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the purpose. I will now conclude by a brief account of the lake known as Ghyuljik, and an inscription observed on the left bank of the Euphrates near the Malatyah ferry.
37- * Ghyuljik,' the 'little lake,' is situated Iat. 38° 25' N. and long. 39° 30' E., between the mountains known, as Batman Dagh and ' Deva Boyun,' or 'Camel's Neck,' overlooking the vast plains of Kharput. Its extreme length, from E. and by N. to W. and by S., is barely ten miles, and it may have, at most, four miles of breadth. On its southern side is a village of about twenty Kurd houses, and a larger one, bearing the name ' Ghyuljik,' of fifty Raya or Christian houses. There are also some eight or ten houses on the northern* side there is a village about six miles to the west, and Kizzin is about a mile and a half on the east. The lake is surrounded by high hills which come down into its waters, but there is a small open space on the Kizzin side. These hills have a green appearance when seen close, but at a distance look sufficiently barren to make the blue waters of the lake a charming contrast.
The temperature of the water was found to be 68°, the air being 80°. I brought away a flask of the water for analysis, and the following is the result arrived at by Mr. Squire, the London chemist:—' Remarkably soft, being almost entirely free from lime and magnesia salts. Its hardness may be described as being only one-third that of Thames water. A gallon of water contained ninety-two grains solid matter, which consists almost entirely of chloride of sodium. The water also contains a certain amount of organic matter.' The assurance that the waters of this lake were salt, and my own uncertainty on the subject from taste, caused me to put the question to proof. Its miniature waves and blue appearance rather favour the belief of the peasantry. The Kurdish village is at the widest part of ' Ghyuljik,' and is prettily situated in a small bay among trees. A boat is kept by the Rayas, attached to whose village was once a monastery,' long ago cut off by the waters. The building is now seen in its isolated position, at a considerable distance from the opposite high land. The telegraph line runs, with its usual unromantic determination, close by the eastern head of the lake.
38. I had come down from the high table-lands of Kharput into the valley of the Upper Euphrates, meeting the river at the ruined caravanserai of Sultan Murad, and had not moved far along the left bank when the Chaosh or Turkish telegraph official who accompanied me called my attention to a cuneiform inscription on the perpendicular face of a rock almost in our track. It was in proportion much as follows, and I would commend it to the notice of those more capable than myself to decipher its meaning
The rock is not a high one, and the stone on which is the inscription falls in to some extent, so as to be framed by the outer portion of the rock. No doubt this has already been noticed by travellers, but I have hitherto been unable to ascertain the fact. The letters are arrow-shaped, but have a look of Sanscrit in their lining and indistinctness. The large village of Izz Oghlu, on either side of the Euphrates, is about five miles further up than the locality of this inscription.
8 Zind 26th May. 20 miles. Kurd tents.
9 Taza Khurmati .. 27th „ 22 „ Large village; 300
10 Kerkuk 28th „ 14 „ Turkish town; 2,500
houses, 10,000 inhabitants.
on either side the
Euphrates. Small village. Large village, Kizzil
Ditto 40 or 60. Ditto of 60 houses,
many Armenian. Large town; 10,000 houses.
Ditto; hot springs.
Large town; 5,000
houses. Small village. Turcoman village.
Ditto. Ditto on Kizzil Irmak.
Ditto. Large town.
Total miles 1,054
Carried forward 1,054 miles.