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as the Villa Pamphili, are also accessible to the public works in this earliest period were the drains, or sewers every day.

(cloacæ), for draining the marshes around the PalaThe population of Rome in 1901 was 462,783. Of tine, the work of the Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus; these 5000 were Protestants, 7000 Jews, 8200 of other the city wall was built by Servius Tullius, who also religions and no religion. In the census now (1910) organized the Plebeians, dividing them into thirty being made an increase of more than 100,000 is tribes; the Sublician Bridge was constructed to unite expected. Rome is now the most salubrious of all the Rome of that time with the Janiculan. the large cities of Italy, its mortality for 1907 being During the splendid reign of Tarquinius Superbus, 18-8 per thousand, against 19.9 at Milan and 19.6 at Rome was the mistress of Latium as far as Circeii Turin. The Press is represented by five agencies: and Signia. But, returning victorious from Ardea, there are 17 daily papers, two of them Catholic the king found the gates of the city closed against him. (“Osservatore Romano” and “Corriere d'Italia"); 8 Rome took to itself a republican form of government, periodicals are issued once or oftener in the week with two consuls, who held office for only one year; (5 Catholic, 4 in English-“Rome”, “Roman Her- only in times of difficulty was a dictator elected, to ald”, “Roman Messenger”, “Roman World");, 88 wield unlimited power. In the expulsion of Tarquinius are issued more than once a month (7 Catholic); Superbus some historians have seen a revolt of the there are 101 monthlies (19 Catholic); 55 periodicals Latin element against Etruscan domination. Besides appear less frequently than once a month.

wars and treaties with the Latins and other peoples, GENERAL HISTORY OF THE CITY.--Arms and imple- the principal events, down to the burning of Rome ments of the Palæolithic Age, found in the near vicin- by the Gauls, were the institution of the tribunes of ity of Rome, testify to the presence of man here in the people (tribuni plebis), the establishment of the those remote times. The most recent excavations laws of the Twelve Tables, and the destruction of have established that as early as the eighth century Veii. In 390 the Romans were defeated by the Gauls B. c. or, according to some, several centuries earlier, near the River Allia; a few days later the city was there was a group of human habitations on the Pala- taken and set on fire, and after the Gauls had departed tine Hill, a tufaceous ledge rising in the midst of it was rebuilt without plan or rule. Camillus, the marshy ground near the Tiber. (That river, it may dictator, reorganized the army and, after long rebe observed here, was known to the primitive peoples sistance to the change, at last consented that one of by the name of 'Rumo, "the River”.) Thus is the the consuls should be a plebeian. Southern Etruria traditional account of the origin of Rome substantially became subject to Rome, with the capture of Nepi verified. At the same time, or very little later, a and Sutri in 386. The Appian Way and Aqueduct colony of Sabines was formed on the Quirinal, and were constructed at this period. Very soon it was on the Esquiline an Etruscan colony. Between the possible to think of conquering the whole peninsula. Palatine and the Quirinal rose the Capitoline, once The principal stages of this conquest are formed by covered by two sacred groves, afterwards occupied the three wars against the Samnites (victory of Suesby the temple of Jupiter and the Rock. Within a sula, 343); the victory of Bovianum, 304; those over small space, therefore, were established the advance the Etruscans and Umbrians, in 310 and 308; lastly, guards of three distinct peoples of different characters; the victory of Sentinum, in 295, over the combined the Latins, shepherds; the Sabines, tillers of the soil; Samnites, Etruscans, and Gauls. The Tarentine the Etruscans, already far advanced in civilization, (282–272) and the First and Second Punic Wars and therefore in commerce and the industries. How (264–201) determined the conquest of the rest of these three villages became a city, with, first, the Italy, with the adjacent islands, as well as the first Latin influence preponderating, then the Sabine, invasion of Spain. then the Etruscan (the two Tarquins), is all enveloped Soon after this, the Kingdom of Macedonia (Cynosin the obscurity of the history of the seven kings cephalæ, 197; Pydna, 168) and Greece (capture of (753-509 B. c.). The same uncertainty prevails as Corinth, 146) were subdued, while the war against to the conquests made at the expense of the surround- Antiochus of Syria (192–89) and against the Galatians ing peoples. It is unquestionable that all those con- (189) brought Roman supremacy into Asia. In 146 quests had to be made afresh after the expulsion of Carthage was destroyed, and Africa reduced to subthe kings.

jection; between 149 and 133 the conquest of Spain But the social organization of the new city during was completed. Everywhere Roman colonies sprang this period stands out clearly. There were three up. With conquest, the luxurious vices of the conoriginal tribes: the Ramnians (Latins), the Titians quered peoples also came to Rome, and thus the (Sabines), and the Luceres (Etruscans). Each tribe contrast between patricians and plebeians was accenwas divided into ten curiæ, each curia into, ten tuated. To champion the cause of the plebeians there gentes, each gens into ten (or thirty) families. Those arose the brothers Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. who belonged to these, the most ancient, tribes were The Servile Wars (132–171) and the Jugurthine War Patricians, and the chiefs of the three hundred gentes (111-105) revealed the utter corruption of Roman formed the Senate. In the course of time and the society. Marius and Sulla, both of whom had won wars with surrounding peoples, new inhabitants glory in foreign wars, rallied to them the two opposing occupied the remaining hills; thus, under Tullus parties, Democratic and Aristocratic, respectively. Hostilius, the Cælian was assigned to the population Sulla firmly established his dictatorship with the of the razed Alba Longa (Albano); the Sabines, victory of the Colline Gate (83), reorganized the conquered by Ancus Martius, had the Aventine. administration, and enacted some good laws to arrest Later on, the Viminal was occupied. The new inhabi- the moral decay of the city. But the times were tants formed the Plebeians (Plebs), and their civil ripe for the oligarchy, which was to lead in the natural rights were less than those of the older citizens. The course of events to the monarchy. In the year 60, internal history of Rome down to the Imperial Period Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus formed the first Triumis nothing but a struggle of plebeians against patricians virate. While Cæsar conquered Gaul (58–50), and for the acquisition of greater civil rights, and these Crassus waged an unsuccessful war against the Parstruggles resulted in the civil

, political, and juridical thians (54–53), Pompey succeeded in gaining supreme organization of Rome. The kir was high-priest, control of the capital. The war between Pompey, judge, leader in war, and head of the Government; to whom the nobles adhered, and Cæsar, who had the Senate and the Comitia of the People were con- the democracy with him, was inevitable. The battle voked by him at his pleasure, and debated the of Pharsalia (48) decided the issue; in 45 Cæsar measures proposed by him. Moreover, the kingly was already thinking of establishing monarchical dignity was hereditary. Among the important public government; his assassination (44) could do no more than delay the movement towards monarchy. An- doms attributed to this period are, with the exception other triumvirate was soon formed by Antony, of St. Ignatius's, somewhat doubtful. At the same Lepidus, and Octavian; Antony and Octavian dis- time the heads of various Gnostic sects settled at agreed, and at Actium (32) the issue was decided in Rome, notably Valentinus, Cerdon, and Marcion; Octavian's favour. Roman power had meanwhile but it does not appear that they had any great folbeen consolidated and extended in Spain, in Gaul, lowing. Under Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, and and even as far as Pannonia, in Pontus, in Palestine, Commodus, several Roman martyrs are knownand in Egypt. Henceforward Roman history is no Pope St. Telesphorus, Sts. Lucius, Ptolemæus, Justin longer the history of the City of Rome, although it and companions, and

the Senator Apollonius. Under was only under Caracalla (A. D. 211) that Roman Commodus, thanks to Martia, his morganatic wife, citizenship was accorded to all free subjects of the the condition of the Christians improved. At the empire.

same time the schools of Rhodon, St. Justin, and In the midst of these political vicissitudes the city others flourished. But three new heresies from the was growing and being beautified with temples and East brought serious trouble to the internal peace of other buildings, public and private. On the Campus the Church: that of Theodotus, the shoemaker of Martius and beyond the Tiber, at the foot of the Byzantium; that of Noetus, brought in by one Janiculan, new and populous quarters sprang up, Epigonus; and Montanism. In the struggle against with theatres (those of Pompey and of Marcellus) and these heresies, particularly the last-named, the priest circuses (the Maximus and the Flaminius, 221 B. c.). Hippolytus, & disciple of St. Irenæus, bore à disThe centre of political life was the Forum, which had tinguished part, but he, in his turn, incurred the cenbeen the market before the centre of buying and sell- sures of Popes Zephyrinus and Callistus, and became ing was transferred, in 388, to the Campus Martius the leader of a schismatical party. But the con(Forum Holitorium), leaving the old Forum Romanum troversies between Hippolytus.and Callistus were not to the business of the State. Here were the temples confined to theological questions, but also bore upon of Concord (366), Saturn (497), the Di Consentes, discipline, the pope thinking proper to introduce Castor and Pollux (484), the Basilica Æmilia (179), certain restrictions. Another sect transplanted to the Basilica Julia (45), the Curia Hostilia (S. Adriano), Rome at this period was that of the Elcesaites. the Rostra, etc. Scarcely had the empire been con- The persecution of Septimius Severus does not apsolidated when Augustus turned his attention to the pear to have been very acute at Rome, where, before embellishment of Rome, and succeeding emperors this time, many persons of rank-even of the imperial followed his example: brick-built Rome became marble household-had been Christians. The long period Rome. After the sixth decade B.C. many Hebrews had of tranquillity, hardly interrupted by Maximinus settled at Rome, in the Trastevere quarter and that (235–38), fostered the growth of Roman church of the Porta Capena, and soon they became a financial organization; so much so that, under Cornelius, after power. They were incessantly making proselytes, the first fury of the Decian persecution, the city numespecially among the women of the upper classes. bered about 50,000 Christians. The last-named perThe names of thirteen synagogues are known as secution produced many Roman martyrs-Pope St. existing (though not all at the same time) at Rome Fabian among the first-and many apostates, and the during the Imperial Period. Thus was the way pre- problem of reconciling the latter resulted in the schism pared for the Gospel, whereby Rome, already mis- of Novatian. The persecution of Valerian, too, fell tress of the world, was to be given a new, sublimer first upon the Church of Rome. Under Aurelian and more lasting, title to that dominion—the domin- (271-76), the menace of an invasion of the Germans, ion over the souls of all mankind.

who had already advanced as far as Pesaro, compelled Even on the Day of Pentecost, “Roman strangers” the emperor to restore and extend the walls of Rome. (advenæ Romani, Acts, ii, 10) were present at Jeru- The persecution of Diocletian also had its víctims in salem, and they surely must have carried the good the city, although there are no trustworthy records news to their fellow-citizens at Rome. Ancient of them; it did not last long, however, in the West. tradition assigns to the year 42 the first coming of St. Maxentius went so far as to restore to the Christians Peter to Rome, though, according to the pseudo- their cemeteries and other landed property, and, if Clementine Epistles, St. Barnabas was the first we are to believe Eusebius, ended by showing them to preach the Gospel in the Eternal City, , Under favour, as a means of winning popularity. At this Claudius (C. A. D. 50), the name of Christ had become period several pretentious buildings were erected, such an occasion of discord among the Hebrews of baths, a circus, a basilica, etc. In the fourth and Rome that the emperor drove them all out of the fifth centuries the city began to be embellished with · city, though they were not long in returning. About Christian buildings, and the moribund art of antiquity ten years later Paul also arrived, a prisoner, and ex- thus received a new accession of vitality. ercised a vigorous apostolate during his sojourn. Of the heresies of this period, Arianism alone disThe Christians were numerous at that time, even at turbed the religious peace for a brief space; even the imperial Court. The burning of the city-by_Pelagianism failed to take root. The conflict between order of Nero, who wished to effect a thorough triumphant Christianity and dying Paganism was renovation—was the pretext for the first official more bitter. Symmachus, Prætextatus, and Nicopersecution of the Christian name. Moreover, it was machus were the most zealous and most powerful devery natural that persecution, which had been oc- fenders of the ancient religion. At Milan, St. Amcasional, should in course of time have become brose kept watch. By the end of the fourth century general and systematic; hence it is unnecessary to the deserted temples were becoming filled with cobtransfer the date of the Apostles' martyrdom from webs; pontiffs and vestals were demanding baptism. the year 67, assigned by tradition, to the year 64 The statues of the gods served as public ornaments; (see PETER, SAINT; Paul, Saint). Domitian's reign precious objects were seldom plundered, and until took its victims both from among the opponents of the year 526 not one temple was converted to the absolutism and from the Christians; among them uses of Christian worship. In 402 the necessity some who were of very exalted rank—Titus Flavius once more arose of fortifying Rome. The capital Clemens, Acilius Glabrio (Cemetery of Priscilla), and of the world, which had never beheld a hostile army Flavia Domitilla, a relative of the emperor. It must since the days of Hannibal, in 408 withstood the have been then, too, that St. John, according to a double siege of Alaric. But the Senate, mainly at the very ancient legend (Tertullian), was brought to Rome. instigation of a pagan minority, treated with Alaric,

The reign of Trajan and Adrian was the culminat- deposed Honorius, and enthroned a new emperor, ing point of the arts at Rome, The Roman martyr- Attalus. Two years later, Alaric returned, succeeded in taking the city, and sacked it. It is false, however, the pope was master of Rome, the power of the Sword that the destruction of Rome began then. Under was wielded by the imperial missi, and this

arrangeAlaric, as in the Gothic war of the sixth century, ment came to be more clearly defined by the Constituonly so much was destroyed as military exigencies tion of Lothair (824). Thus the government was rendered inevitable. The intervention of St. Leo the divided. In the ninth century the pope had to defend Great saved the Eternal City from the fury of Attila, Rome and Central Italy against the Saracens. but could not prevent the Vandals, in 456, from Gregoriopolis, the Leonine City, placed outside the sacking it without mercy for fifteen days: statues, walls for the defence of the Basilica of St. Peter, gold, silver, bronze, brass-whether the property of and sacked in 846, and Joannipolis, for the defence of the State, or of the Church, or of private persons— St. Paul's, were built by Gregory IV, Leo IV, and were taken and shipped to Carthage.

John VIII. The latter two and John X also gained Rome still called itself the capital of the empire, splendid victories over these barbarians. but since the second century it had seen the emperors The decline of the Carlovingian dynasty was not only at rare and fleeting moments; even the kings of without its effect upon the papacy and upon Rome, Italy preferred Ravenna as a residence. Theodoric, which became a mere lordship of the great feudal nevertheless, made provision for the outward mag- families, especially those of Theodora and Marozia. nificence of the city, preserving its monuments so far When Hugh of Provence wished to marry Marozia, as was possible. Pope St. Agapetus and the learned so as to become master of Rome, his son Alberic Cassiodorus entertained the idea of creating at rebelled against him, and was elected their chief by Rome a school of advanced Scripture studies, on the Romans, with the title of Patrician (Patricius) the model of that which flourished at Edessa, but and Consul. The temporal power of the pope might the Gothic invasion made shipwreck of this design. then have come to an end, had not John, Alberic's In that Titanic war Rome stood five sieges. In son, reunited the two powers. But John's life and 536 Belisarius took it without striking a blow. Next his conduct of the government necessitated the interyear Vitiges besieged it, cutting the aqueducts, vention of the Emperor Otto I (963), who instituted plundering the outlying villas, and even penetrating the office of præfectus urbis, to represent the imperial into the catacombs; the city would have been taken, authority. (This office became hereditary in the Vico had not the garrison of Hadrian's tomb defended family.) Order did not reign for long: Crescentius, themselves with fragments of the statues of heroes and leader of the anti-papal party, deposed and murdered gods which they found in that monument. Soon popes. It was only for a few brief intervals that after the departure of Pope Vigilius from Rome Otto II (980) and Otto III (996–998–1002) were able (November, 545), King Totila invested it and cap- to re-establish the imperial and pontifical authority. tured a fleet bearing supplies sent by Vigilius, who by At the beginning of the eleventh century three popes that time had passed over to Sicily. În December, of the family of the counts of Tusculum immediately 546, the city was captured, through the treachery of succeeded each other, and the last of the three, Benethe Isaurian soldiery, and once more sacked. Totila, dict IX, led a life so scandalous as made it necessary obliged to set out for the south, forced the whole for Henry III to intervene (1046). The schism of population of Rome to leave the city, so that it was Honorius II and the struggle between Gregory VII left uninhabited; but they returned with Belisarius and Henry IV exasperated party passions at Rome, in 547. Two years later, another Isaurian treachery and conspicuous in the struggle was another Crescenmade Totila once more master of the city, which then tius, a member of the Imperialist Party. Robert for the last time saw the games of the circus. After Guiscard, called to the rescue by Gregory VII, sacked the battle of Taginæ (552), Rome opened its gates the city and burned a great part of it, with immense to Narses and became Byzantine. The ancient destruction of monuments and documents. The Senate and the Roman nobility were extinct. There struggle was revived under Henry V, and Rome was was a breathing-space of sixteen years, and then repeatedly besieged by the imperial troops. the Lombards drew near to Rome, pillaging and de- Then followed the schism of Pier Leone (Anacletus stroying the neighbouring regions. St. Gregory the II), which had hardly been ended, in 1143, when Great has described the lamentable condition of the Girolamo di Pierleone, counselled by Arnold of city; the same saint did his best to remedy matters. Brescia, made Rome into a republic, modelled after The seventh century was disastrously marked by a the Lombard communes, under the rule of fifty-six violent assault on the Lateran made by Mauricius, senators. In vain did Lucius II attack the Capitol, the chartularius of the Exarch of Ravenna (640), by attempting to drive out the usurpers. The commune the exile of Pope St. Martin (653), and by the visit was in opposition no less to the imperial than to the of the Emperor Constans I (663). The imprisonment papal authority. At first the popes thought to lean of St. Sergius, which had been ordered by Justinian on the emperors, and thus Adrian IV induced BarbaII, was prevented by the native troops of the Ex- rossa to burn Arnold alive (1155). Still, just as in archate.

the preceding century, every coronation of an emperor In the eighth century the Lombards, with Liut- was accompanied by quarrels and fights between the prand, were seized with the old idea of occupying Romans and the imperial soldiery. In 1188 a modus all Italy, and Rome in particular. The popes, from rivendi was established between the commune and Gregory II on, saved the city and Italy from Lom- Clement III, the people recognizing the pope's bard domination by the power of their threats, until sovereignty and conceding to him the right of coinage, they were finally rescued by the aid of Pepin, when the senators and military captains being obliged to Rome and the peninsula came under "Frankish swear fealty to him. But the friction did not cease. domination. Provision was made for the material Innocent III (1203) was obliged to flee from Rome, well-being of the city by repairs on the wails and the but, on the other hand, the friendly disposition of the aqueducts, and by the establishment of agricultural mercantile middle class facilitated his return and colonies (domus cultæ) for the cultivation of the wide secured to him some influence in the affairs of the domains surrounding the city. But in Rome itself communes, in which he obtained the appointment of there were various factions-favouring either the a chief of the Senate, known as "the senator" (1207). Franks or the Lombards, or, later on, Frankish or The Senate, therefore, was reduced to the status of Nationalist—and these factions often caused tumults, the Communal Council of Rome; the senator was as, in particular, on the death of Paul I (767) and at the syndic, or mayor, and remained so until 1870. the beginning of Leo III's pontificate_(795). With In the conflicts between the popes, on the one hand, the coronation of Charlemagne (799) Rome became and, on the other, Frederick II and his heirs, the finally detached from the Empire of the East. Though Senate was mostly Imperialist, cherishing some sort of

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