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burg, 1810): SASAERBATOFF, Russische Geschichte von den altes- de Pierre le Grand et de Catherine Tore (Paris, 1853); USTRJALOFT, Len Zeiten (2 vols., Danzig, 1779); LEVESQUE, Histoire de Russie Istorija carstvovanija Petra Velikago (History of the reign of (5 vols., Paris, 1782); LE CLERC, Histoire physique, morale, civile, Peter the Great) (3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1858); GOLOVIN, Hiset politique de la Russie ancienne (3 vols., Paris, 1783-84); MER- Loire de Pierre appelé le Grand (Leipzig, 1861); BRUCKNER, Peter KEL, Geschichte des russischen Reichs (3 vols., Leipzig, 1795); LE- der Grosse (Berlin, 1879); SCHUYLER, Peter the Great, Emperor of BUR, Des progrès de la puissance russe depuis son origine jusqu'au Russia (2 vols., London, 1884); WALISZEWSKI, Pierre le Grand, commencement du XIX siècle (Paris, 1812); EWERS, Geschichte der l'éducation, l'homme, l'auvre (Paris, 1897); TCHISTJAKOFF, IsRussen (Dorpat, 1816); KARAMSIN, Histoire de l'empire russe torija Vetra Pelikago (History of Peter the Great) (St. Peters(11 vols., Paris, 1819-26; 10 vols., Riga, 1820-33; 12 vols., Ath- burg, 1903); KNJAZHKOFF, Otcherki iz istorii Petra Velikago i ego ens, 1856-59); WICKMANN, Chronologische Uebersicht de russi

vremeni (Essays on the History of Peter the Great and on his schen Geschichte von der Geburt Peters des Grossen bis auf die neu- Times) (Moscow, 1909); ROUSSET, Mémoires du règne de Cathesten Zeiten (2 vols., Leipzig, 1821-25); DE SÉGUR, Histoire de la erine, impératrice de toute la Russie (Amsterdam, 1728); MOTTRussie et de Pierre le Grand (Paris, 1829); STRAHL, Geschichte des LEY, The History of the Life and Reign of the Empress Catharine russischen Staates (2 vols., Hamburg, 1832-39); HERRMANN, (2 vols., London, 1744); WALISZEWSKI, L'Héritage de Pierre le Geschichte des russischen Staates (4 vols., Hamburg, 1846-49); Grand (1725-1741) (Paris, 1900); BARTHOLD, Anna Johannovna USTRIALOFF, Die Geschichte Russlands (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1840– (Leipzig, 1836); DE MAUVILLON, Histoire de la vie, du règne, et du 43); DE CAULAINCOURT, Das russische Reich (Leipzig, 1854); His- détronement d'Ivan III, empereur de Russie (London, 1766); toire pittoresque, dramatique, et caricaturale de la Sainte-Russie BAIN, The Daughter of Peter the Great (Westminster, 1899); (Paris, 1854); DE GEREBTZOFF, Essai sur l'histoire de la civilisa- WALISZEWSKI, La dernière des Romanov, Èlizabeth Iere impération en Russie (Paris, 1858); KOSTOMAROFF, Russische Geschichte trice de Russie (Paris, 1902); MOLLOY, The Russian Court in the in Biographien (Leipzig, 1888); KLEINSCHMIDT, Russlands Ge

Eighteenth Century (2 vols., London, 1905); LAVEAUX, Histoire de schichte und Polilik dargestellt in der Geschichte des russischen hohen Pierre III empereur de Russie (3 vols., Paris, 1799); DE SALDERN, Adels (Cassel, 1877); RAMBAUD, Histoire de la Russie (Paris, 1884, Histoire de la vie de Pierre III, empereur de toutes les Russies 1900); Ger. tr. (Berlin, 1886); VON GOLOWIN, Die geschichtliche (Frankfort, 1802); SCHUMACHER, Geschichte der Thronensetzung Entwickelung des russischen Volkes (Leipzig, 1887); BRÜCKNER, und des Todes Peter des Dritten (Hamburg, 1858); BAIN, Peter III, Geschichte Russlands bis zum Ende des XVIII. Jahrhunderts Emperor of Russia (Westminster, 1902); CASTERA, Vie de Cathe (Gotha, 1896); KLEINSCHMIDT, Drei Jahrhunderte russischer Ge- rine II impératice de Russie (2 vols., Paris, 1797); tr. (3 vols., Lon schichte (Berlin, 1898); MUNRO, The Rise of the Russian Empire don, 1798); TOOKE, The Life of Katherine II, Empress of Russia (London, 1899); MORFILL, A History of Russia from the Birth of (3 vols., London, 1800); Fr. tr. (Paris, 1801); BRÜCKNER, KathePeter the Great to the Death of Alexander II (London, 1902); rine die Zweite (Berlin, 1883); BILBASOFF, Istorija Ekateriny vtoroi SERINE, The Expansion of Russia (Cambridge, 1903); WALISZEW- (History of Catharine II), (2 vols., St. Petersburg and London, SKI, Les origines de la Russie moderne (Paris, 1904); PANTENIUS, 1890, 1895); Ger. tr. (4 vols., Berlin, 1891-93); WALISZEWSKI, Le Geschichte Russlands von der Entstehung des russischen Reiches bis roman d'une impératrice: Catherine II de Russie (Paris, 1893); zur Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1908); FRÄHN Ibn-Foszlan's und anderer IDEM, Autour d'un trône: Catherine II de Russie (Paris, 1894); DE Araber Berichte über die Russen alterer Zeit (St. Petersburg, 1823); LARIVIÉRE, Catherine la Grande d'après sa correspondance (Paris, SCHOLZER, Russiche Annalen in ihrer slavonischen Grundsprache 1895); SCHILDER, Imp. Pavel pervyi (The Emperor Paul I) (St. (3 vols., Göttingen, 1802-09); the Chronicle of Nestor has been Petersburg, 1901); GOLOVKINE, La cour et le règne de Paul lor translated into French also, by Louis PARIS (2 vols., Paris, 1834- (Paris, 1905); MORANE, Paul Ier de Russie (Paris, 1907); RAPPO35), and by LÉGER (Paris, 1884); and into Latin by MIKLOSICH PORT, The Course of the Romanovs (London, 1907); RABBE, His(Vienna, 1860); SCHOETTGENIUS, De originibus russicis disserta- toire d'Alexandre ser, empereur de toutes les Russies (2 vols., Paris, tiones (Leipzig, 1731); POTOCKI, Histoire primitive des peuples de la 1826); SCHNITZLER, Histoire intime de la Russie sous Alexandre et Russie (St. Petersburg, 1802); LEHRBERG, Untersuchungen zur Nicholas Jer (Paris, 1847); JOYNEVILLE, Life and Times of AlezErläuterung der älteren Geschichte Russlands (St. Petersburg, ander I, Emperor of All the Russias (3 vols., London, 1875); 1816); EWERS, Studien zur gründlichen Kenntniss der Vorzeit Russ- SCHILDER, Imperator Aleksandr Perryj ego zhizn i carstvovans lands (Dorpat, 1830); SCHLOEZER, Les premiers habitants de la (The Emperor Alexander I, His Life and his Reign) (4 vols., St., Russie (Paris, 1846); KRUG, Forschungen in der älteren Geschichte Petersburg, 1897–98); SCHIEMANN, Kaiser Alexander I und die Russlands (2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1848); THOMSON, The Origin of Ergebnisse seiner Lebensarbeit (Berlin, 1904); GOLOVINE, La Rusthe Russian State (Oxford, 1877); ZABIELIN, Istorija russkoi zhizni sie sous Nicholas Ier (Leipzig, 1845); LACROIX, Histoire de la vie 8 dreonicishikh vremen (History of Russian Life from the Re- et du règne de Nicolas Jer, empereur de Russie (Paris, 1864); motest Times) (Moscow, 1908).

SCHILDER, Imperator Nikolaj pervyi, ego chizn i carstvovanie (2 vols, On the Varangians:

HELSINGIUS, De Varegis (Upsala, 1734); St. Petersburg, 1903); GOLOVIN, Russland unter Alexander II BIOERNER, Schediasma historico-geographicum de Varegis, heroi- (Leipzig, 1870); Kosma, La Russie et l'auvre d'Alexandre II bus scandianis et primis Russiæ dynastis (Stockholm, 1743); (Paris, 1882); JOYNEVILLE, Life of Alexander II, Emperor of All KRAHMER, Die Urheimath der Russen in Europa (Moscow, 1862); the Russias (London, 1883); TATISHSHEFF, Imp, Alexander 11, ego GEDEONOS, Varjagi i Rus (2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1876). zhizn i carstvovanie (2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1903); Samson, Ru88

Invasions of the Tatars:HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Geschichte der land unter Alexander III (Leipzig, 1891); FLOURENS, Alexandre goldenen Horrie, das ist, der Mongolen in Russland (2 vols., Buda- III, sa vie, son æutre (Paris, 1894);

Norovitch, L'empereur Nicopest, 1840): EXEMPLARSKIJ, Les grands-princes de la Russie sep- las II et la politique russe (Paris, 1895); LEUDET, Nicolas II intime tentrionale dhetant la période tatare depuis 1238 jusqu'à 1505 (2 (Paris, 1898); PRINCE U., Leben und Thaten Nikolaus II (Berlin, vols., St. Petersburg, 1889), in Russian.

1910); LÖFFLER, Der russisch-japanische Krieg (Leipzig, 1907) Monographs:-GONSIOROVSKIJ, Boleslav Jurij II, knjaz vsej TRAPANI, La guerra russo-giapponese (Rome, 1908); BOUJAO, La Maloj Rusi (Boleslaw George II, Prince of all Little Russia) (St.

guerre rus80-japonaise (Rome, 1908); CULMANN, Etude sur les Petersburg. 1907); NOWAKOWSKI, De Demetrio I, Magne Russia

caractères généraux de la guerre en Extrême-Orient (Paris, 1909); duce, Ivani filio (Berlin, 1839); PIERLING, La Russie et l'Orient:

From the literary point of view, the best history of Russia in the mariage d'un tzar au Vatican: Ivan III et Sophie Paléologue

Russian language is the Istorija gosudarstva rossiiskago (12 vols., (Paris, 1891); ODERBORNIUS, Johannis Basilidis Magni Moscovic St. Petersburg, 1897); from the standpoint of biography the best ducis vita (Wittenberg, 1585); WALISZEWBKI, Ivan le Terrible is that of KOSTOMAROFF, Russkaja istorija v jizneopisanijakh eja (Paris, 1904); Idem, La crise révolutionnaire (Paris, 1906); La lé- glavniejshikh diejatelej(2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1903-07); but for the gende de la vie et de la mort de Démétrius l'imposteur (Amsterdam, wealth

of its documentation
and for the interest

of its recital, none 1606; Moscow, 1839); CIAMPI, Esame critico dei documenti inediti is as good as the Istorija Rossii s drevniejshikh vremen (History of della storia di Demetrio di Ivan Vasiljevitch (Florence, 1827); Russia Since the Remotest Ages) (2nd ed., 29 vols., St. PetersMÉRIMÉE, Les faux Démétrius (Paris, 1853); LORENTZ, Der

burg); unfortunately it is brought down only to the end of the falsche Demetrius (Berlin, 1862); HIRSCHBERG, Dymitr Samoz

seventeenth century. waniec (Lemberg, 1898); PANTENIUS, Der falsche Demetrius (Bielefeld, 1904); SUVORIN, O Dimitrii Samozvancie (St. Petersburg, 1906); HIRSCHBERG, Marina Mniszchówna (Lemberg,

THE RELIGION OF Russia.-A. The Origin of Rus1906): SOKOLOFF, Rossija pod skiptrom doma Romanovykh (Rus- sian Christianity:--There are two theories in regard sia under the Sceptre of the House of Romanoff) (St. Peters- to the early Christianity of Russia; according to one burg, 1891); BAIN, The First Romanofss: a History of Muscovite

of them, Russia was Catholic from the times when Civilization and the Rise of Modern Russia under Peter the Great (London, 1905); WALISZEWSKI. Le berceau d'une dynastie: les she embraced Christianity until the twelfth century; premiers Romanov (Paris, 1909); Berce, Carstvovanie Carja the other holds that Russia was always Orthodox, i. e., Petersburg. 1832); IDEM, Carstvovanie Carja Aleksieja Mikhailo: an adherent of the Greek schism, from the time when vitch (St. Petersburg, 1830): Galitzin, La Russie du XVII siècle Christian missionaries first crossed her frontiers. dans ses rapports avec l'Europe occidentale (Paris, 1855); Idem, La The first of these theories is held by Catholics, whose rébellion de Stenko-Razin contre le grand duc de Moscovie (Paris, arguments were condensed and developed by Viz1856): SHSHEBALSKIS. La régence de la tzarine Sophie (Karlsruhe, zardelli (“Dissertatio de origine christianæ religionis Pierre le Grand, empereur de Russie (4 vols., Amsterdam, 1725-26); in Russia", Rome, 1826), and, more amply, by Father The History of the Life of Peter the Great, Emperor of All Russia Verdière, $.J. ("Origines catholiques de l'Église russe (London, 1740): DE MAUVILLON, Histoire de Pierre Jer surnommé jusqu'au XIIe siècle”, Paris, 1856), Russian Orthoimperatore della Russia (Venice, 1748); GORDON, The History of dox writers unanimously reject the conclusions that Peler the Great (2 vols., Aberdeen, 1755); Voltaire, Histoire de Verdière demonstrated in the form of theses, which, Russie sous Pierre le Grand (1759); CLAUDIUS, Peter der Grosse (Leipzig, 1805); BERGMANN, Peter der Grosse als Mensch und Re

to us, appear to be without solid foundations. The gent (6 vols., Königsberg, Riga, Mitau, 1823-29); PELZ, Ge history of Russian Christianity dates from the ninth schichte Peters des Grossen (Leipzig, 1848); DE VILLEBOIS, Mémoires century; by which it is not implied that Christianity secrets pour servir à l'histoire de la cour de Russie sous les règnes was entirely unknown to the Russians before that period, for the merchants of Kieff were in frequent a church in honour of the Assumption of the Blessed communication with Constantinople: one of the Virgin Mary, under the direction of Grecian artists. quarters of the flourishing metropolis, St. Mamante, Thanks to his solicitude, the Russian Church was enwas inhabited by them, and there is no doubt that dowed with a hierarchy, a metropolitan, bishops, there were Christians among them. On the other and priests. At first this hierarchy was Greek; the hand, some nucleus of Christianity must have existed metropolitans were appointed and consecrated by the at Kieff before Photius, as he himself relates in his Patriarch of Constantinople, went to Russia as foreignencyclical letter to the Patriarchs of the East, sent a ers, and remained such. They succeeded, however, in bishop and missionaries to that city. On account of inspiring the Russians with hatred for the Latin this action, Photius is considered to have introduced Church. The metropolitans Leontius (dead in 1004), Christianity into Russia. His testimony is repudiated George (1072), Ivan II (dead in 1989), and Niceby Catholic writers, who claim for St. Ignatius the phorus I (1103-21) wrote the first polemical works of glory and the initiative of this evangelical mission to Russian literature against the Latins. Russia. There are no valid arguments, however, to B. Catholicism in Russia, from the Twelfth Century throw doubt upon the authenticity of the information to the Council of Florence. — Although the Russian that has been handed down by Photius, as is proved Church in its earliest periods was completely domin the present writer's work La conversione dei Russi inated by the clergy of Constantinople who made the al cristianesimo, e la testimonianza di Fozio”, in schism, the relations between Russian princes and the “Studii religiosi”, t. I, 1901, pp. 133–61.

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Holy See, begun under Vladimir, subsisted for several According to the national chronicler Nestor, many centuries. Russian documents testify that Vladimir Russians were Christians in 945, and had at Kieff in 991 sent an embassy to Rome, and that three emthe Church of St. Elias (“La chronique de Nestor”, bassies went from Rome to Kieff, sent by John XV t. I, Paris, 1834, p. 65). In 955 Olga, widow of Igor, (985–96), and by Sylvester II (999–1003). A German went to Constantinople, where she was baptized by chronicler, Dithmar, relates that a Saxon missionary, the Patriarch Poliutus (956–70), and, loaded with rich consecrated archbishop by the Archbishop of Magdegifts that she received from Constantine Porphyro- burg, went to Russia, where he preached the Gospel

, genitus (912–59), she returned to Kieff, and devoted and was killed with eighteen of his companions on herself to the conversion of her fellow-countrymen. 14 Feb., 1002. At about that time Reinbert, Bishop The schism between the Churches of the East and of of Kolberg, went to Russia with the daughter of the West was not yet accomplished; and therefore Boleslaus the Intrepid, bride of Sviatopolk, the son Olga, who received in baptism the name of Helen, is of Vladimir. He strove to diffuse Catholicism in venerated as a saint also by the United Ruthenians. Russia, and died a prisoner. Other missionaries conWestern chroniclers relate that Olga sent an embassy tinued their Apostolic efforts; but Russia was already to the Emperor Otto I, to ask for Latin missionaries, lost to Catholicism. The Metropolitan Nicephorus I and that Otto charged Adaldag, Bishop of Bremen, (1103–21) regarded the Latin Church as schismatic, to satisfy that request. Adaldag consecrated as and reproached it with a long list of errors. Russian bishop of the Russians Libutius, a monk of the Con- canonical documents of the twelfth century refer to vent of St. Albano, who died before entering Russia. the Latins as pagans, and prohibit all relations with He was succeeded by Adalbertus, a monk of the con- them. The most virulent calumnies against the vent of St. Maximinus, at Trier. The Russians, how- Roman Church were inserted in the "Kormtchaia ever, received the Latin bishop badly, killed several kniga”; and Russian metropolitans down to Isidor of his companions, and constrained him to return to (1437) had no relations with the Holy See. Germany. It may be observed that Assemani and This does not mean to say, however, that the Karamzin do not admit that Latin missionaries came Catholic Church neglected Russia as a field for its to Russia with Adalbertus.

apostolate; for the popes always tried to lead her The efforts of Olga to convert her son Sviatoslaff to back to the centre of unity, and to enter into relaChristianity were unsuccessful. Vladimir, son of tions with her princes. The prince Iziaslaff YaroslaSviatoslaff, has the glory of having established Chris- vitch (1054-68; 1069–73; 1076-78) sent his son to tianity as the official State religion in Russia. Accord- Gregory VII, asking the assistance of that pontiff, ing to the legend, Vladimir received Mohammedan, and promising to make Russia a vassal of the Holy Latin, and Greek legates, who urged him to adopt See. Gregory answered him by letter of 17 April, their respective religions. The Greeks finally tri- 1075. Under the Grand Duke Vsevolod Yaroslavitch umphed. Vladimir marched with an army towards (1078-93) there was established the feast of the the Taurida, and in 998 took Kherson; then he sent translation of the relics of St. Nicholas of Bari, apambassadors to the Emperors Basilius and Constan- proved by Urban II (1088–99), who in 1091 sent to tine, asking for the hand of their sister Anna, which the same prince Bishop Teodoro, with relics. In 1080 he obtained on condition that he would become a Chris- the antipope Clement III sent a letter to the Metrotian. He was baptized by the Bishop of Kherson, politan Ivan II (dead in 1089), proposing to the latter who, according to Russian chroniclers, made Vladimir the union of the Russian Church; Ivan answered, read a profession of faith that was hostile to the however, enumerating the heresies of the Latins

corrupt” doctrine of the Latins. Thereafter, taking (Marcovitch attributes this letter to the Metropolitan with him the relics of Pope St. Clement and of that Ivan IV, who, according to Golubinsky, d. in 1166), pope's disciple, Phebus, as well as sacred vessels and Clement III (1187–91) sent a letter to the Grand images, Vladimir returned to Kieff, accompanied by Prince Vsevolod and to the Metropolitan Nicephorus his consort, and by some Greek missionaries. Once II (1182-97), inviting them to take part in the there he caused the idol of Perun to be thrown into Crusade, but in vain. Innocent III (1198-1216) sent the Dnieper, and on the site that it occupied built a two legations to the princes of Russia, exhorting them Christian church, also commanding that all his sub- to be reunited to Rome. Under Honorius III (1216jects, without distinction of age, should be baptized. 1227) St. Hyacinth, with other religious of the Order The inhabitants of Kieff yielded before his threats; of St. Dominic, preached the Catholic faith in southbut those of Novgorod resisted and suffered severe ern Russia, and founded a convent at Kieff, while a treatment. The Russians were baptized, but they religious of the same order in 1232 was appointed did not receive Christian instruction and education; bishop of that city, out of which, however, the Dominthe ancient beliefs and habits of Paganism endured, icans were driven in 1233. Another letter of Honorius and survived for many centuries; consequently the III, and one of Gregory IX (1227-41) encouraged the moral influence of Christianity was not efficiently Russians of Pskof to realize their intention of emexercised upon the Russian people. Vladimir erected bracing Catholicism. All of these efforts were inmund, King of Poland, and Maximilian II, Emperor The reforms of Peter the Great did not better the conof Germany, prevented the legates of the pope from dition of Catholicism in Russia. In the first years of crossing the Russian frontiers, or rendered their his reign he showed deference to the Catholic Church; missions fruitless. In 1580 Ivan the Terrible, menaced he granted permission to the Catholics in 1691 to build by the victorious arms of Báthori, King of Poland a church at Moscow, and to summon Jesuits for its (1576-86), and of the Swedes, sent to Gregory XIII service; in 1707 he sent an embassy to Clement XI, an embassy at the head of which was Leontius to induce that pontiff not to recognize Stanislaus LeszTchevrigin. The Holy See, although placing little czynski as King of Poland, to which dignity the latter faith in the promises of the tsar, sent to Moscow one had been elected by the Diet of Warsaw on 12 July, of the most eminent men of his day, the Jesuit 1704; he promised the pope to promulgate a constituAntonio Possevino, who, on 22 Feb., 1582, had a tion that would establish, in favour of Catholicism, theological disputation with the tsar. Possevino the freedom of worship that had been promised, but was well received at the Court of Moscow, but his never maintained. During his sojourn at Paris in 1717 apostolic efforts were without result. He returned on he received from various doctors of the Sorbonne a 15 March, 1582, in company with Jacob Molvianinoff, scheme for the union, to which he caused Theophanus legate of the tsar, and bearer of a letter to Gregory Prokopovitch and Stepan Gavorski to reply in 1718. XIII. In that letter Ivan the Terrible did not refer In order to captivate the Russians, the doctors of the to the union. · Possevino had relations also with the Sorbonne had worked Gallican ideas into that scheme, successor of Ivan, Feodor Ivanovitch, and with Con- regarding the primacy of the pope and his authority. stantine II, Prince of Ostrog, the great champion of Peter the Great, however, was inimical to CatholiOrthodoxy in the sixteenth century; always, however, cism. His religious views were influenced by Prowith unfavourable results. The advent of the False kopovitch, a man of great learning, but a courtier by Demetrius and his marriage with the heiress of the nature, and a bitter enemy of the Roman Church. Waywodes of Sandomir gave hopes that Russia would Peter the Great revealed his anti-Catholic hatred see a Catholic dynasty on its throne. Demetrius, when, at Polotsk in 1705, he killed with his own hand indeed, had been converted to Catholicism in 1604, the Basilian Theophanus Kolbieczynski, as also by and had entered into relations with the Holy See, many other measures; he caused the most offensive which, through its nuncios in Poland, proceeded to calumnies against Catholicism to be disseminated in confirm him in the Catholic faith, and to maintain Russia; he expelled the Jesuits in 1719; he issued his devotion to the Roman Church. Demetrius gave ukases to draw Catholics to Orthodoxy, and to preto the Holy See the happiest hopes for the conversion vent the children of mixed marriages from being of Russia; but through a conspiracy on 27 May, 1606 Catholics; and finally, he celebrated in 1722 and in he lost the crown and his life. Fanatical Russian 1725 monstrous orgies as parodies of the conclave, writers charge the popes with responsibility for the casting ridicule on the pope and the Roman court. turbulence that followed the advent to the throne of From the time of Peter the Great to Alexander I, the False Demetrius; but the letters of the Roman the history of Catholicism in Russia is a continuous pontiffs refute that calumny decisively.

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struggle against Russian legislation: laws that emIn 1675 the Tsar Alexis (1645–76) sent, as ambas- barrassed the action of Catholicism in Russia, that sador to Clement X, General Paul Menesius, a Catholic. favoured the apostasy of Catholics, and reduced the The object of this embassy was to promote an alliance Catholic clergy to impotence were multiplied each of the Christian princes against the Turks. The year, and constituted a Neronian code. In 1727, to Russian legate was received with great distinction. put a stop to Catholic propaganda in the Government No happy results, however, attended his mission of Smolensk, Catholic priests were prohibited from from a religious point of view. During the reign of entering that province, or, having entered it, were proAlexis, strenuous efforts were made to draw Russia hibited from occupying themselves with religious towards Catholicism by a famous Croatian mission- matters; the nobility was forbidden to leave the Orary, George Krizhanitch,

a student of the Propaganda, thodox communion, to have Catholic teachers, to go on whose life and works Professor Bielokuroff recently to foreign

countries, or to marry Catholic women. In wrote several valuable volumes rich in documents. 1735 the Empress Anna Ivanovna prohibited Catholic Krizhanitch is regarded as one of the pioneers of propaganda among Orthodox Russians under the Panslavism; but his efforts to bring Russia to the severest penalties. Illustrious converts, like Alexei Catholic Church cost him, in 1661, an exile to Siberia, Ladygenski and Mikhail Galitzin, were treated with whence he was unable to return to Moscow until 1676, the most inhuman barbarity on account of their conafter the death of Alexis.

version. In 1747 the government expelled from In 1684 the Jesuit Father Schmidt established him- Astrakhan the Capuchins who were making many self at Moscow as chaplain to the embassy from conversions to Catholicism among the Armenians. Vienna. In 1685 another Jesuit, Father Albert De- Under Catharine II (1762–96) the condition of bois, was the bearer of a letter from Innocent XI to Catholics became worse than before, notwithstanding the tsar; and in 1687 Father Giovanni Vota, also of the ukases of religious tolerance that the emprese the Society of Jesus, advocated at Moscow the need promulgated. The ukase of 22 July, 1763 authorized of Russia to unite herself to the Church of Rome. the Catholics to build chapels and churches of stone. The Emperor of Germany, Leopold I (1657–1705), Another ukase of 23 Feb., 1769 promulgated the obtained permission for the Jesuits to open a school ecclesiastical constitution of the Catholics. This at Moscow, where they established a house. Their constitution established two parishes, at St. Peterswork would have been very favourable for the Church, burg and Moscow, and placed them in charge of the for under the influence of Catholic theology a band Reformed Franciscans and the Capuchins. It proof learned Orthodox

theologians, led by the higumeno vided that the number of parishes should not be Sylvester Medvedeff, supported certain Latin doc- greater than nine; and it strictly prohibited Catholic trines, especially the Epiklesis. Unfortunately how- priests, residing in Russia, from proselytizing among ever two fanatical Greek monks, Joannikius and Orthodox Russians. Sophronius Likhudes, excited the fanaticism of the The first dismemberment of Poland (1772) brought Russians against the Latins at Moscow, and when a strong body of Catholics to Russia, and Catharine Peter the Great freed himself of the tutelage of his II proposed to make of them a national Church, indesister Sophia in 1689, the Jesuits were expelled from pendent of Rome. Unfortunately an ambitious PolMoscow. The schismatic Patriarch Joachim, a man ish bishop, Stanislaus Siestrzencewicz, entered into actuated by hatred for foreigners, and in particular her views, and a ukase of 23 May, 1774 established for Catholics, had much to do with that expulsion. the Diocese of White Russia, with its episcopal see at Mohileff, its first bishop being Siestrzencewicz, Vicar- 1801. Siestrzencewicz of course was selected as its General of Vilna. . This personage is judged variously president; and the Russian Government, in its Note by historians. Pierling, Zalenski, and Markovitch of 13 Dec., 1803, asked of the Holy See such powers treat him as an ambitious man who sought to become for him as would have rendered him independent. patriarch of all the Catholics in Russia, and who in The Sovereign Pontiff opposed a determined resistance his heart hated the Roman See. Godlewski on the to these demands, and the Ecclesiastical College was contrary is inclined to excuse him, and to believe that henceforward merely a name. In 1804 Mgr. Arezzi, the difficult conditions of Catholicism in Russia, the Apostolic nuncio, in view of the disagreements possibly led him to adopt measures that appear to between the Russian Government and the Holy See, have been injurious to Catholic interests. According left St. Petersburg; whereupon Siestrzencewicz had to Markovitch, during his long episcopate (1774- & free hand, and devoted himself to discrediting 1826), Siestrzencewicz was the scourge of the Catholic Catholicism by proposing as bishops of the vacant Church of both rites in Russia. By her manifestos of sees men who were corrupt or allied to the govern1779 Catharine II began the systematic destruction ment, by persecuting the religious orders, by granting of the religious orders, withdrawing them from divorces arbitrarily, by favouring the English Bible the authority of their religious superiors, and put- Society, and finally, by surrounding himself with ting them under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of assistants of evil mind and heart. Diplomatic relaMohileff. The latter in 1782 was raised to the archi- tions between the Holy See and Russia were resumed episcopal dignity, and in 1784 received the pallium in 1815. The Russian plenipotentiary, Baron de from the Apostolic legate, Mgr. Giovanni Andrea Tuyll, had colloquies with Cardinal della Somaglia in Archetti, Archbishop of Chalcedon. He assumed regard to the union of the two Churches, which, howepiscopal jurisdiction over all the Catholics of the ever, were without result, for the Russian Government Russian Empire, and acted as if he were independent declared that the union was impossible so long as the of the Holy See.

Holy See wished to impose its dogmatic teachings and The sound principles of Catholicism, however, were its disciplinary practices upon the Russians. Meanmaintained and propagated by the Jesuits who, sup- while, Siestrzencewicz made use of the renewal of repressed by the Holy See and exiled from the Catholic lations between Rome and St. Petersburg to seek nations, found an asylum and the centre of their future through the Russian Government new favours and revival in Russia. In 1779 Catharine II invited the concessions, e. g. the nomination of episcopal candiJesuits to exercise their ministry in White Russia, dates by the tsar, the title of Primate, matrimonial and in 1786 they had in Russia six colleges and 178 dispensations, etc. In other words, it was a question members. Their number increased so much that of imitating the canonical legislation of the Orthodox Pius VII re-established their order for Russia, where Church, and of harnessing Catholicism to the car of it returned to life under Father Gruber. In 1801 the the State. The Holy See merely granted to the society had 262 members, and 347 in 1811. The Metropolitan of Mohileff the honorary title of priJesuits retained a lively gratitude for the hospitality mate, without any additional jurisdiction, and authorthat they had received in Russia, and worked with ized a small number of priests to administer the zeal to convert it to Catholicism.

Sacrament of Confirmation with oil blessed by the The Second and Third Partitions of Poland (1793- bishop. The various efforts of the Russian Govern94) considerably increased the number of Catholics ment to establish a primate, with patriarchal, almost in Russia; Catharine II promised them the free exer- independent powers in Russia were always thwarted cise of their religion, their rights of property and by the determined resistance of the Holy See. those of their Church, and their complete independ- The most painful occurrence in the history of ence of the civil power. These promises were decep- Catholicism during the reign of Alexander I was the tive, as was shown by the destruction of the Ruthenian expulsion of the Jesuits from Russia, the pretext for Church, accomplished by her order. The Catholics which was the conversion of Prince Alexander Galitof the Latin Rite also soon had cause to remember zin to the Catholic faith. The Jesuits were expelled that they were under the domination of implacable from St. Petersburg during the night of 22-23 Dec., enemies. The Catholics had awaited the death of 1815, and the Catholic parish church of St. Catharine Catharine and the advent to the throne of Paul I was given to the Dominicans. The Jesuits were (1796-1801), to better their condition. In 1797 relegated to Polotsk; later, however, by the ukase of Archbishop Lorenzo Litta, legate a latere of the Holy 25 March, 1820, they were exiled from Russian terriSee, arrived at St. Petersburg, where he was received tory. On the other hand, as many nobles of the forwith great honours. The Catholics who had been mer Polish provinces, subjects of Russia, sent their exiled to Siberia were recalled; the Sees of Lutzk, children abroad to be educated by the Jesuits, the Vilna, Kamenetz, Minsk, and Samogitia (the ancient government provided that young Catholics should not Diocese of Livonia) were created; the archiepiscopal leave Russia. In the last years of his reign Alexander See of Mohileff was declared metropolitan, which it I showed more sympathy for Catholicism, and the still is; and the government granted an indemnity to relations of the Holy See with the Russian Governthe clergy for the property that had been taken from ment were cordial during the pontificate of Leo XII them. In 1802 the number of the faithful amounted and the sojourn of the Chevalier Italinski at Rome as to 1,635,490, of adults alone. Paul I showed a special Russian minister. The Holy See obtained the conpredilection for the Jesuits, and reposed great con- cession that the Russian Government would pay to fidence in Father Gruber; he called them to St. Peters- the Datary 1000 scudi for the Bulls of Catholic archburg, where he authorized them to open schools and bishops in Russia, and 800 scudi for those of bishops; seminaries, while he obtained from Pius VII a Brief Alexander I also allowed a Catholic chapel to be (7 March, 1801), re-establishing the society in Russia. erected at the imperial residence of Tsarskoye Selo,

Under Alexander I diplomatic relations were estab- and gave 40,000 roubles for its construction. He prolished between the Holy See and the Russian Govern- posed to visit Rome, and, according to an unauthentiment. In 1802 a Russian legation was established at cated historical report, to abjure Orthodoxy; There Rome, while Pius VII on his part named an Apostolic are Catholic writers who affirm that Alexander I and nuncio to St. Petersburg, Mgr. Arezzo, Archbishop of his consort became Catholics; but there is no docuSeleucia. The affairs of the Catholic Church in mentary evidence in support of this. Russia were to be administered by the Roman Catholic The reign of Nicholas I was a long period of perEcclesiastical College, created in imitation of the secution and suffering for Catholics in Russia. In Synod of St. Petersburg. This college had been ap- 1826 the Holy See sent Mgr. Bernetti to St. Petersproved by Alexander I, through his ukase of 21 Nov., burg, to be present at the coronation. He was well

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