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encompassed. Daybreak, however, discovered our visitors to be flocks of thousands of rock grouse coming in from a distance to drink, some so exhausted as to fall within twenty or thirty yards of the water; all, however, quickly satisfying their thirst and flying away to make way for new comers. Daybreak also showed us - the declivities near the stream, almost covered with guinea-fowl and small game of all kinds, but the first glimmer of sunlight was the signal for them to disperse, and before the sun could show itself not a bird was to be seen. During the day, however, a crowd of monkeys of all sizes and colours paid us a visit, making a tremendous chattering as they picked their way down and re-ascended the banks. The thermometer stood at 98 deg. during the day, and at sunset we struck our tents, about which time also the game came again for water; and, however incredible it may appear, I can assure you that the sky was considerably darkened by the denseness of the flocks, and they fly so fast that a charge of shot fired at the headmost bird of a flock, leaves a line vacant for I should say 20 to 30 yards, and probably brings down as many birds ; under these circumstances, it can then easily be imagined, that a very moderate sportsman can supply his own commissariat by the aid of his gun in that country. From "Saati" the road got gradually worse, and ascending between hills in the beds of mountain torrents, thickly strewed with rocks and boulders; enormous slabs laying at all angles, sometimes pivoted; round stones, from the size of one of those globes to that of a C8 pr. shot; and through rocky passes with the sharp rocks touching our mules' ribs as we passed; the hills on each side rising to a height of two or three hundred feet, made this road, which extended about 5 miles, extremely oppressive and unpleasantWhen, however, we were once past this, the scenery and deliciously cool night air amply rewarded us. For miles our road led down a gentle decline of clayey soil, smooth as a sheet of glass, with trees of all kinds varying the prospect, all as regularly planted and equally divided by the hand of nature, as they could be artificially in our own country; some of the trees rising to a fine height, the thick leaves of others spreading with a wide area, and again the strong branches and thick foliage of others drooping at a convenient distance from the parent stem, and forming a beautiful arbour, said to be sometimes the resting place of the peasant, and occasionally that of the lion or panther. The approach to "Ailaat" was then for about four miles across this plain, when we arrived at a scattered village, constructed, as all the houses on the low land appeared to be, of stakes driven into the ground about six inches apart, so as to form an oblong, and the interstices filled with branches of a prickly thorn, and a small compound enclosed by a dense hedge of the same description- We slept at "Ailaat," and the next morning proceeded on to the springs, which we found were about four miles distant, and the road to which led through a thin wood, and afterwards up the bed of the water-course proceeding from the springs. As we neared the springs the water, which about two miles down was delightfully cool, gradually became hotter, until at the springs it exuded from a gravelly soil at a temperature little below boiling point. The thermometers we had were only marked to 143 deg-, and the mercury almost instantaneously rose to the top of the tube. There are several springs exuding from a gravel bed at several temperatures, the lowest of which was about 90, but all contained in a circumference just allowing our small hill tent to stand in it. At night a long line of steam marks the line of the rivulet for about half a mile; and at a little distance down, it is as hot as the hand can bear. Each margin of the stream has marked a deep brown ridge on the sand and rocks, and led us to the supposition that there is a considerable quantity of iron in solution in the water: and its beneficial effects, in the alleviation of rheumatism, I myself can testify toAgain expressing my regret at not having provided myself with instruments for determining more satisfactorily the thermometrical range of the water, I would invite your inspection of the few specimens of the produce, arms, and manufactures of the country, which I collected during my stay at Massowa; and solicit your acceptance of the accompanying small map of North Abyssinia, in German, by M. Wemer Menzinger, which, I understood from that experienced traveller and author, had not, as yet, been published in England. The swords from Abyssinia, to which I invite your inspection, are from Shoa, Amhara, and theShiho, or low land of the Galla country. They are universally worn on the right side, and from their great length and unwieldy shape would appear to be anything but wieldy weapons to be handled. The spears are from the same districts as the swords; and the shields are those commonly used in Abyssinia and the Galla country, and manufactured from the wild buffaloe hide. Armed with the short sword and shield, the Galla tribe are said to
Fearlessly attack the lion in his lair, and defeat him single-handed in the encounter.
The leather is manufactured in the Hamassen districts, and judging from the size of the hide it would appear that the cattle must be of a very large breed. The cloths, of which there are two descriptions, are both manufactured at Adowa; that embroidered on the border with silk, is worn by the nobles chiefly; the other with the deep crimson border is worn by the ordinary class of inhabitants; the King is also said to adopt the latter, except on great state occasions, when he appears clothed in velvets. Both cloths are worn by day and night—beds being considered as far too refined a luxury to enjoy asleep. The gold is stated to be found in dust in the water of the Galla country, and to be smelted and run into its present shape. The quantity exhibited is a little more than two ounces in weight. The elephant's and hippopotamus's tusks are too well known as articles of merchandise to need any explanation from me—the latter, however, would appear to be rather large specimens. Lastly, the dessert service, manufactured at Massowa from the shell of the pearl oyster, by a native of that place, and presented to me by Mr. Hourmuz Rassam, on special mission to Abyssinia, will give you an idea of the size of the oysters found at the fisheries, amongst the Dhalac islands off Massowa.
Art. II.—REPORT On An OVERLAND JOURNEY From BAGDAD To CONSTANTINOPLE, Through Turkish Arabia And Asia Minor.—By Lieut. Col. F. J. Goldsmid. Contributed by Government.
Read before the Society, October I9th, 1865.
With reference to former correspondence in the early part of the
present year, I have now the honour
Memorandum on the march from to submit to (he Right Honourable
Bagdad to Izmid, with accompanying the Governor of Bombay in Council
letter to Lieut.-Colonel P. Stewart, J
C.b. the papers specified in the margin,
prepared on arrival at this capital last August. The overland journey through Turkish Arabia and Asia Minor to which they refer was undertaken, it will be remembered, in accordance with the proposition of Colonels Kemball and Stewart, C.b., under the full approval of the Bombay Government, and with the express sanction of the Sublime Porte, communicated by H. B. M.'s Ambassador at the Ottoman Court.
2. I left Bagdad, in company with Mr. Kersting, a gentleman connected with the Anglo-Indian Telegraph, and Ahmed Effendi, an Egyptian engineer specially deputed by H. E. Namik Pacha, on the 19th May last, and reached Angureh, in Asia Minor, on the 30th July. The distance, about 1,054 miles, was accomplished in 73 days, the average of marches, exclusive of halts being 18 miles, and inclusive of them 14£ miles per diem. From Angureh to Izmid, a further distance of 210 miles, I posted in about 3j days, and from Izmid the Gulf Steamer conveyed me in eight hours to Constantinople.
3. Adopting to some extent the sections of my printed Report on the Mekran Mission of the 22nd February 1862, I would make the present subject divisible as follows:—
I. The route, with special reference to Telegraph purposes.
II. The natural products of the soil, and means of obtaining water
matters of general or political interest.
4. On the first of these the enclosed papers will perhaps give all the requisite information. It had been my intention to have modified and condensed them, but time and opportunity having failed me, I have thought it better to submit them as originally drafted. I will now proceed at once to the second head.
5. At Bagdad it is the custom of residents when the hot weather
sets in to remove from the ordinary II. Natural products of the soil, ^ of abod t ^ rf ft or d water, and supplies. *
ground house. My departure from
the city was just at this particular period of domestic migration. The heat was great during the day, nor was it likely to decrease until we had got fairly out of the lower valley of the Tigris. Under these circumstances we were in a condition to appreciate the value of water Rs well as to feel the want of that most essential element. And certainly in this respect the country east of the Tigris- is blest in a remarkable manner. The Dyala, the Greater and Lesser Zab, and the Hazir oi Kharir, with the less perennial Taok and Tuz Khunnah Su, may be classed as actual rivers occurring between Bagdad and Mosul, all having their source amid the snow-covered mountains of Kurdistan. In addition to these are canals and subsidiary streams. Of the affluents, the Khalis, near Bagdad, has brought down a sufficient volume of water during the present year to cause a stoppage of some weeks on the telegraph line.
C. Beyond Mosul, again, there is no lack of water to Jezireh. Though rivers do not cross the road like those above mentioned, there is one, the Khabur, which is by no means insignificant. -We had to swim cur horses across it, as at the passage of the Tigris and Zab Su. Many minor streams are encountered, and water-mills are not infrequent. The mill at Gerishekist, a charming little Christian village about twelve hours' north of Mosul, is an admirable illustration of romantic scenery.
7. But the grain-fields are even more remarkable than the abundant supply of water in this country between Bagdad and Jezireh. In many places, especially near Mosul, the wheat and barley extend a3 far as the eye can reach. East of the Tigris, and between the Kurdish mountains and the river, there is no lack of the staff of life, and the amount carried down to Bagdad must be considerable. At Altmo Kiupri, on the Lesser Zab, I observed a raft loading. It is said (hat