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over the Hirer Kalobhar, on the road between Sanglee and Chumardee, where it has never before been known to have reached in the memory of man. Further, it is well known to the residents of the villages situated near any considerable creek, that the creeks are enlarging, and that the influx of sea-water is increasing yearly. The inhabitants of the village of Haitta on the south coast, not far from Jhanjrneer, showed me the devastation caused by the Buggur Creek which during the Aka Treege tides overflowed and washed away several fields. The Talooka of Wulleh is anxious to open a Bunder at Ghelree on the Bhownuggur Creek, a distance of at least six miles from Bhownuggur as the crow flies, and following the windings of the creek probably not less than 10 miles. There is a legend prevalent throughout the Gogabarrah District that Perim, where Mokhera Gohel had a Fort, was formerly connected with the mainland. This does not appear to have been impossible. There is also a legend that vessels used to be able ages ago to ascend the Bownuggur Creek as far as Chumardee.
3. I forward herewith a tabular statement showing the height attained by the tides of the full moon and new moon, at Bhownuggur Mhdwa and Kutheewuddur, on posts specially fixed for the purpose, but I need hardly say that observations taken for so limited a period of time are useless in themselves, though if taken at new moon and fall moon every month for a series of ten or twenty years they would be extremely valuable.
4. When I visited the Runn in 1865-66 I observed that although there can be little doubt that the extent of water in the Runn was formerly at some remote period of time very much greater than it now is, yet that this water appears to have gradually receded owing to oscillations in the level of the Runn, and it seems to have reached its lowest point about the middle of the last century. At all events since that time the Runn appears to have again commenced to sink, and the sea water consequently to penetrate further and further eastward, and to cover a larger extent of Runn during the hot season and the rains, vide McMurdo's report to Government dated October 2nd 1815. Since then the level of the Runn has continued to be gradually depressed, and the sea-water each year covers a larger extent of territory. In proof of this, when I was at Balumba, in the end of 1865, the villagers told me that formerly, even within the memory of man, there was a footpath across the Runn from Balumba to Toona in Kutch, but that the gradual advance of the sea had closed this pass. Close to Balumba is the village of Bheemkutta under Amrully. The frontier of this village was dofined by Colonel Rigby a few years ago; since that time several acres belonging to Bheemkutta have been over flowed by salt-water and become Runn. The whole of the inhabitants of the southern shore of the Runn state that the sea is advancing rapidly. I believe the southern shore to be the very best place for investigations to be made as to whether the level of the Runn is being raised or depressed. Ten years' observations here would set the question at rest.
5. My opinion is that at some remote period of time the level of Kattywar was depressed considerably lower than it now is, and the present appearance of the Runn and the Bhal confirm my supposition. Any unprejudiced observer
examining the Rrmn and the Bhal, or low flat salt-land between the Null and the Gulf of Cambap, must perceive that the sea has but comparatively recently withdrawn from it, and that formerly Kattyawar was an island. I oonsidor that a period of upheaval followed the period of depression, and that now another period of depression has oommenced. At the present day, in a heavy rainy season a light canoe might be paddled from the Runn of Kutch to the Gulf of Cambay, or nearly so. My reasons for supposing that a period of upheaval followed that of depression are that while we see that the sea is yearly encroaching both in the Runn and on the Southern coast of Kattywar, we yet sea that the extent of Runn and Bhal that must have at one time been covered by salt-water is very considerable, and probably at least three centuries will be required at the present rate of depression to restore the Runn to its pristine condition of an inlet of the sea. The earthquake at the commencement of this century, which formed the Lake Sindree had doubtless an important effect on the Runn, and the slight shocks experienced in late years have no doubt been tending to the same object, viz. a general depression of level.
I have the honour to be,
Your most obedient Servant,
'TABULAR STATEMENT showing the measurement of the Tide dwing the years Swmmt 1922-23, A.d. 1866-67.
John W. Watson, Political Assistant, Kattyawar, in charge Eastern Division. (Sonpurree, March 20th 1867.'
'TRANSLATION of Statements made by Mehmon Daood Bawa, aged 70 years, and
There is a Mussulman shrine on the sea shore by the name of Peeran Peer, to the north of which ia the shrine of Khadur Meera. From the Peeran Peer shrine to the southern corner of my bungalow on the sea shore, a sea-wall has been erected; formerly this wall was not built. From this wall seawards for about 40 or 50 paces there was a Mahomedan burial-ground, but when the sea began to encroach the stones of those tombs began to be washed away. Some of these stones were used in erecting the masonry abutment round the shrine of Peeran Peer, and some were used in marking the sea-wall. This wall has been several times broken down in places from the violence of the sea, and it has been repaired. The waters of the sea cannot injure the town on account of this wall, but the sea is still steadily advancing. In proof of this I may mention that formerly there were Mussulman tombs at the distance of about 40 or 50 paces from the sea-wall seawards and in a spot now daily covered by the sea water at high tide. These tombs are now all washed away by the advance of the sea. Besides this there was a tamarind tree and a large tomb on the east of the southern corner of my bungalow, close to the sea-wall on the seaward side, where the sait water now reaches. This tomb was washed by the high tides, and the tamarind tree fell down five years ago. The land towards the east of my bungalow was washed away by the high tides, and an iron bar 12 feet long and 6 inches square, was found in it, and the bar was handed over to Government. A quay was afterwards made on that place and there is a tamarind tree there. To the north of this spot a bungalow waa built by the Collector, Mr. Roll, and on the east of this bungalow there is a quay, and there was formerly a neem tree with a masonry abutment round it, at the distance of about 40 or GO paces seawards from this quay, in a spot now daily covered by sea-water. This tree, together with the masonry abutment, was washed away by the waters of the sea. On the east of this neem tree, at about the distance of a hundred paces, there wa3 a base of a Khotha. This Khotha is said to have been erected by Ahmed Khan, Nawab of Cambay. We took some of the stones from the foundation of this Khotha to erect the masonry abutment to the shrine of Peeran Peer, and the remainder of the foundation is still there. To tho north of the Collector's bungalow there is a Cotton pressing machine belonging to Hutteesing, and the quay is erected in front of this. On the north of this quay there was a lamp-post and a house for the Police guard; this house was always much damaged by tho violence of the sea-water. It was therefore romoved by Mr. Wood, the Engineer, last year, and was erected on the road further inland and the lamp-post was placed on the corner of Hutteesing's quay. On the south of Peeran Peer, there is the Fishermen's quarter, and on the sea shore there is a Musjid. To the south of this Musjid there is a Khotha on the town-wall, and the Mussulman burial-ground is on the south of this Khotha. South of this again is the place where the Hindoos burn their dead. Between the Musjid and the town-wall there is an outer wall, and there was a bank of earth towards the sea for about 20 or 24 paces. This was washed away by the sea, and the water now roaches as far as the baso of the wall. There is a burial-ground near the Khotha, which is gradually being washed away by the violence of the sea waves. The shrine also of the' Peeran Peer is being washed away. There was a village and two tanks established by Mokhera Gopal, in the island of Peerum. The village has been buried in the sand, and at present there are only 10 or 12 huts of Kolees on the margin of the bank, and there was a fort round Peerum, but it foil down many years ago.
(Signed) Menmon Daood Bawa (with his own hand).
aged 57 years (with his own hand). Dated September 19th 1866.
John W. Watson,
'TRANSLATION of Deposition of Nuthoo Jasoor, by caste Ganchee, by religion Mussulman, by occupation Superintendent of Masons, Resident of Gogo, aged 55 years, taken before C. Anbixg, Esq., Secretary to the Gogo Municipality, at Gogo, September 28th 1866.
Mr. Anding read over to me the statement made by Daood Bawa and VeettuIdass Veerjee. I say that what I know is in accordance with their statement. The sea encroaches townwards, and if there was no sea-wall the bungalow of Mr. Boll, the Collector, and other buildings, and also the Mussulman burying-ground would have been washed away by the waves of the sea. There is a Khotha called Mussanis (on the town wall); the waves of the sea formerly used to, at high tides, stop short 50 paces off this tower, but now the waves dash against this Khotha at high tides, and wash away the soil on the western face of this Khotha, and also the bank of earth which is there is being washed away. Thus the sea encroaches. There was a lamp-post on the sea shore, which was washed away by the waves, and a new one is erected on another spot; there was also a house for the Police guard which is removed now further inland on account of the violence of the waves. There was a neem tree near the Police-guard-house which was washed away by the sea waves in June last. I am also of opinion that if the wooden palisade made by the Engineer Saheb be not joined on to the wall in front of Huteesing's bungalow that the sand on the Bunder will be all washed away, and that the sea will encroach further towards the town.
John W. Watson, 'Police Assistant Kattyawar, in charge Eastern District."
'My Dear Sir,—Having read the accompanying Translation made of the depositions of Daood Bawa and Vittuldass Veerjee, I believe it to be perfectly correct, from what I have heard and seen. When I came here in September 1858 I Baw (to the best of my recollection) the tamarind tree standing, and was subsequently washed away by the violence of tho sea waves. The surface of the sea-wall or quay has been repeatedly battered in, although it is so built as to present to the sea waves an incline or oblique surface ; had it been perpendicular the cost of keeping it in repair would have been great.
2. The mound of earth projecting out from the town wall in the direction of the fishermen's quarters has been and still is gradually disappearing, indeed there is very little of it left. I append copies of the reports made by myself and the Karooon of the Municipality requesting sanction for the repair of this port tion of the wall, the firBt being dated Bo far back as the 11th July 1862, and the Mussulman burying-ground to the south of the southern Kotha of the town wall, is also being washed away, in proof which the skeletons of the bodies in some of the graves are lying to some extent exposed, and others completely washed away. The Hindoos, who burn their dead at the " Musson" which adjoins this burial-ground, declare, that a great portion of tho ground or space lying before the building where they sit to watch the cremation of the bodies committed to the funeral pile, has been considerably washed away by the sea waves, thus leaving them but 10 paces of ground between the mark of high spring tides, and the buildings referred to. These are circumstances and truths which go clearly to show that the sea is steadily and perceptibly encroaching.
3. The Bunder of Gogo, since my coming here, has considerably diminished in size, as to the north of Hutteesing's quay stood the old " Chowkee," and a little lower down the Bunder light, but both were obliged to be removed, as stated in the deposition, from the advance of the sea. During the last high Bpring tides of June the whole surface of the Bunder was submerged, a neem tree near the new Chowkee washed down, and unless Col. Bell's plan of carrying the wooden shield right round the margin of the bunder to join the sea-wall is carried out, the whole of the remaining portion of sand now on it will, I fear, be washed away.
4. I also bog to append tho deposition of Nuthoo, Sub-Overseer in the Public Works Department, who was formerly and for years the Mistree of the Gogo Municipality. This statement of his goes to confirm to a considerable extent all that has been said above on the subject of tho encroachment of the sea on the western coast of tho Gulf of Cambay.
Yours very obediently,
John W. Watson.'
Gogo, 28th September 1866.