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armly that, according to God's word, Israel is first grace. God zealously watches over the recognition of called to salvation (i, 16; ii, 10), explicitly proclaim- this truth; hence the emphasizing of faith (i, 16 sq.; ing the preference shown to it (iii, 1–2; ix, 4–5—the iii, 32, 24-30; iv, 2 sqq., 13–25; v, 1, etc.); hence Divine promises, Divine sonship, the Covenant and the stress laid upon the redemptory act of Christ, the Law, and, greatest privilege of all, the origin of which benefits us, the enemies of God (iii, 24 sq.; iv, the Messias, the true God, in Israel according to the 24 sq.; y, 6-10, 15–21; vii, 25; viii

, 29 sqq.); we owe flesh-Xv, 8). Paul willingly recognizes the zeal our whole salvation and the inalienable certainty of of the people for the things of God, although their salvation to the propitiatory and sanctifying power of zeal is misdirected (ix, 31 sq.; y, 2).

the Blood of Christ (viii, 35–39). Such being his feelings towards the Chosen People, From this standpoint the second part (ix-xi) de it is not surprising that Paul's heart is filled with bitter scribes the action of Divine providence, which is grief at the blindness of the Jews, that he besieges God more than once revealed under the Old Dispensation, with prayer, that he is guided throughout his life of self- and which alone corresponds with the grandeur and sacrificing apostolic labours by the hope that thereby sovereign authority of God. Hence the irresponsive his brethren may be won for the Faith (ix, 1-2; x, 1; attitude of Israel becomes intelligible; the Jews xi, 13-14), that he would be prepared-were it possible blocked their own path by considering themselves en-to forego in his own case the happiness of union with titled to claim the Messianic Kingdom on the grounds Christ, if by such a renunciation he could secure for his of their personal justice In view of this repugnant brethren a place in the heart of the Saviour.

spirit, God was compelled to leave Israel to its own These utterances can offer a stumbling-block only to resources, until it should stretch out its hand after the those who do not understand St. Paul, who cannot merciful love of its Creator; then would the hour of fathom the depths of his apostolic charity. If we study salvation also strike for the People of the Covenant closely the character of the Apostle, realize the fervour (ix, 30 sqq.; x, 3-21; xi, 32) of his feelings, the warmth of his love and devotion Securing of Salvation. To the question how man to Christ's work and Person, we shall recognize how obtains salvation, St. Paul has but one answer: spontaneously these feelings flow from such a heart, not by natural powers, not by works of the Law, how natural they are to such a noble, unselfish nature. but by faith, and indeed by faith without the works The more recognition and confidence Paul won from of the Law (iii, 28). At the very beginning of the the Gentiles in the course of his apostolate, the more Epistle Paul refers to the complete failure of natural bitter must have been the thought that Israel refused powers (i, 18-32), and repeatedly returns to this idea to understand its God, stood aloof peevish and hos- but he lays the greatest emphasis on the inadequacy of tile, and in its hatred and blindness even persecuted the Law. From the Jews this statement met with the Messias in His Church and opposed as far as serious opposition. What does the Apostle mean then possible the work of His Apostles. These were the when he preaches the necessity of faith? hardest things for love to bear, they explain the abrupt, Faith is for St. Paul often nothing else than the determined break with and the ruthless warfare against Gospel, i. e., the whole economy of salvation in Christ the destructive spirit of unbelief, when Paul sees that (Gal., i, 23; iii, 23, 25, etc.); often it is the teaching he can protect the Church of Christ in no other way. of faith, the proclamation of the faith, and the life of Hence he has no toleration for insistence on the faith (Rom., į, 5; xii, 6; xvi, 26;. Gal., iii, 2; Acts, practice of the Law within the Christian fold, since vi, 7; Rom., i, 8; II Cor., i, 23; xi, 15; xiii

, 5; Acts, such insistence is in the last analysis the spirit of Juda- xiii, 8; xiv, 21; xvi, 5). That 'according to all these ism, which is incompatible with the spirit of Christ conceptions salvation comes only by faith without the and the Divine election to grace, for such assistance works of the Law, needs no demonstration. But to would by practice of the law supplement or set a seal what faith was Abraham indebted for his justification? on Faith. But from the same apostolic love springs also (iv, 3, 9, 13–22; Gal., iii, 6). Abraham had to believe the truly practical spirit of consideration which Paul

the word of God, that is hold it for certain. In the preaches and exercises (I Cor., ix, 20-22), and which he case of the Christian the same faith is demanded: demands from others everywhere, so long as the Gospel “to believe that we shall live also together with Christ: is not thereby jeopardized. One can easily understand knowing that Christ rising again from the dead, dieth how such a man can at one moment become inflamed now no more" (vi, 8-9); “If thou confess with thy with bitter resentment and holy anger, showing no mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in thy heart that indulgence when his life's work is threatened, and can God hath raised him up from the dead, thou shalt be later in a peaceful hour forget all, recognizing in the saved" (x, 9). This faith is undeniably belief on the offender only a misguided brother, whose fault arises, authority of God (dogmatic faith). The same concepnot from malice, but from ignorance. In a soul which tion of faith underlies all the exhortations to submit loves deeply and keenly one might expect the co- ourselves in faith to God; submission presupposes the existence of such contrasts; they spring from a single conviction of faith (i, 5; vi, 16–19; x, 16; xv, 18). root, a powerful, zealous, all-compelling charity—that The faith described in the Epistle to the Romans, as certainty of St. Paul the Apostle of the Gentiles. elsewhere in St. Paul's writings and in the New Testa

VII. THEOLOGICAL CONTENTS: FAITH AND WORKS. ment in general, is furthermore a trusting faith, e. 8., - The theological importance of the Epistle to the in the case of Abraham, whose trust is specially extolled Romans lies in its treatment of the great fundamental (iv, 17-21; cf. iii, 3, unbelief and the fidelity of God). problem of justification; other important questions So far is this confidence in God's fidelity from excluding (e. g., original sin—v, 12-21) are treated in connexion dogmatic faith that it is based undeniably on it alone with and from the standpoint of justification In the and unconditionally requires it. Without the unswervEpistle to the Galatians Paul had already defended his ing acceptance of certain truths (e. g., the Messiahship, teaching against the attacks of the extreme Jewish the Divinity of Christ, the redemptory character of Christians; in contrast with the Epistle to the Galatians, Christ's death, the Resurrection, etc.), there is for St. that to the Romans was not evoked by the excitement Paul, as he never fails to make clear in his Epistles, of a polemical warfare. The discussion of the ques- no Christianity. Therefore, justifying faith comprises tion in it is deeper and wider. The fundamental doc- dogmatic faith as well as hope. Again, it would never trine which Paul proclaims to all desirous of salvation have occurred to St. Paul to conceive baptism as other is as follows: In the case of all men the call to the than necessary for salvation; Romans itself offers the Messianic salvation is absolutely dependent on the free surest guarantee that baptism and faith, viewed of election of God; no merit or ability of the individ- course from different standpoints, are alike necessary ual

, neither inclusion among the descendants of Abra- for justification (vi, 3 sqq.; Gal., iii, 26 sq.). ham nor the practice of the Law, gives a title to this The turning away from sin is also necessary for ius

XIII.-11

tification., Paul cannot proclaim sufficiently the in- a scarcely intelligible position in view of the historical compatibility of sin and the Divine sonship. If the conditions. If the Epistle of St. James were comChristian must avoid sin, those who seek salvation posed shortly after the year 60, it might, in view of must also turn aside from it While St. Paul never the lively intercourse among the Christians, have been speaks in his Epistle of penance and contrition, these influenced by the misunderstood views of the teachconstitute so self-evident a condition that they do not ings of St. Paul, and James may have combated the call for any special mention. Besides, chapters i-iii misused formula of St. Paul. The almost verbal conare only a grand exposition of the truth that sin sepa- nexion in the passages might thus be accounted for. rates us from God. For the nature of justification it is (2) Does there exist any real opposition between immaterial whether Paul is displaying before the eyes Paul and James? This question is answered in the of the Christian the consequences of sin, or is making affirmative in many quarters to-day. Paul, it is as sentiments of contrition and a change to a Christian serted, taught justification through faith without mode of life a necessary preliminary condition for the works, while James simply denied St. Paul's teaching obtaining of grace What sentiments he requires, he (Rom., iii, 28), and seeks a different explanation for describes in the words: "For in Jesus Christ, neither the chief passage quoted by St. Paul (Gen., xv, 6) circumcision availeth any thing nor uncircumcision; concerning the faith of Abraham (Jülicher and others). but faith, which worketh by charity” (Gal., v, 6). It But does James really treat of justification in the is merely a repetition of this sentence when the Apostle, same sense as St. Paul? Their formulation of the after proclaiming freedom in Christ, seeks to remove the question is different from the outset. James speaks misconception that the condition of Christian freedom of true justice before God, which, he declares, consists might endure anything and become synonymous with not alone in a firm faith, but in a faith supported and liberty to sin (Gal., v, 13–21; cf. Rom., xii, 1 sq.; xiii, enlivened by works (especially of charity). Without 12 sqq., viii, 12 sqq., xi, 20 sqq.).

works faith is useless and dead (ii, 17, 20). James We thus see what Paul would have us understand addresses himself to readers who are already within by justifying faith. If he does not always describe the fold, but who may not lead a moral life and may it from every standpoint as in the present instance, appeal in justification of their conduct to the word of but designates it as dogmatic or trusting faith, the faith. To those who adopt this attitude, James can reason is easily understood. He has no intention of only answer: “But he that hath looked into the perdescribing all the stages along the road to justification; fect law of liberty, and hath continued therein, not he is so far from desiring to give a strict definition of becoming a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work, its nature, that he wishes merely to indicate the fun- this man shall be blessed in his deed” (i, 25). Throughdamental condition on the part of man. This con- out his Epistle James aims at attaining the translation dition is, from the standpoint of the supernatural of faith to life and works; in speaking of a faith that character of justification, not so much the feeling of worketh by charity (Gal., v, 6), Paul really teaches contrition or the performance of penitential works as exactly the same as James. the trusting acceptance of the promise of God. When But what of the argument of James and his appeal a person has once taken this first step, all the rest, if to Abraham? Was not Abraham our father justified he be consistent, follows of itself. To regard justify; by works, offering up Isaac his son upon the altar? ing faith as the work or outcome of natural man and Seest thou, that faith did co-operate with his works; to attribute grace to this work, is to misunderstand and by works faith was made perfect? And the the Apostle. The free submission which lies in faith scripture was fulfilled, saying: Abraham believed God, prepares the soul for the reception of grace. Provided and it was reputed to him to justice, and he was called that the teaching of St. Paul be studied in the context the friend of God” (i, 21-23). Paul, like James, apin which it is found in the Epistles to the Romans and pealed to the same Abraham-both rightly from their the Galatians, it cannot be misunderstood. If, how, individual standpoints. With entire right could Paul ever, Paul in both Epistles forestalls an unjustified declare that Abraham owed his justice, not to cirpractical consequence that might be drawn therefrom, cumcision, but to his faith; with complete right could this is a proof of his deep knowledge of mankind, but James appeal to Abraham's act of obedience and assert in no way a limitation of his doctrine. The faith that faith accompanied it and by it faith was comwhich justifies without the works of the Law and pleted. And if James applies to this act the phrase: the Christian freedom from the Law continue “It was reputed to him to justice”, he is quite entitled unimpaired. The possibility of error would be to do so, since Abraham's obedience is rewarded with afforded if one were to withdraw the words of the

a new and glorious promise of God (Gen., xxii, 16 Apostle from their context; even shibboleths for sqq.). libertinism might be extracted in that case from his It is clear from the whole passage that James does teaching. This leads us to the well-known sentence not use the word "justify”, in the sense in which Paul in the Epistle of St. James concerning faith without speaks of the first justification, but in the sense of an works (ii, 20, 24). _Was this written in premeditated increasing justification (cf. Rom., ii, 13; Apoc., xxü, opposition to St. Paul?

11), as corresponds to the object of the Epistle. Of Paul and James.—Two questions must be dis- any contradiction between the Epistle to the Romans tinguished in our inquiry: (1) Is there an historical and that of St. James, therefore, there can be no connexion between the statements in the Epistles? question. (2) How are the antitheses to be explained? Are Finally, there is a difference in the use of the term they premeditated or not?

faith. In the passage in question, James uses the (1) The possibility of a direct reference in the term in a narrow sense. As shown by the referEpistle of St. James to St. Paul (this hypothesis alone ence to the faith of the demons (ii, 19), nothing more is tenable) depends on the question of the priority of is here meant by faith than a firm conviction and the Epistle. For scholars (e. g., Neander, Beyschlag, undoubting acceptance, which is shared even by the Th. Zahn, Belser, Camerlynck, etc.) who hold that damned, and has therefore in itself no moral value. the Epistle of St. James was written before A.D. 50, Such a faith would never have been termed by St. the question is settled. But the grounds for the Paul a justifying faith. That throughout the whole assigning of this date to the Epistle are not entirely course of the Epistle of St. James St. Paul's doctrine convincing, since the Epistle fits in better with the of justification is never called into question, and that conditions of the succeeding decades. An extreme St. Paul on his side shows nowhere the least opposition attitude is adopted by many modern critics (e.g., Chr. to St. James, calls for no further proof. The fundaBaur, Hilgenfeld, H. J. Holtzmann, von Soden, Jü- mental conceptions and the whole treatment in the

her), who assign the Epistle to the second century, two Epistles exclude all views to the contrary.

forsult the Introductions by JACQUIER, CORNELY, BELSER, confessorum", c. xlv), and relates that St. Martin of Suructur; and Destination of the Epistle to the Romans in Jour. Tours made ready the grave of the dead Romanus. of Philolog. II (1869), reprinted in Biblical Essays (London, An old life of St. Romanus was published in the Commentaries: ORIGEN-RUFINUS; EPHRAEM; CHRYSOSTOM; feast of the saint is observed on 24 November.

“Analecta Bollandiana", V (1866), 178 sqq. The AMBROSIASTER; PELAGIUS; AUGUSTINE; THEOPHYLACTUS; ECUMENIUS; THOMAS AQUINAS; ERASMUS; CAJETAN; TOLET; (5) St. Romanus, Abbot of Condat, now St. Claude in (1847), BISPING (2nd ed., Münster, 1860), Mac Evilly (3rd ed., thirty-five years old he went into the lonely region of ESTIUA A LAPIDE CALMET: REITHMAER; ADALB: MAIER the French Jura, b. about 400; d. in 463 or 464. When Dubli... 1875): SCHAEFER (Münster, 1891): CORNELY (Paris, 1800 Condat to live as a hermit, where after a while his

Protestant Commentaries: LUTHER, Vorlesungen über den
Römerorief 1515-16., ed. by Ficker (Leipzig, 1908); MELANCH- younger brother Lupicinus followed him. A large
THON: BEZA; CALVIN; ZWINGLI; Grotius; BENGEL; WETT-
STEIN; THOLUCK (5th ed., 1856); OLSHAUSEN

(2nd ed., 1840); number of scholars, among whom was St. Eugendus, FRITZSCHE (3 vols., 1836-43), MEYER-Weiss (9th ed., Göttingen, placed themselves under the direction of the two holy 1899. tr., Edinburgh, 1873-4); Lipsius,

Holtzmann, Handkom- brothers who founded several monasteries: Condat Schriften des N. T., 1I (2nd ed., Göttingen, 1908): LIETZMANN, (now Saint-Claude), Lauconne (later Saint-Lupicin, Handbuch zum N. T., III (Tübingen, 1906); Zahn (Leipzig, as Lupicinus was buried there), La Balme (later Saint1910); GODET (2nd ed., 1883-90, tr. Edinburgh, 1881); GIF Romain-de-Roche), where St. Romanus was buried, HEADLAM,

The International Crit. Commentary (5th ed., Edinburgh, and Romainmôtier (Romanum monasterium) in the 1905). For further literature see CORNELY; SANDAY; WEISS. canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Romanus was or

Theological Questions.—SIMAR, Die Theol. des hl. Paulus (2nd dained priest by St. Hilary of Arles in 444, and with ed., Freiburg, 1883); PRAT, La chéolade 8. Paris, 1998): Lupicinus he directed these monasteries until his new ed. being published); Weiss, Lehrbuch d. bibl. Theol

. d. N. death. His feast is observed on 28 February. Two T. (7th ed. (Stuttgart, 1903); FEINE, Theol, des N. ?: (2nd ed., lives of him are in existence: one by Gregory of Tours Leipzig, 1911); BARTMANN, ST. P. u. Stets über die Rechtfer- in the “Liber vitæ patrum tigung in Bibl. Studien, XI (Freiburg, 1904), i.

(Mon. Germ. Hist.: A. MERK. Script. Merov., I, 663), and an anonymous “Vita

Sanctorum Romani, Lupicini, Eugendi” (ibid., III, Romanus, SAINTS.-(1) A Roman martyr Ro- 131 sqq.; cf. Benoît, "Histoire de St-Claude”, manus is mentioned in the “Liber Pontificalis” (ed. (Paris, 1890); Besson, "Recherches sur les origines Duchesne, I, 155) with three other ecclesiastics as des évêchés de Genève, Lausanne, et Sion" (Fribourg, companions in the martyrdom of St. Lawrence (101906), 210 sqq.) (6) St. Romanus, monk in a monasAugust, 258). There is no reason to doubt that this tery near Subiaco, Italy, at the beginning of the sixth mention rests upon a genuine ancient tradition. Like century. He aided St. Benedict when the latter withSt. Lawrence Romanus was buried in the Catacomb drew into a solitary place and regularly brought Beneof the Cyriaca on the Via Tiburtina. The grave of dict bread to support life (St. Gregory the Great, St. Romanus is explicitly mentioned in the Itineraries “Dialogi”, II, i). Romanus later (from 523) repre of the seventh century (De Rossi, “Roma sotter- sented St. Benedict at Subiaco, and is said to have ranea", I, 178-9). In the purely legendary Acts of afterwards gone to Gaul and to have founded a small St. Lawrence, the ostiary Romanus is transformed into monastery at Dryes-Fontrouge, where he died about a soldier, and an account in accordance with this state- 550 and was venerated as a saint. His feast is obment was inserted in the historical martyrologies and scrved on 22 May. A St. Romanus, who is venerated in the present Roman Martyrology, which latter places as Bishop of Auxerre on 8 October, is probably idenhis feast on 9 August (cf. Duchfourcq, “Les Gesta tical with this Abbot Romanus whose relics were subMartyrum romains”, I, 201). (2) In 303 or 304, at sequently translated to Auxerre (cf. “Acta SS.”, the beginning of the Diocletian persecution, a deacon May, V, 153 sqq.; October, III, 396 sqq.; Adlhoch in called Romanus of Cæsarea in Palestine suffered “Studien und Mitteilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und martyrdom at Antioch. Upon the proclamation of Cisterzienserorden” (1907), 267 sqq., 501 sqq.; Diocletian's edict he strengthened the Christians of (1908), 103 sqq., 327 sqq., 587 sqq.; Leclerc, “Vie de Antioch and openly exhorted the weaker brethren, St Romain, éducateur de St Bénoit" (Paris, 1893)). who were willing to offer heathen sacrifices, not to (7) St. Romanus, Bishop of Rouen, date of birth unwaver in the Faith. He was taken prisoner, was con- known; d. about 640. His feast is observed on 23 demned to death by fire, and was bound to the stake; October. The legend of this saint has little historical however, as the Emperor Galerius was then in Antioch, value (Acta SS., October, X, 91 sqq.), and there is Romanus was brought before him. At the emperor's but little authentic information concerning him (cf. command the tongue of the courageous confessor "Analecta Bollandiana” (1904), 337 sq.) (8) St. was cut out. Tortured in various ways in prison he Romanus, "the Singer", the most important reprewas finally strangled. Eusebius speaks of his martyr- sentative of rhythmic poetry in the Greek Church. dom in “De martyribus Palestin. c. ii. Prudentius According to the Greek “Menaia” he was born in ("Peristephanon", X in "P. L.”, LX, 444 sqq.) relates Syria, was ordained deacon at Berytus, then went to other details and gives Romanus a companion in Constantinople, where he became one of the clergy martyrdom, a Christian by name Barulas. On this at the Blachernen church. The era in which he lived account several historians, among them Baronius, is not certainly ascertained; most probably, however, consider that there were two martyrs named Romanus his residence in Constantinople was from about 515 at Antioch, though more likely there was but the one to 556. His feast is observed on 1 October. Several whom Eusebius mentions. Prudentius has introduced of his poems were edited by Pitra, "Analecta sacra”, legendary features into his account, and his connexion I (Paris, 1876), 1-241 (cf. Maas, "Die Chronologie of the martyrdom of Barulas with that of Romanus is der Hymnen des Romanus” in “Byzantin. Zeitprobably arbitrary. The feast of St. Romanus is schrift" (1906), 1-44; Bardenhewer, “Patrologie" observed on 18 November (cf. Allard, “Histoire des (3rd ed.), 486). persécutions”, IV, 173 sq.; Quentin, "Les martyro

J. P. KIRSCH. loges historiques" (Paris

, 1908), 183–5). (3) The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum” mentions mar- Romanus, POPE.—Of this pope very little is known tyrs of this name at several dates, chiefly in large com- with certainty, nct even the date of his birth nor the panies of Christians who suffered martyrdom. No exact date of his consecration as pope and of his further particulars are known of any of them. (4) death. He was born at Gallese near Civita Castellana, A holy priest named Romanus laboured in the dis- and was the son of Constantine. He became cardinal trict of Blaye, in the present French department of of St. Peter ad Vincula and pope about August, 897. the Gironde, at the end of the fourth century. Greg. He died four months later. He granted the pallium ory of Tours gives an account of him ("De gloria to Vitalis, Patriarch

of Grado, and a privilege for his

[graphic]

church; and to the Spanish Bishops of Elna and City of Rome rises on the banks of the Tiber at a dis Gerona, he confirmed the possessions of their sees. tance of from 16 to 19 miles from the mouth of that His coins bear the name of the Emperor Lambert, and river, which makes a deep furrow in the plain which his own monogram with “Scs. Petrus”. The con- extends between the Alban hills, to the south; the temporary historian Frodoard has three verses about hills of Palestrina and Tivoli, and the Sabine

hills, to him which argue him a man of virtue. It is possible the east; and the Umbrian hills and Monte Tolfa, to he was deposed by one of the factions which then dis- the north. The city stands in latitude 41° 54' N. and tracted Rome, for we read that "he was made a longitude 12° 30' E. of Greenwich. It occupies, on monk”, a phrase which, in the language of the times, the left bank, not only the plain, but also the adjacent often denoted deposition..

heights, namely, portions of the Parioli hills, of the JAFFÉ, Regesta Pont. Rom., I (Leipzig, 1888), 441; DUCHESNE, Pincian, the Quirinal, the Viminal, the Esquiline Liber Pontificalis, II (Paris, 1892), 230; MANN, Lives of the Popes (which are only the extremities of a mountain-mass in the Early Middle Ages, IV (London, 1910), 86 sq.

HORACE K. MANN. of tufa extending to the Alban hills), the Capitoline,

the Cælian, the Palatine, and the Aventine hills Rome.—The significance of Rome lies primarily in which are now isolated. On the right bank is the the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop of valley lying beneath Monte Mario, the Vatican, and Rome, as the successor of St. Peter, is the Vicar of the Janiculan, the last-named of which has not Christ on earth and the visible head of the Catholic become covered with houses and gardens. The Tiber, Church. Rome is consequently the centre of unity traversing the city, forms two sharp bends and an in belief, the source of ecclesiastical jurisdiction and island (S. Bartolomeo), and within the city its banks the seat of the supreme authority which can bind by are protected by the strong and lofty walls which were its enactments the faithful throughout the world. Þegun in 1875. The river is crossed by fourteen The Diocese of Rome is known as the "See of Peter", bridges, one of them being only provisional, while the “Apostolic See”, the “Holy Roman Church”, thé ten have been built since 1870. There is also a rail

Holy See"-titles which indicate its unique position road drawbridge near St. Paul's. Navigation on the in Christendom and suggest the origin of its pre- river is practicable only for vessels of light draught, eminence. Rome, more than any other city, bears which anchor at Ripa Grande, taking cargoes of oil witness both to the past splendour of the pagan world and other commodities. and to the triumph of Christianity. It is here that For the cure of souls, the city is divided into 54 the history of the Church can be traced from the parishes (including 7 in the suburbs), administered earliest days, from the humble beginnings in the partly by secular clergy, partly by regular. The Catacombs to the majestic ritual of St. Peter's. At boundaries of the parishes have been radically changed every turn one comes upon places hallowed by the by Pius X, to meet new needs arising out of topodeaths of the martyrs, the lives of innumerable saints, graphical changes. Each parish has, besides its the memories of wise and holy pontiffs. From Romé parish priest, one or two assistant priests, a chief the bearers of the Gospel message went out to the sacristan, and an indeterminate number of chaplains. peoples of Europe and eventually to the uttermost The parish priests every year elect a chamberlain ends of the earth. To Rome, again, in every age of the clergy, whose position is purely honorary; countless pilgrims have thronged from all the nations, every month they assemble for a conference to disand especially from English-speaking countries. With cuss cases in moral theology and also the practical religion the missionaries carried the best elements of exigencies of the ministry. In each parish there is a ancient culture and civilization which Rome had parochial committee for Catholic works; each has its preserved amid all the vicissitudes of barbaric in- various confraternities, many of which have their vasion. To these treasures of antiquity have been own church and oratory. In the vast extent of counadded the productions of a nobler art inspired by higher try outside of Rome, along the main highways, there ideals, that have filled Rome with masterpieces in are chapels for the accommodation of the few settled architecture, painting, and sculpture. These appeal inhabitants, and the labourers and shepherds who indeed to every mind endowed with artistic percep- from October to July are engaged in the work of the tion; but their full meaning only the Catholic believer open country. In former times most of these chapels can appreciate, because he alone, in his deepest thought had priests of their own, who also kept schools; nowand feeling, is at one with the spirit that pulsates adays, through the exertions of the Society for the here in the heart of the Christian world.

Religious Aid of the Agro Romano (į. e. the country Many details concerning Rome have been set forth districts around Rome), priests are taken thither

from in other articles of THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. Rome every Sunday to say Mass, catechize, and For the prerogatives of the papacy the reader is preach on the Gospel. The houses of male religious referred to POPE; for the ecclesiastical government of number about 160; of female religious, 205, for the the city and diocese, to CARDINAL VICAR; for litur- most part devoted to teaching, ministering to the gical matters, to ROMAN RITE; for education, to sick in public and private hospitals, managing various ROMAN COLLEGES; for literary development, to houses of retreat, etc. Besides the three patriarchal ACADEMIES, ROMAN; for history, to the biographical chapters (see below, under Churches), there are at articles on the various popes, and the articles Con- Rome eleven collegiate chapters. STANTINE THE GREAT, CHARLEMAGNE, etc. There is In the patriarchal basilicas there are confessors a special article on each of the religious orders, saints, for all the principal languages. Some nations have and artists mentioned in this article, while the details their national churches (Germans, Anima and Campo of the papal administration, both spiritual and tem- Santo; French, S. Luigi and S. Claudio; Croats, S. poral, will be found treated under APOSTOLIC CAMERA; Girolamo dei Schiavoni; Belgians, S. Giuliano: AUDIENCES, PONTIFICAL; EXAMINERS, APOSTOLIC; Portuguese, S. Antonio; Spaniards, S. Maria in HOLY SEE; RESCRIPTS, PAPAL; Roman CONGREGA- Monserrato; to all which may be added the churches TIONS; ROMAN Curia; Rota, SACRA ROMANA; of the Oriental rites). Moreover, in the churches and STATES OF THE CHURCH, etc. Of the great Christian chapels of many religious houses, particularly the monuments of the Eternal City, special articles are generalates, as well as in the various national coldevoted to ST. PETER, BASILICA OF; ST. PETER, TOMB leges, it is possible for foreigners to fulfil their reOF; LATERAN Basilica; VATICAN; CHAIR OF PETER. ligious obligations. For English-speaking persons

The present article will be divided: I. Topography the convents of the Irish Dominicans (S. Clemente) and Existing Conditions; II. General History of the and of the Irish Franciscans (S. Isidoro), the English, City; III. Churches and other Monuments.

Irish, and American Colleges, the new Church of S. 1. TOPOGRAPHY AND Existing CONDITIONS.—The Patrizio in the Via Ludovisi, that of S. Giorgio of the

English Sisters in the Via S. Sebastianello, and par- the other civil and military officials of both the na ticularly S. Silvestro in Capite (Pallottini) should be tional Government and the provincial. For public mentioned. In these churches, too, there are, regu- instruction there are the university, two technical larly, sermons in English on feast-day afternoons, institutes, a commercial high school, five gymnasiumduring. Lent and Advent, and on other occasions. lyceums, eight technical schools, a female institute Sometimes there are sermons in English in other for the preparation of secondary teachers, a national churches also, notice being given beforehand by boarding school, and other lay institutions, besides bills posted outside the churches and by advertise- a military college. There are also several private ments in the papers. First Communions are mostly schools for languages etc.—the Vaticana, the Nazionmade in the parish churches; many parents place ale (formed out of the libraries of the Roman College, their daughters in seclusion during the period of of the Aracæli Convent, and other monastic libraries immediate preparation, in some educational institu- partially ruined), the Corsiniana (now the School of tion. There are also two institutions for the prepa- the Accademia dei Lincei), the Casanatense (see ration of boys for their First Communion, one of CASANATTA), the Angelica (formerly belonging to the them without charge (Ponte Rotto). Christian doc- Augustinians), the Vallicellana (Oratorians, founded trine is taught both in the day and night schools by Cardinal Baronius), the Militare Centrale, the which are dependent either on the Holy See, or Chigiana, and others. (For the academies see on religious congregations or Catholic associations. ACADEMIES, Roman.) Foreign nations maintain For those who attend the public elementary schools, institutions for artistic, historical, or archæological parochial catechism is provided on Sunday and feast- study. (America, Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, day afternoons. For intermediate and university Prussia, Holland, Belgium, France). There are three students suitable schools of religious instruction astronomical and meteorolo cal observatories: the have been formed, connected with the language Vatican, the Capitol (Campidoglio), and the Roman schools and the scholastic ripetizioni, so as to attract College (Jesuit), the last-named, situated on the the young men. The confraternities, altogether 92 Janiculan, has been suppressed. The museums and in number, are either professional (for members of galleries worthy of mention are the Vatican (see certain professions or trades), or national, or for some VATICAN), those of Christian and of profane ancharitable object (e. g., for charity to prisoners; S. tiquities at the Lateran (famous for the “Dancing Lucia del Gonfalone and others like it, for giving Satyr"; the "Sophocles”, one of the finest of portrait dowries to poor young women of good character; the statues in existence, found at Terracina; the “NepConfraternità della Morte, for burying those who die tune”, the pagan and Christian sarcophagi with decorain the country districts, and various confraternities tions in relief, and the statue of Hippolytus). In the for escorting funerals, of which the principal one is gallery at the Lateran there are paintings by Crivelli, that of the Sacconi; that of S. Giovanni Decollato, Gozzoli

, Lippi, Spagna, Francia, Palmezzano, Sassoto assist persons condemned to death), or again they ferrato, and Seitz. The Capitoline Museum contains have some purely devotional aim, like the Con- Roman prehistoric tombs and household furniture, fraternities of the Blessed Sacrament, of the Christian reliefs from the Arch of Marcus Aurelius, a head of Doctrine, of the various mysteries of religion, and of Amalasunta, a half-length figure of the Emperor certain saints.

Commnodus, the ep.ta, 1 o. the iniant prodigy Quintus For ecclesiastical instruction there are in the city, Sulpicius Maximus, the Esquilue and the Capitobesides the various Italian and foreign colleges, three line Venuses, “Diana of the Ephesians", the Capitogreat ecclesiastical universities: the Gregorian, under line Wolf (Etruscan work of the fifth century B. c.), the Jesuits; the Schools of the Roman Seminary, at Marforius, the Dying Gladiator, busts of the emperors S. Apollinare; the Collegio Angelico of the Dominicans, and other famous men of antiquity, and Vespasian's formerly known as the Minerva. Several religious “Lex regia"; the Gallery contains works by Spagna, orders also have schools of their own—the Benedic- Tintoretto, Caracci, Caravaggio, Guercino (St. Pettines at S. Anselmo, the Franciscans at S. Antonio, ronilla, the original of the mosaic in St. Peter's), the Redemptorists at S. Alfonso, the Calced Carme- Guido Reni, Titian, Van Dyke, Domenichino, Paolo lites at the College of S. Alberto, the Capuchins, the Veronese, and other masters. There are important Minor Conventuals, the Augustinians, and others. numismatic collections and collections of gold jewelry. (See RoMAN COLLEGES.) For classical studies there The Villa Giulia has a collection of Etruscan terraare, besides the schools of S. Apollinare, the Collegio cotta; the Museo Romano, objects recently excavated; Massimo, under the Jesuits, comprising also element- the Museo Kircheriano has been enlarged into an ary and technical schools; the Collegio Nazareno ethnographical museum. The Borghese Gallery is in (Piarists), the gymnasium and intermediate school the villa of the same name. The National Gallery, of which take rank with those of the Government; in the Exposition Building (Palazzo dell' Esposizione), the Istituto Angelo Mai (Barnabite). The Brothers is formed out of the Corsini, Sciarra, and Torlonia of the Christian Schools have a flourishing technical collections, together

with modern acquisitions. There institute (de Merode) with a boarding-house (con- are also various private collections in different parts vitto). There are eight colleges for youths under the of the city. direction of ecclesiastics or religious. The Holy The institutions of public charity are all consoliSee and the Society for the Protection of Catholic dated in the Congregazione di Carità, under the ComInterests also maintain forty-six elementary schools munal Administration. There are twenty-seven for the people, mostly under the care of religious con- public hospitals, the most important of which are: gregations. For the education of girls there are the Polyclinic, which is destined to absorb all the twenty-six institutions directed by Sisters, some of others; S. Spirito, to which is annexed the lunatic which also receive day-pupils. The orphanages are asylum and the foundling hospital; S. Salvatore, a nine in number, and some of them are connected hospital for women, in the Lateran; S. Giacomo; with technical and industrial schools. The Salesians, S. Antonio; the Consolazione; two military hospitals. too, have a similar institution, and there are two There are also an institute for the blind, two clinics agricultural institutions. Hospices are provided for diseases of the eye, twenty-five asylums for abanfor converts from the Christian sects and for Hebrew doned children, three lying-in hospitals, and numerous neophytes. Thirty other houses of refuge, for in- private clinics for paying patients. The great public fants, orphans, old people, etc., are directed by re- promenades are the Pincian, adjoining the Villa ligious men or women.

Borghese and now known as the Umberto Primo, As the capital of Italy, Rome is the residence of where a zoological garden has recently been installed, the reigning house, the ministers, the tribunals, and and the Janiculum. Several private parks or gardens,

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