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ver have attended church, to become the members either of a day or an evening congregation. But the compliance which cannot be won in manhood, for attendance on a church, we win in boyhood, for attendance on a school; and, when the boy becomes a man, a second effort is not necessary. It were, in fact, a far more congenial transition for him to pass from the evening school to the evening church, than if he never had attended school at all; and far more congenial for the member of an evening to become the member of a day congregation, than if, brought up in the utter want of congregational habits, he never had attended either the one or the other. Thus it is that the Sabbath-school system, which many regret as a deviation from the regularities of an establishment, is the very best expedient for feeding an establishment, and making it at length commensurate with the moral and spiritual necessities of our population. It connects the susceptibility of youth with a result, which, but for the possession of an element so manageable, might never be arrived at. It appears like the first and the firmest step to a great moral renovation in our land. And a parochial system, which might never have been reared in towns, out of such stubborn materials as the depraved and inveterate habits of our older, is thus likely to be formed and extended out of the softer materials of our younger generation. pp. 114–124.

There may, at length, be no additional expence to the city, seeing that out of the produce of the seat-rents all the charges of the evening arrangement will in time be defrayed. There will even be no additional fabrics to build, in the first instance, which the people are not yet in readiness to fill, were they erected in any sensible proportion to the existing deficiency. Thus, by a very cheap and simple arrangement, may the number of ecclesiastical labourers be doubled in every city of our land; and, with the distinctness of the day and evening congregations, the number of sitters belonging to the establishment at length be doubled also. We are not aware of a speedier method for reclaiming the outcasts and wanderers of a city population to congregational habits; nor can we think how an approximation equally rapid, and, at the same time, equally practicable, can be made in towns to the parochial system. It would instantly improve the condition of the minister as to his relationship with the parish, who will gain more by it, in point of recognition, within his own locality, in a single month, than he could do by preaching to a mixed congregation for a whole lifetime. And it would gradually extend a taste and a demand for the services of Christianity, among a people who had no taste and no demand for them before. It is altogether a chimerical apprehension, that it may only change day-sitters into evening-sitters, and cause those who have now a full participation of ordinances to be satisfied with less. It would change total non-attendants into attendants upon an evening service, who, at length, not satisfied with their deficiency from others, would have a demand for more. Instead of diminishing the taste which now is, it would create the taste which must still be called into existence. Instead of superseding the use of new churches for the people, it would prepare a people for the new churches, and turn out to be the most effectual nursery of their future congregations.

And here let it be remarked, how effectually it is that Sabbath-evening schools subserve the prospective arrangement which we are now contemplating. It requires a much harder struggle than most are aware of to prevail on grown-up people, who ne

VOL. VII.

EXTENSION OF THE SLAVE TRADE IN AMERICA.

MR EDITOR,

As I can have no doubt that the readers of the Edinburgh Magazine have sincerely deplored the permission allowed by the American Congress to import slaves into the new state of Missouri, it will, I think, give them some consolation to hear that the measure is equally deprecated by all our Transatlantic brethren in the northern states. In proof of this I will transcribe for insertion in your respectable publication, some particulars respecting that lamentable transaction communicated to me in a letter, dated April 20, and which are unquestionably authentic. The gentleman from whom I received them, and who

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less heard of the most distressing fire ever known in this country, which extended its ravages in Savannah, the capital of Georgia. A tender feeling of compassion for the sufferers called out very liberal contributions for their relief, particularly in the northern states. In the city of New York, the sum of twelve thousand dollars was immediately subscribed and forwarded, with a request that such people of colour as were sufferers might participate in the distribution. This gave umbrage to the city-council of Savannah, who sent back the money to the donation-committee of New York, because they considered it as encumbered with a condition with which they were unwilling to comply. How strange, how passing strange, that the pride of domination over a humbled race of dependents should so operate and prevail, as to produce the rejection of a charity in which benevolence, to say nothing of justice and humanity, had hoped that they might share! How apparent is it, that the possession of slaves produces a hardened, nay cruel, disposition in the master, and renders the heart insensible to the obligations of humanity, and even to the claims of compassion and mercy!"

Surely, Mr Editor, it is not too much to hope, that these real patriots and more enlightened disciples of Him whose object it was to introduce universal righteousness, " peace on earth, and good will towards men," although hitherto unsuccessful, will at length be enabled effectually to counteract and suppress the narrow sordid spirit of their more southern neighbours, and to convince them that their own happiness would eventually be not less essentially promoted by the suppression of slavery, than that of those suffering wretched people who are at present its more immediate victims.

As I am not at liberty to give the name of my informant, without his permission, I am constrained, although probably quite unknown to the generality of your readers, to sign my own.

does me the favour to correspond with me occasionally, is a minister of high character at Dorchester in Massachusetts, and in their University of Cambridge. Adverting to the execrable traffic in slaves, my friend thus expresses himself: "The whole subject has lately passed in review before our Congress, and a long session has been occupied in its discussion. This has been occasioned by an application for the admission of the Missouri territory as one of the United States, with the permission to hold slaves. It was generally believed that Congress could not grant such an indulgence; that it would be a violation of the bill of rights on which our constitution was founded, as well as of the principles of justice and humanity, and repugnant to the very spirit of liberty which is the pride and boast of a professed nation of freemen. Both in the senate and congress the question was agitated in warm debate, and in some most impressive speeches. All that learning, humanity, a regard to sound policy, and a respect to our free government could adduce in favour of restricting slavery in the State, exhibited with the most powerful and impressive eloquence, failed, alas! of effecting their benevolent purpose. Their pleadings fell upon deafened ears, and moved not hearts indurated by selfishness. The bill for the admission of the Missouri into the Union passed the House of Representatives without the restrictive clause prohibiting slavery, though only by a majority of four votes. Against the restriction 90-for it 86-so that Missouri is permitted to become a slave-holding state!!" My friend goes on to say, "It is impossible to describe the feelings of surprise and regret which this decision has occasioned in all the New England States. The friends of humanity and freedom are palsied with the shock. Not only will this be the means of continuing and extending the most disgraceful practice of keeping slaves, but of opening a new mart for the sale, and thus furnish slave-traders and kidnappers with inducements to procure, per fas aut nefas,' new supplies by importation." He then mentions the following fact, almost surpassing belief: "In connection with this lamentable result is another most painful occurrence. You have doubt

CATHARINE CAPPE. York, June 27, 1820.

This lady is distinguished, both for the intellectual energies and warm benevolence of her own character, and as being the widow of a pious and eminent dissent

THE BYSTANDER.

No. V.

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ONE evening lately, feeling myself a little out of humour, I took my and stick, and sallied forth to drink tea with my old friend Miss FSome may imagine that I chose not the fittest time for visiting; but I did not go for the purpose of indulging my splenetic inclinations against every one whom chance should throw in my way,-(as some of my married acquaintance, who shall be nameless, never fail to do,)-but I went with the honest intention of shaking_off, as speedily as possible, my troublesome and unwelcome visitors, the blue devils.

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My acquaintance with Miss F commenced in those happy days when we figured away as votaries of Terpsichore,-I, arrayed in a scarlet coat, with my hair powdered, and tied in a sensation here than it did at Mrs bag; she, decked out with a yellow 's. Miss F- looked at Mrs damask, embroidered with blue and G, and Mrs G- at her daughgreen tulips. We used to be partners "How aproin a sort of dance, where the different ter, as much as to say, pos !" I did not participate in their couples, after having marched for a short while side by side, separated, à-tête well enough now and then, I pleasure; for, although I like a têteand filed off in opposite directions, and, after having promenaded the never like to play cavalier seul in a length of the room in solitary sadness, party of ladies, particularly when they are not very young. Joy is not alwere, at last, upon reaching the farther end of it, again united. Some- ceeded slowly for a few minutes after ways talkative; the conversation proMiss Fmy entrance; and arranged the folds of her gown; and Miss the tea-cups; Mrs G-arranged G- arranged the luxuriant curls of a fine new head of hair. At length about whether it would rain or not we thought of starting a discussion

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what like this has been the through the world of Miss Fmyself. We parted in the morning of life, and towards evening we have again met, both in nearly the same circumstances in which we were at our separation. We have each experienced the vicissitudes of fortune, we have had our allotted portion of joy and grief; but the storms of passion, and the gales of hope, are subsided the heavy clouds, and the cheerful sunshine, have both passed away, and now, in the calm twilight, we each feel ourselves alone. A friend to whom I lately made this remark suggested, that, to remedy this solitariness, and complete the analogy of the dance, Miss F- and I ought to take each other, for better and worse. But

After a tolerably long debate, we were about to decide in the negative, (Mrs (having hinted something about a walk to St Bernard's Well after tea,) when a heavy shower coming on, put an end to all argument on the subject. When tea was Miss G finished, Miss F, first informing that I was very fond of music, begged her to favour us with

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a tune. A tune! I shuddered at the
name. I was in no humour for
Dainty Davie," or "Duncan Da-
vidson.' "Oh!" said Mrs G-
"what a pity your nieces are not at
home, they play so much better!
However, I am sure Betsy will not
as well as
refuse to oblige Mr M-
he can. She always plays when she

this would disappoint my cousin John, -at least it would burden him with a widow's jointure, (though, to be it would break the heart of Mrs sure, my life is as good as her's ;) and Macnaughton, my spherical housekeeper; and-truth must out at last -Miss Fis a year older than myself; and, if ever I do such a foolof this; I must not be more egotic ish thing as to marry--but enough than necessary. I have not yet mentioned that there reside with my friend Miss F two fair nieces, whose lively chat I sometimes think contributes as much to dissipate my ill-humours as the old stories of their aunt.

I was rather disappointed, on this occasion, to find that the young ladies were dining from home, and their places supplied by an old widow lady and her daughter, who was, to say the least, un peu passée. My entrance seemed to produce a more agreeable

ing clergyman, several of whose posthumous works she has published, and has lately added a very valuable memoir of him, from which we propose, hereafter, to present our readers with some instructive extracts.-Edit.

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is asked, to do her justice, which, in my opinion, is the principal beauty in playing." The mother is right," thought I, after I heard the two first bars of the London March, "her willingness is the principal beauty in Miss Betsy's playing!"" Won't you accompany it with your voice, my dear?" said her mother; and Miss Betsy began to sing "Logie o' Buchan" in a voice which, as somebody says, I might have heard had we been shut up together in the same bandbox. This was no salvo for my illhumour; I felt it increasing every moment. "Behold," said I to myself, "the evils of over-refinement! Fifteen years ago I might have listened to this with patience, at least, if not with approbation; but now, when the classical melodies of Haydn and Mozart have become, as it were, naturalized amongst us, while those of Winter, Paer, Mayer, and Cimarosa, are rapidly advancing towards adoption; and, when we hear these melodies sung by our female acquaintance, with voices and science little inferior to those of professors, our taste has become fastidious, and we reject with disdain what we once received readily. Thus it ever is that factitious refinements produce in us a loathing of those pure and simple pleasuresSpite of my ill-humour, I could not suppress a smile at the absurdity of my own reasoning. Simple indeed," thought I, as I heard the voice of Miss Betsy following the notes of the piano one after another, as if they had been so many stepping-stones. I rather think my smile had been observed by the mother, and favourably construed; for, when the music had ceased, and conversation was resumed, she chatted with great glee and volubility. To do my friend Miss F- -justice, she is not much addicted to anecdote; but to-night she was forced to suit her conversation to her visitors; and we had a great deal of private family history. I happened to make a remark on a lady who has been lately married; this produced a dissertation on the dress in which she appeared at church. The value of her pelisse was calculated, and there was something said about a pair of French white boots, then "such a bonnet! a shower of rain would make it quite useless." Then we had the history of a gentle

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man and his wife, who did not agree very well; Miss F- declared it to be the gentleman's fault, Miss Gloudly maintained it was the lady's. "After all," thought I, "the new school is preferable. In the young ladies of the present day we meet with none of that petty, vulgar, interference with the concerns of others, which is so tiresome and disgusting.' Alas! I was soon doomed to change my opinion; I was forced to make the same remark on the habits of society, that an eminent moral philosopher has lately made on the powers of the human mind, namely, that we are apt to be deceived by a new modification of a known principle; and that we sometimes consider as a new faculty, what is only the same energy differently applied. The ringing of the door-bell announced the return of Miss F's fair nieces. "Thank heaven!" said I internally, we shall have done with silks, and ribbons, and family quarrels." Misses Jane and Margaret entered. They are girls of good parts; and their understandings have been well cultivated; they are accomplished without display, and well-informed without pedantry. Had I been asked, a week ago, what were their faults, I should have been at a loss how to reply; now, I could answer the question without hesitation. "Well, ladies, have you had a pleasant party?". "O yes, pleasant enough." "Of whom did it consist ?" "Oh!" said Miss Jane, "we had, in the first place, Captain -, seeming, as Edie Ochiltree says, as if he durst not look down, for fear he should see his shoes. I was highly amused with him; he was at one time twirling a painted fire-screen, which he happened to let fall; with an air of the most perfect insouciance, he suf fered it to remain on the ground, and continued conversing to the lady next whom he was standing, without appearing conscious that he had dropped it." Nay," said Margaret, " I think that may be easily accounted for; I suppose the tightness of his stays did not permit him to come within arms-length of the ground." "Who were the ladies of your par ty?" asked Miss F--. "Oh, there was Miss ——, and her cousin Miss -> who performed the entrée précipitée in finer style than I have ever seen it. When the door was opened

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they rushed into the room with the velocity of a ship launching; then they seized upon poor Mrs and I verily thought would have shaken her arm off." "Then," said Jane, "we had that solemn piece of furniture Mrs ; one would think there never had been a widow in the world before, she looks so grim, and sighs so piteously." "I declare," said Margaret, "I think she took that way of making love to poor Mr, who lost his wife lately." "I had almost forgotten to mention the all-accomplished Miss," said Jane, "with her studied unaffectedness and labour ed naïveté; there is a quiet self-importance about that girl, which provokes me ten times more than the most downright pedantry; then she requires to be drawn out; and when she is drawn out she speaks in such neat sentences, and rounded periods, that I always think she is repeating a bit of the Spectator." "Miss said I angrily, "is but I thought it advisable to gulp down a comparison I was about to make, and I quietly added, "a very fine girl." "Bless me!" said Jane, "I did not I know she was an acquaintance of yours, or I would not have quizzed her so much." Nay, Miss Jane," said I, "I think it is better you should quiz my acquaintance than those who are strangers to me; in the former case, there is no chance that the absent should be hurt by it, because my opinion of them is already established; in the latter, there is some danger of my being prepossessed against them." Come, come, I know this is a rebuke to me; but after all, where is the great harm of a little quizzing? I am sure no one was ever the worse of it." "Are you quite sure of that? Are you sure, if I were to meet with any of those ladies to-morrow, whom you have to-night been cutting up so unmercifully, that I should see them without prejudice?" "But you know I have said nothing but what they have deserved; and if it is truth, why, then, you know, there is no harm in telling you what you would soon find out yourself." "Do you never change the opinion you at first form of a person? Do you not sometimes find out that your judgments have been premature, and do you not sometimes wish to retract those strictures that you have hastily

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passed?" "My dear Mr M-
you are giving me quite a lecture, Í
really will have no more of it; I must
go and sing the savageness out of you.
Come Margaret, I think we must
give Mr M-
Vecchio arrogante."
With some such finesse does woman
ever stop the discussion, when the ar-
guments against her are too strong to
be confuted.

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Amongst the marked propensities of the present age, there is none more obvious than a general tendency to satire. It seems to be universally diffused throughout this kingdom, without exception of rank, sex, or age; and although it assumes different forms, the spirit is everywhere the same; in the little Miss who quizzes her friend's ball-dress, as in the reviewer who criticises the last new publication. Whether or not satire is allowable, and if it be, to what extent it may be carried without reprehension, are questions of some importance to the comfort of society.

The advocates for duelling maintain that it is conducive to the preservation of order and good breeding, and that these being so necessary to the peace and happiness of social life, duelling is therefore allowable. In this, as in some other cases, the renedy is worse than the disease. There are few individuals with whom the dislike of their acquaintance, and their consequent banishment from good society, would not serve as a sufficient check to the indulgence of coarse and surly manners; and even if the number were greater, it were better that society should be infested with some of these nuisances, than that several human creatures should be every year hurried into the presence of their God, in the very act of disobeying his commands. By a similar mode of reasoning do satirists endeavour to defend the severity of their censure. They allege that it imposes a salutary restraint upon the conduct of others; that it prevents those irregularities and absurdities, those deviations from received and established principles, of which the weak and the self-sufficient are ever prone to be guilty. This appears plausible; the advantage held out is considerable; but before we admit the force of the argument, we must examine whether there be not some attendant evil, sufficient to counter

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