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Treaties. Until new State is recognized courts must consider the former

situation as remaining----
Congress may impose special duties on a judge under a treaty-.-...
Power to adjust claims under a treaty may be conferred on Secretary

of Treasury..
The construction of treaties is the peculiar province of the judiciary..
Effect of admission on Territory as State on Indian treaties...
Later statute or treaty supersedes prior treaty or statute...-
Treaties made by the United States are binding within the territorial

limits of all States.---.
Trial by jury. All crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be tried

by jury...
Such trial shall be held in the State within which the crime shall have

been committed..
But when not committed within a State, the trial shall be at such place

as Congress may by law have directed..
In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a speedy and public.
Suits at common law, when the amount exceeds twenty dollars, shall

be by.--.
Trial, judgment, and punishment according to law. Judgment in cases of

impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from and
disqualification for office; but the party convicted shall nevertheless

be liable and subject to indictment.---
Tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court. Congress shall have power to

constitute.
Troops or ships of war in time of peace without the consent of Congress.

No State shall keep---
Trust and profit under the United States shall be an elector for President and

Vice President. No Senator, Representative, or person holding

any office of..---
Two-thirds. A bill returned by the President with his objections may be

repassed by each House by a vote of.-.-.
Two-thirds, may expel a member. Each house with the concurrence of...
Two-thirds, may remove the disabilities imposed by the third section of the

fourteenth amendment. Congress, by a vote of.....
Two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary. Congress shall propose

amendments to the Constitution whenever..
Two-thirds of the legislatures of the several States. Congress shall call a

convention for proposing amendments to the Constitution on the

application of...-.
Two-thirds of the members present. No person shall be convicted on im-

peachment without the concurrence of.....
Two-thirds of the Senators present concur. The President shall have power,

by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties,

provided...
Two-thirds of the States. When the choice of a President shall devolve on

the House of Representatives, a quorum shall consist of a member or

members from...
Two-thirds of the whole number of Senators. A quorum of the Senate, when

choosing a Vice President, shall consist of...
Two years. Appropriations for raising and supporting armies shall not be
for a longer term than..

U.
Unconstitutional legislation. State law requiring interurban railroads to

supply separate accommodations for white and colored passengers.
Act of Congress re membership in labor union...
Act of Congress of March 4, 1913, giving the Department of Agricul-

ture regulatory power over migratory birds, held invalid.
Act of Congress of March 2, 1917, re sale of oil and gas, held invalid

except in District of Columbia..

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Unconstitutional legislation. Act of Congress of 1870, known as the trade-

mark act, held invalid under the commerce clause....
Act of Congress known as the child labor law can not be sustained on

the theory that Congress has power to control interstate com-

merce in child-made goods....
Act of Congress imposing a tax on child-labor-made goods held in-

valid..
State law authorizing issuance of free passes in payment for printing

and advertising held invalid..
State statute attempting to prohibit discrimination in interstate

transportation held invalid..
State statute requiring railroads to offer mileage books for sale at a

stipulated price held invalid..
State statute which penalizes a carrier which refuses to receive freight

for transportation is invalid..
An ordinance requiring an express company to take out local licenses

for transacting interstate business is an unconstitutional burden on

interstate commerce..
State statute authorizing the recovery of a penalty for delay in giving

notice to a consignee of the arrival of freight at destination is in-

valid...
State statute prohibiting transportation of natural gas by foreign

corporation held invalid
State statute prohibiting a certain class of persons from entering the

State invalid under the commerce clause---
State statute requiring foreign corporations to file statements held

unconstitutional...
State tax imposed upon the business of selling goods in foreign com-

merce is unconstitutional...
State taxation of railroads on track mileage basis held invalid...
State tax on property of interstate carrier outside the State held in-

valid.
State tax purporting to be for carrying on express business held invalid.
State tax based on all franchises of a railroad company, including

franchises granted by United States held invalid.--
State law applicable to interstate and intrastate commerce which im-

poses fees in excess of cost of inspection, imposes tax, and is void..
State capitation tax upon every person leaving the State or passing

through it by railroad, held void when its operation would em-

barass the National Government...
State privilege tax upon the business of selling gasoline in tank cars

is invalid.-
State tax applied to an individual within the State selling the goods

of a nonresident principal is a tax upon interstate commerce.--.
State regulation of railroad stops held unconstitutional obstruction

of the mails..--
Trade-mark act of 1870 held unconstitutional
State labor law providing that no employees shall be required or per-

mitted to work in bakeries more than ten hours a day, held uncon-

stitutional..
State tax on bills of lading of foreign articles held tax on imports....
The õupreme Court has the power to declare an act of Congress to be

repugnant to the Constitution and therefore invalid...
United States Supreme Court has no jurisdiction to determine that any

State law contrary to State constitution is void..---
Right of Government to appeal without power to set aside verdict.
President can not be restrained from carrying into effect an act of

Congress alleged to be unconstitutional...
Right and duty of the Supreme Court to declare acts of Congress un.

constitutional.

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Unconstitutional legislation. Right to declare an act of Congress uncon-

stitutional can only be exercised when a proper case between oppos-

ing parties is submitted for determination..
House resolution authorizing investigation of affairs of a debtor of the

United States held invalid...
Act of June 10, 1922, purporting to exclude from the jurisdiction of

admiralty courts certain cases within the purview of State work-

men's compensation laws held invalid
State statute canceling license of foreign corporation when it attempts

to assert its right to remove a cause to a Federal court held invalid.
Act of Congress authorizing Supreme Court to issue writs of man-

damus purported to extend jurisdiction to cases not named in Con-

stitution.
Act of Congress dispensing with jury in prosecutions by information

in the District of Columbia police court held invalid.--
Clayton Act held unconstitutional as encroachment on judicial power

in giving jury trial to persons charged with contempt.----
Act of Congress prohibiting conspiracies to deprive any person of rights

secured by State laws held invalid....
State statute requiring nonresidents to pay license fee higher than

residents held invalid..
State statute giving citizen creditors priority over nonresident

creditors held invalid.-----
Act of Congress for the protection of migratory birds held invalid..
No act of Congress is of any validity which does not rest on authority

conferred by the Constitution.
In every case the act of Congress or the treaty is supreme, and the

law of the State though enacted in the exercise of powers not con-

troverted, must yield to it.----
Act of Congress providing for punishment of "all suspicious persons"

held invalid.
Act of Congress of 1893 depriving witnesses of their right to refuse

to answer held invalid..
Provision in Alaska Code that in trials for misdemeanors six persons

should constitute a legal jury held invalid...
Act of Congress of May 5, 1892, providing for the deportation of

aliens illegally within the United States, held repugnant to the
sixth amendment in that it did not specifically provide for a

judicial trial.----
Food control act of August 10, 1917, as amended October 22, 1919,

penalizing the making of sales of necessaries at unreasonable prices

sets up no ascertainable standard of guilt, and is invalid.---
Act of Congress of March 1, 1875, declaring that the judgment of

conviction against the principal felons shall be conclusive evidence
in a prosecution against the receiver of stolen goods, is in violation

of the sixth amendment....
Act of Congress of March 3, 1863, providing for removal to United

States circuit courts of cases brought in State courts against Fed-
eral officers for arrests, the circuit court to try the case as though

it had been originally brought there held invalid...
State statute making it a penal offense where a person, who has con-

tracted to labor for or serve another for any given time in the

cultivation of land, leaves or abandons the contract held invalid..
State statute which results in involuntary servitude or slavery held

unconstitutional...
Act of Congress declaring that all persons regardless of race or color

are entitled to equal enjoyment of facilities of inns, public con-

veyances, etc., and prescribing penalty for violation held invalid..
Compulsory arbitration attempted under the Kansas industrial rela-

tions act, held not justified...

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Unconstitutional legislation. An ordinance forbidding colored persons to

occupy houses in blocks where the greater number of houses are

occupied by white persons, held unconstitutional...
When a person has acquired title to property with the assurance that

his easements were secured by contract, such rights are property

rights within the meaning of the Constitution...
Act of Congress punishing any two or more persons conspiring to

deprive any person of the equal protection of the laws was not

authorized by the fourteenth amendment.---
Act of Congress making it a felony to harbor an alien prostitute held

an encroachment on the State police power.--
Act of Congress making criminal the hindrance by individuals of the

right of suffrage guaranteed by the fifteenth amendment, which ap-
plies only to action by the United States or the several States held

invalid ----
List of acts of Congress declared unconstitutional by Federal Supreme

Court...
Union. To establish a more perfect...

The President shall, from time to time, give to Congress informa-

tion of the state of the---
New States may be admitted by Congress into this..
But no new States shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction

of another State...
United States. Cases in which the United States is a party--
Unreasonable searches and seizures. The people shall be secured in their

persons, houses, papers, and effects against...
And no warrants shall be issued but upon probable cause, supported

by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be

searched and the persons or things to be seized.----
Use without just compensation. Private property shall not be taken for

public.-
Useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the

exclusive right to their writings and inventions. Congress shall

have power to promote the progress of science and the .
Unusual punishments inflicted. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor

excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and....

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Vacancies happening in the representation of a State. The executive

thereof shall issue writs of election to fill...
Happening in the Senate in the recess of the legislature of a State.

How filled. (See Seventeenth amendment, p. 747)-----
That happened during the recess of the Senate, by granting commis-

sions which shall expire at the end of the next session. The Presi-

dent shall have power to fill -----
Vaccination. State may compel school children to be vaccinated..

Laws requiring vaccination of children as a condition of their attend-

ance on public schools held valid under equality clause.
Vagrants. Act of Congress providing for punishment of "all suspicious

persons" held invalid....
Validity of the public debt incurred in suppressing insurrection against

the United States, including debt for pensions and bounties, shall

not be questioned ...
Valuation. Section 19a of the act to regulate commerce directs to com-

mission to value the properties of common carriers...
Verdicts. The statute may forbid the setting aside of a verdict as being

against the weight of evidence, without depriving the accused of

his rights....
Vessels. A State may tax ocean-going vessels as property at the domicile

of the owner when it does not appear that such vessels have ac-
quired an actual situs elsewhere..

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Vessels. Bound to or from the ports of one State shall not ne obliged

to enter, clear, or pay duties in another State.
Vested rights. A State law devesting vested rights violates no constitu-

tional provision where it does not impair the obligation of a

contract.

The rights of beneficiary under war risk insurance act...
Veto of a bill by the President. Proceedings of the two Houses upon the.
Veto power. The Supreme Court has no veto power on congressional

legislation...
Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate...

He shall have no vote unless the Senate be equally divided...-.-.-.
The Senate shall elect a President pro tempore in the absence of the.
He shall be chosen for the term of four years..
The number and the manner of appointing electors for President and.
In case of the removal, death, resignation, or inability of the Presi-

dent, the powers and duties of his office shall devolve on the.....
Congress may provide by law for the case of the removal, death, resig-

nation, or inability both of the President and...
On impeachment for and conviction of treason, bribery, and other

high crimes and misdemeanors shall be removed from office. The.
The manner of choosing the. The electors shall meet in their re-

spective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice President,
one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State

with themselves...
The electors shall name, in distinct ballots, the person voted for as

Vice President.
They shall make distinct lists of the persons voted for as Vice Presi-

dent, which lists they shall sign and certify, and send sealed to the

seat of government, directed to the President of the Senate.---...
The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and

House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes

shall then be counted.-----
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be Vice Presi-

dent, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors.
If no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on

the list the Senate shall choose the Vice President.----
A quorum for this purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole

number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be

necessary to a choice..
But if the House shall make no choice of a President before the 4th

of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as Presi-
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability

of the President.----

No person constitutionally ineligible as President shall be eligible as.
Violence. The United States shall guarantee to every State a republican

form of government, and shall protect each State against invasion

and domestic..
Virginia entitled to ten representatives in the First Congress.
Vote. Each Senator shall have one.

The Vice President, unless the Senate be equally divided, shall have

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Vote of two-thirds. Each House may expel a nember by a...-

A bill vetoed by the President may be repassed in each House by a..
No person shall be convicted on an impeachment except by a-------
Whenever both Houses shall deem it necessary, Congress may pro-

pose amendments to the Constitution by a.--.
The President may make treaties, with the advice and consent of

the Senate by a..
Disabilities incurred by participation in insurrection or rebellion may

be relieved by Congress by a.

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