sufferers called out very liberal contributions for their relief, particularly in the northern states. In the city of New York, the sum of twelve thousand dollars was immediately subscribed and forwarded, with a request that such people of colour as were sufferers might participate in the distribution. This gave umbrage to the city-council of Savannah, who sent back the money to the donation-committee of New York, because they considered it as encumbered with a condition with which they were unwilling to comply. How strange, how passing strange, that the pride of domination over a humbled race of dependents should so operate and prevail, as to produce the rejection of a charity in which benevolence, to say nothing of justice and humanity, had hoped that they might share! How apparent is it, that the possession of slaves produces a hardened, nay cruel, disposition in the master, and renders the heart insensible to the obligations of humanity, and even to the claims of compassion and mercy!"
Surely, Mr Editor, it is not too much to hope, that these real patriots and more enlightened disciples of Him whose object it was to introduce universal righteousness, " peace on earth, and good will towards men," although hitherto unsuccessful, will at length be enabled effectually to counteract and suppress the narrow sordid spirit of their more southern neighbours, and to convince them that their own happiness would eventually be not less essentially promoted by the suppression of slavery, than that of those suffering wretched people who are at present its more immediate victims.
As I am not at liberty to give the name of my informant, without his permission, I am constrained, although probably quite unknown to the generality of your readers, to sign my own.
CATHARINE CAPPE." #
*This lady is distinguished, both for the intellectual energies and warm benevolence of her own character, and as being the widow of a pious and eminent dissent
ONE evening lately, feeling myself a little out of humour, I took my hat and stick, and sallied forth to drink tea with my old friend Miss FSome may imagine that I chose not the fittest time for visiting; but I did not go for the purpose of indulging my splenetic inclinations against every one whom chance should throw in my way,-(as some of my married acquaintance, who shall be nameless, never fail to do,)-but I went with the honest intention of shaking off, as speedily as possible, my troublesome and unwelcome visitors, the
My acquaintance with Miss Fcommenced in those happy days when we figured away as votaries of Terpsichore,-I, arrayed in a scarlet coat, with my hair powdered, and tied in a bag; she, decked out with a yellow damask, embroidered with blue and green tulips. We used to be partners in a sort of dance, where the different couples, after having marched for a short while side by side, separated, and filed off in opposite directions, and, after having promenaded the length of the room in solitary sadness, were, at last, upon reaching the farther end of it, again united. Somewhat like this has been the progress through the world of Miss Fmyself. We parted in the morning of life, and towards evening we have again met, both in nearly the same circumstances in which we were at our separation. We have each experienced the vicissitudes of fortune, we have had our allotted portion of joy and grief; but the storms of passion, and the gales of hope, are subsided; the heavy clouds, and the cheerful sunshine, have both passed away, and now, in the calm twilight, we each
feel ourselves alone. A friend to whom
I lately made this remark suggested, that, to remedy this solitariness, and complete the analogy of the dance, Miss F and I ought to take each other, for better and worse.
ing clergyman, several of whose posthumous works she has published, and has lately added a very valuable memoir of him, from which we propose, hereafter, to present our readers with some instructive extracts.-Edit.
this would disappoint my cousin John, -at least it would burden him with a widow's jointure, (though, to be sure, my life is as good as her's ;) and
-it would break the heart of Mrs keeper; and-truth must out at last Macnaughton, my spherical house-Miss F- is a year older than myself; and, if ever I do such a foolish thing as to marry-but enough than necessary. I have not yet menof this; I must not be more egotic tioned that there reside with my friend Miss F two fair nieces, whose lively chat I sometimes think contributes as much to dissipate my ill-hu
mours as the old stories of their aunt.
I was rather disappointed, on this occasion, to find that the young ladies were dining from home, and their places supplied by an old widow lady the least, un peu passée. My entrance and her daughter, who was, to say seemed to produce a more agreeable
sensation here than it did at Mrs
-'s. Miss F- looked at Mrs G, and Mrs G————- at her daugh"How aproter, as much as to say, pos!" I did not participate in their à-tête well enough now and then, I pleasure; for, although I like a têtenever like to play cavalier seul in a party of ladies, particularly when they are not very young. Joy is not alceeded slowly for a few minutes after ways talkative; the conversation promy entrance; Miss Farranged the folds of her gown; and Miss the tea-cups; Mrs G- arranged Garranged the luxuriant curls of a fine new head of hair. At length about whether it would rain or not we thought of starting a discussion rain. After a tolerably long debate, tive, (Mrs we were about to decide in the negathing about a walk to St Bernard's having hinted someWell after tea,) when a heavy shower coming on, put an end to all argument on the subject. When tea was Miss G finished, Miss F, first informing that I was very fond of music, begged her to favour us with a tune. A tune! I shuddered at the name. I was in no humour for
Dainty Davie," or "Duncan Davidson.' "Oh!" said Mrs G"what a pity your nieces are not at home, they play so much better! However, I am sure Betsy will not as well as refuse to oblige Mr Mhe can. She always plays when she
is asked, to do her justice, which, in my opinion, is the principal beauty in playing."- "The mother is right," thought I, after I heard the two first bars of the London March, "her willingness is the principal beauty in Miss Betsy's playing!"" Won't you accompany it with your voice, my dear?" said her mother; and Miss Betsy began to sing Logie o' Buchan" in a voice which, as somebody says, I might have heard had we been shut up together in the same bandbox. This was no salvo for my illhumour; I felt it increasing every moment. Behold," said I to myself," the evils of over-refinement! Fifteen years ago I might have listened to this with patience, at least, if not with approbation; but now, when the classical melodies of Haydn and Mozart have become, as it were, naturalized amongst us, while those of Winter, Paer, Mayer, and Cimarosa, are rapidly advancing towards adoption; and, when we hear these melodies sung by our female acquaintance, with voices and science little inferior to those of professors, our taste has become fastidious, and we reject with disdain what we once received readily. Thus it ever is that factitious refinements produce in us a loathing of those pure and simple pleasuresSpite of my ill-humour, I could not suppress a smile at the absurdity of my own reasoning. Simple indeed," thought I, as I heard the voice of Miss Betsy following the notes of the piano one after another, as if they had been so many stepping-stones. I rather think my smile had been observed by the mother, and favourably construed; for, when the music had ceased, and conversation was resumed, she chatted with great glee and volubility. To do my friend Miss F- justice, she is not much addicted to anecdote; but to-night she was forced to suit her conversation to her visitors; and we had a great deal of private family history. I happened to make a remark on a lady who has been lately married; this produced a dissertation on the dress in which she appeared at church. The value of her pelisse was calculated, and there was something said about a pair of French white boots, then "such a bonnet! a shower of rain would make it quite useless." Then we had the history of a gentle
man and his wife, who did not agree very well; Miss Fdeclared it to be the gentleman's fault, Miss Gloudly maintained it was the lady's. "After all," thought I," the new school is preferable. In the young ladies of the present day we meet with none of that petty, vulgar, interference with the concerns of others, which is so tiresome and disgusting." Alas! I was soon doomed to change my opinion; I was forced to make the same remark on the habits of society, that an eminent moral philosopher has lately made on the powers of the human mind, namely, that we are apt to be deceived by a new modification of a known principle; and that we sometimes consider as a new faculty, what is only the same energy differently applied. The ringing of the door-bell announced the return of Miss F's fair nieces. "Thank heaven!" said I internally, we shall have done with silks, and ribbons, and family quarrels.' Misses Jane and Margaret entered. They are girls of good parts; and their understandings have been well cultivated; they are accomplished without display, and well-informed without pedantry. Had I been asked, a week ago, what were their faults, I should have been at a loss how to reply; now, I could answer the question without hesitation. " Well, ladies, have you had a pleasant party?" "O yes, pleasant enough."" Of whom did it consist ?" "Oh!" said Miss Jane, we had, in the first place, Captain ing, as Edie Ochiltree says, as if he durst not look down, for fear he should see his shoes. I was highly amused with him; he was at one time twirling a painted fire-screen, which he happened to let fall; with an air of the most perfect insouciance, he suffered it to remain on the ground, and continued conversing to the lady next whom he was standing, without appearing conscious that he had dropped it." Nay," said Margaret, " I think that may be easily accounted for; I suppose the tightness of his stays did not permit him to come within arms-length of the ground." "Who were the ladies of your par ty?" asked Miss F——. Oh, there was Miss, and her cousin Miss
who performed the entrée précipitée in finer style than I have ever seen it. When the door was opened
passed?" "My dear Mr M-
With some such finesse does woman
they rushed into the room with the velocity of a ship launching; then they seized upon poor Mrs and I verily thought would have shaken her arm off." "Then," said Jane, we had that solemn piece of furniture Mrs ; one would think there never had been a widow in the world before, she looks so grim, and sighs so piteously." "I declare," said Margaret, "I think she took that way of making love to poor Mr, who lost his wife lately." "I had almost forgotten to mention the all-accomplished Miss," said Jane, "with her studied unaffectedness and labour-out exception of rank, sex, or age; ed naïveté; there is a quiet self-importance about that girl, which provokes me ten times more than the most downright pedantry; then she requires to be drawn out; and when she is drawn out she speaks in such neat sentences, and rounded periods, that I always think she is repeating a bit of the Spectator." "Miss
said I angrily, "is -," but I
Amongst the marked propensities of the present age, there is none more obvious than a general tendency to satire. It seems to be universally dif fused throughout this kingdom, with
and although it assumes different forms, the spirit is everywhere the same; in the little Miss who quizzes her friend's ball-dress, as in the reviewer who criticises the last new publication. Whether or not satire is allowable, and if it be, to what extent it may be carried without reprehension, are questions of some importance to the comfort of society.
The advocates for duelling maintain that it is conducive to the preservation of order and good breeding, and that these being so necessary to the peace and happiness of social life, duelling is therefore allowable. In this, as in some other cases, the renedy is worse than the disease. There are few individuals with whom the dislike of their acquaintance, and their consequent banishment from good society, would not serve as a sufficient check to the indulgence of coarse and surly manners; and even if the number were greater, it were better that society should be infested with some of these nuisances, than that several human creatures should be every year hurried into the presence of their God, in the very act of disobeying his commands. By a similar mode of reasoning do satirists endeavour to defend the severity of their censure. They allege that it imposes a salutary restraint upon the conduct of others; that it prevents those irregularities and absurdities, those deviations from received and established principles, of which the weak and the self-sufficient are ever prone to be guilty. This appears plausible; the advantage held out is considerable; but before we admit the force of the argument, we must examine whether there be not some attendant evil, sufficient to counter