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furnish the children clothing, education and medical attention and everything that could be desired.

We have a school there with a capacity of 98; and at Fort Yuma Agency we have a boarding school with 180 capacity; at Cocopah day school, 40 capacity; Yuma Valley day school, 40 capacity; at the Greenville School. recently destroyed by fire, we had a boarding school with 90 capacity; at the Hoopa Valley we have a reservation boarding school with 165 capacity; at the Pala School we have 30 acpacity; at the La Jolla School we have 30 capacity: at the Rincon School, 14 capacity; under the Round Valley Agency, the Pinoliville day school, 25 capacity; Upper Lake day school, 3C capacity; Yokaja day school, 40 capacity; Sherman Institute, one of the best Indian schools in the United States, where we have not 5 per cent of the Indians of California, as was stated, or 10 per cent, but where we have nearly 50 per cent of the Indians in California, we have a capacity of 700, where we furnish them board, clothing, education, and teach them trades, and they leave that school equipped to make their way in the world. The Mesa Grande School has 30 capacity; Volcan day school, 30 capacity; Tule River Agency, Auberry day school, 32 capacity; Burrough day school, 34 capacity; Tule River School, 30 capacity.

Now, in addition to these Government schools, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I want to call your attention to the fact that we are educating in the public schools of California to-day 1,255 Indian children and paying their tuition in those schools at a cost to the Government of $80,473. That is the amount we are spending this year for the tuition of Indian children in the public schools of California.

Mr. Roach. Summing the whole matter up, Mr. Meritt, it presents a reasonably good showing of the efforts of the Government to educate and make good citizens of the Indians of California, does it not?

Mr. MERITT. Yes, sir. I think the Indians here to-day demonstrate what the Government is doing for the Indians of California, and while these Indians say that the Government is doing very little for them, with your permission I am going to ask each Indian here a few questions.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Before I forget it, I am asking this to have a criticism answered that I have heard made. How many of these schools, Mr. Meritt, that you read in the list, that are strictly Government schools, on page 75, how many of them aside from the Sherman Institute offer anything beyond the eighth grade in their curriculum?

Mr. Meritt. I think the Sherman Institute is the only school that offers anything beyond the eighth grade, although the other schools give the children an education. We do not give the Indian children a college education, but we give them a practical education in our Indian schools, and I am glad you asked for that information.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I do not want to lead off now, because I am anxious to have you go ahead with the thing you suggested, but may I ask one other question?

Mr. MERITT. Yes, sir.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. The criticism is made, and I do not know whether it is just or unjust, that the Government spends, a great amount of money upon these schools and then limits the children to what we call the lower-grade work as compared with the white schools. When they have the capacity to go on and have more advanced training, such as high-school training, are they capable and is it feasible for the Government to give them, in connection with this grade work, some high-school work?

Mr. MERITT. We give the Indian children some high-school work at our large nonreservation schools, but it is not practical to give them the high-school grade work at some of our day schools, but we are giving the Indians of this country an opportunity to procure an education at a cost that is ridiculously low. We are educating these children in these boarding schools, furnishing them an education, furnishing them clothing, furnishing them medical attention, and furnishing them dentists, at a cost of not to exceed $200 per capita, which, is a showing for economy that can not be excelled in the sinall colleges of this country. . Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I am glad to have you make that statement.

Mr. MERITT. It is shown that the average cost per capita in small colleges of this country amounts to between $400 and $600, whereas we conduct the Indian schools at $200 per capita per year.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I trust you will follow the thought you were starting to follow, when I interrupted, but I wanted a statement as to that.

HELEN DARE. Mr. Meritt, may I ask you a question with relation to the schools? Isn't it a fact that the Indian board of cooperation and Mr. Collett, at least through their efforts, have secured a number of schools and most of the apportionment of the tuition in California in the public schools? Is it not a fact that it is through their efforts that these increased opportunities of education for Indians have been assured the Indians?

Mr. MERITT. No; I would not say that was the fact. I will say, however, that we have cooperated with Mr. Collett in getting children in public schools in the State of California, and he has been very helpful along those lines and I commend him for that work.

The CHAIRMAN. Don't let us get away from this now, That is enough. You got what you wanted.

Mr. MERITT. These Indians here say that the Government has done practically nothing for them. I am going to take the liberty, with your permission, to ask each Indian one or two questions. Mr. Albert F. James.

The ('HAIRMAN. Is Mr. James present?

STATEMENT OF MR. ALBERT F. JAMES.

Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school Mr. James?

Mr. James. I will answer that question in this way, Mr. Chairman, if you will allow me. I was going to the public school in Eureka. I went to the fourth grade. Then I left there and went to Chemawa and, as I could remember now, I was there two years. I did not go under my parent's consent. My stepfather sent me there without my parent's consent and I finished school all this time at (hemawa. When I came back from Chemawa, after I had been there two years, all I had learned there was debating.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, we don't want to go into all that; just answer the question. Mr. JAMES. I want to answer the question this way. The CHAIRMAN. It might take you all night to answer it. Mr. James. I have a little to say. The (HAIRMAN. You can state whether you went to a Government school or not. Mr. JAMES. I want to explain after I got back to Eureka what happened. I went to school to Chemawa for two years. Went home, and went to public school, and I took an examination there, and that examination proved that I had not gained anything and I was put back in the fourth grade.

The CHAIRMAN. I refuse to hear any more of that. You can answer the question directly, because we can not sit here all night and listen to arguments.

Mr. MERITT. Mr. Chairman, you will note that this gentleman has attended a Government school at (hemawa, an Indian school, recognized as one of the best Indian schools in the United States, and no Indian boy can go there two years and not receive a substantial benefit from that school. Now, it cost at least $200 per capita for this man to attend that school. He attended there two years. Have you children? Mr. JAMES. Yes, sir. Mr. MERITT. Did they attend a Government school? Mr. JAMES. They are not of school age.

Mr. Meritt. His children are probably going to attend a Government school or else a public school at a cost to the Federal Government. Mr. William Fuller.

STATEMENT OF MR. WILLIAM FULLER.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. Fuller present?
Mr. FULLER. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school?
Mr. FULLER. No, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children who ever attended a Government school?
Mr. FULLER. I have, sir.
Mr. MERITT. How many.
Mr. FULLER. I had two at one time.
Mr. MERITT. Where did they attend?
Mr. FULLER. Phoenix, Ariz.
Mr. MERITT. How long were they in school?
Mr. FULLER. Two years.
Mr. MERITT. Two years each?
Mr. FULLER. Yes, sir.

Mr. MERITT. Mr. Fuller's two children have attended the Government school at Phoenix, one of the largest reservation schools, two years each, at a cost to the Government of $800 for the education of those children for that time.

STATEMENT OF MR. STEPHEN KNIGHT.

Mr. MERITT. Have you ever attended Government school?
Mr. KNIGHT. I have; in Chemawa, Oreg.

furnish the children clothing, education and medical attention and everything that could be desired.

We have a school there with a capacity of 98; and at Fort Yuma Agency we have a boarding school with 180 capacity; at Cocopah day school, 40 capacity; Yuma Valley day school, 40 capacity; at the Greenville School, recently destroyed by fire, we had a boarding school with 90 capacity; at the Hoopa Valley we have a reservation boarding school with 165 capacity; at the Pala School we have 30 acpacity; at the La Jolla School we have 30 capacity: at the Rincon School, 14 capacity; under the Round Valley Agency, the Pinoliville day school, 25 capacity; Upper Lake day school, 30 capacity; Yokaia day school, 40 capacity; Sherman Institute, one of the best Indian schools in the United States, where we have not 5 per cent of the Indians of California, as was stated, or 10 per cent, but where we have nearly 50 per cent of the Indians in California, we have a capacity of 700, where we furnish them board, clothing, education, and teach them trades, and they leave that school equipped to make their way in the world. The Mesa Grande School has 30 capacity; Volcan day school, 30 capacity; Tule River Agency, Auberry day school, 32 capacity; Burrough day school, 34 capacity; Tule River School, 30 capacity.

Now, in addition to these Government schools, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I want to call your attention to the fact that we are educating in the public schools of California to-day 1,255 Indian children and paying their tuition in those schools at a cost to the Government of $80,473. That is the amount we are spending this year for the tuition of Indian children in the public schools of California.

Mr. Roach. Summing the whole matter up, Mr. Meritt, it presents a reasonably good showing of the efforts of the Government to educate and make good citizens of the Indians of California, does it not?

Mr. MERITT. Yes, sir. I think the Indians here to-day demonstrate what the Government is doing for the Indians of California, and while these Indians say that the Government is doing very little for them, with your permission I am going to ask each Indian here a few questions.

Mr. LEATHERWood. Before I forget it, I am asking this to have a criticism answered that I have heard made. How many of these schools, Mr. Meritt, that you read in the list, that are strictly Government schools, on page 75, how many of them aside from the Sherman Institute offer anything beyond the eighth grade in their curriculum?

Mr. MERITT. I think the Sherman Institute is the only school that offers anything beyond the eighth grade, although the other schools give the children an education. We do not give the Indian children a college education, but we give them a practical education in our Indian schools, and I am glad you asked for that information.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I do not want to lead off now, because I am anxious to have you go ahead with the thing you suggested, but may I ask one other question?

Mr. MERITT. Yes, sir.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. The criticism is made, and I do not know whether it is just or unjust, that the Government spends, a great amount of money upon these schools and then limits the children to what we call the lower-grade work as compared with the white schools. When they have the capacity to go on and have more advanced

ernment to give them, in connection with this grade work, some high-school work?

Mr. MERITT. We give the Indian children some high-school work at our large nonreservation schools, but it is not practical to give them the high-school grade work at some of our day schools, but we are giving the Indians of this country an opportunity to procure an education at a cost that is ridiculously low. We are educating these children in these boarding schools, furnishing them an education, furnishing them

of not to exceed $200 per capita, which, is a showing for economy that can not be excelled in the small colleges of this country. .

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I am glad to have you make that statement.

Mr. MERITT. It is shown that the average cost per capita in small colleges of this country amounts to between $400 and $600, whereas we conduct the Indian schools at $200 per capita per year.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I trust you will follow the thought you were starting to follow, when I interrupted, but I wanted a statement as to that.

HELEN DARE. Mr. Meritt, may I ask you a question with relation to the schools? Isn't it a fact that the Indian board of cooperation and Mr. Collett, at least through their efforts, have secured a nuinber of schools and most of the apportionment of the tuition in California in the public schools? Is it not a fact that it is through their efforts that these increased opportunities of education for Indians have been assured the Indians?,

Mr. MERITT. No; I would not say that was the fact. I will say, however, that we have cooperated with Mr. Collett in getting children in public schools in the State of California, and he has been very helpful along those lines and I commend him for that work.

what you wanted.

Mr. MERITT. These Indians here say that the Government has done practically nothing for them. I am going to take the liberty, with your permission, to ask each Indian one or two questions. Mr. Albert F. James.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. James present?

STATEMENT OF MR. ALBERT F. JAMES.

Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school Mr. James?

Mr. James. I will answer that question in this way, Mr. Chairman, if you will allow me. I was going to the public school in Eureka. I went to the fourth grade. Then I left there and went to Chemawa and, as I could remember now, I was there two years. I did not go under my parent's consent. My stepfather sent me there without my parent's consent and I finished school all this time at Chemawa. When I came back from Chemawa, after I had been there two years, all I had learned there was debating.

The CHAIRMAN. Now, we don't want to go into all that; just answer the question. Mr. JAMES. I want to answer the question this way. The CHAIRMAN. It might take you all night to answer it. Mr. JAMES. I have a little to say. The CHAIRMAN. You can state whether you went to a Government school or not. Mr. JAMES. I want to explain after I got back to Eureka what happened. I went to school to Chemawa for two years. Went home, and went to public school, and I took an examination there, and that examination proved that I had not gained anything and I was put back in the fourth grade.

The CHAIRMAN. I refuse to hear any more of that. You can answer the question directly, because we can not sit here all night and listen to arguments.

Mr. MERITT. Mr. Chairman, you will note that this gentleman has attended a Government school at Chemawa, an Indian school, recognized as one of the best Indian schools in the United States, and no Indian boy can go there two years and not receive a substantial benefit from that school. Now, it cost at least $200 per capita for this man to attend that school. He attended there two years. Have you children?

Mr. JAMES. Yes, sir, Mr. MERITT. Did they attend a Government school? Mr. JAMES. They are not of school age. Mr. MERITT. His children are probably going to attend a Government school or else a public school at a cost to the Federal Government. Mr. William Fuller.

STATEMENT OF MR. WILLIAM FULLER.

The CHAIRMAN. Is Mr. Fuller present?
Mr. FULLER. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school?
Mr. FULLER. No, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children who ever attended a Government school?
Mr. FULLER. I have, sir.
Mr. MERITT. How many
Mr. FULLER. I had two at one time.
Mr. MERITT. Where did they attend?
Mr. FULLER. Phoenix, Ariz.
Mr. MERITT. How long were they in school?
Mr. FULLER. Two years.
Mr. MERITT. Two years each?
Mr. FULLER. Yes, sir.

Mr. MERITT. Mr. Fuller's two children have attended the Government school at Phoenix, one of the largest reservation schools, two years each, at a cost to the Government of $800 for the education of those children for that time.

STATEMENT OF MR. STEPHEN KNIGHT.

Mr. MERITT. Have you ever attended Government school?
Mr. KNIGHT. I have; in Chemawa, Oreg.

Mr. MERITT. How long were you at Chemawa?
Mr. KNIGHT. I was there four years..
Mr. MERITT. Four years?
Mr. Knight. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children in the Government schools?

Mr. Knight. I have two in the day schools, and I can send those children to a public school if you close the day school at any time.

The CHAIRMAN. We did not ask that; that is unnecessary. We did not ask that.

Mr. MERITT. Gentlemen, you will observe this Indian has attended the Government school at Chemawa, one of our good schools, for four years, which cost the Government $800, and his children are now attending an Indian day school, costing at least $75 a year each, for two children.

STATEMENT OF MR. HARRISON DIAZ.

Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school?
Mr. Diaz. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Where?
Mr. Diaz. Carson ('ity.
Mr. MERITT. Carson City?
Mr. DIAZ. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. How many years were you there?
Mr. Diaz. About four years.
Mr. MERITT. Four years?
Mr. Diaz. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children?
Mr. Diaz. No children.

Mr. MERITT. Mr. Chairman, he attended a Government school at Carson City, one of our good boarding schools, and it cost the Government $200 a year, or $800, for his education.

STATEMENT OF MR. A. J. HOGAN.

Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school?
Mr. Hogan. No, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children who ever attended a Government school?
Mr. HOGAN. I have no children of my own.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any other children in your family?
Mr. Hogan. I have a niece that has been there down at Riverside now.
Mr. MERITT. Member of your family?
Mr. HOGAN. A member of my family, yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. IIow long did she attend school?

Mr. HIOGAN. She was at Riverside two years and is down there now for a term of three years.

Mr. MERITT. Five years. That will represent a thousand dollars' expense to the Government.

STATEMENT OF MR. T. W. BILLINGS.
Mr. MERITT. Did you ever attend a Government school?
Mr. Billings. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. Where?
Mr. BILLINGS. (hemawa.
Mr. MERITT. How long were you there?
Mr. BILLINGS. About a year and a half.
Mr. MERITT. A year and a half?
Mr. Billings. Yes; about a year and three months.
Mr. MERITT. Have you any children in the Government schools?
Mr. Billings. Yes, sir.
Mr. MERITT. How many?
Mr. BILLINGS. Two. One three two years and the other five.

Mr. MERITT. One there two years and the other five? Two years would be $400 and the other five would be $1,000, or $1,700 it cost the Government to educate Mr. Billings and his children. (Mr. Ayers was called.)

The CHAIRMAN. He is not here. Some one this morning in their testimony stated that they had attended a Government school 10 years.

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