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were, however, found too burdensome, and a treatise the gates, that they might know, and fear the Lord, of the Mishna (Erubin) tempers their rigour by subtle and fulfill all the words of the Law (Deut., xxxi, 10devices.

13). The law concerning the release of Hebrew The Sabbath in the New Testament.-Christ, while slaves in the seventh year (Ex., xxi, 2 sqq.; Deut., observing the Sabbath, set himself in word and act xv, 12 sqq.) is wrongly connected by some writers against this absurd rigorism which made man a with the sabbatical year. That there was no special slave of the day. He reproved the scribes and connexion between the two is sufficiently shown by Pharisees for putting an intolerable burden on men's the requirement of six years of servitude, the beshoulders (Matt., xxiii, 4), and proclaimed the prin- ginning of which was not affixed to any particular ciple that the sabbath was made for man, and not year, and by the law prescribing the liberation of man for the sabbath” (Mark, ii, 27). He cured on Hebrew slaves in the year of jubilee, which immethe Sabbath, and defended His disciples for plucking diately followed the seventh sabbatical year (Lev., ears of corn on that day. In His arguments with the xxv, 39 sqq.). Pharisees on this account He showed that the Sab- Since the sabbatical year was preceded by six bath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of sowings and six harvests (Ex., xxiii, 10), it began with charity (Matt., xii, 3 sqq.; Mark, ii, 25 sqq.; Luke, vi, autumn, the time of sowing, and probably coincided 3 sqq.; xiv, 5). St. Paul enumerates the Sabbath with the civil year, which began with the month of among the Jewish observances which are not obligatory Tishri (Sept.-Oct.); some commentators, however, on Christians (Col., ii, 16; Gal., iv, 9-10; Rom., xiv, think that like the year of jubilee it began on the 5). The gentile converts held their religious meetings tenth of the month. The year was not well observed on Sunday (Acts, xx, 7; I Cor., xvi, 2), and with the before the Captivity (cf. II Par., xxxvi, 21 and Lev., disappearance of the Jewish Christian churches this xxvi, 34, 35, 43). After the return, the people day was exclusively observed as the Lord's Day. covenanted to let the land lie fallow and to exact no (See SUNDAY.)

debt in the seventh year (II Esd., x, 31), and thereEDERSHEIM, Life and Times of Jesus II (New York, 1897), after it was regularly kept.. The occurrence of a 52-62, 777 sqq.; SCHÜRER, Hist. of the Jewish People (New York, 1891), see index; PINCHES, Sapattu, the Babylonian Sabbath in

sabbatical year is mentioned in I Mach., vi, 49, 53, Proceed. of Soc. of Bibl. Archäol. (1904), 51-56; LAGRANGE,

and its observance is several times referred to by Relio. sémit. (Paris, 1905), 291-5: Duorme in Rev. bibl. (1908). Josephus (Bell. Jud., I, ii, 4; Ant., XI, viii, 5, 6; XIII, 462-6; HEIN, Siebenzahl und Sabbath bei den Babyloniern un im A. T: (Leipzig. '1907); IDEM, Der Israelitische Sabbath (Münster. viii, 1; XIV, xvi, 2). The absence of any allusion 1909); KEIL, Babel und Bibelfrage (Trier, 1903), 38-44; Lotz,

to the celebration of the sabbatical year in pre-exilic Quaestiones de histor. sabbali (1883); LESÊTRE in VIGOUROUX, times has led modern critics to assert that it was Dict, de la bible, 8. v. Sabbat,

instituted at the time of the Restoration, or that at F. BECHTEL.

least the custom of allowing all fields to lie fallow Sabbath Observance. See SUNDAY.

simultaneously was then introduced. But it is

hardly credible that the struggling community would Sabbatical Year (in (shenáth shábbāthôn), have adopted a custom calculated to have a seriously "year of rest”; Sept. évautos dvaraúoews; Vulg. disturbing effect on economic conditions, and without annus requietionis), the seventh year, devoted to example among other nations, unless it had the sanccessation of agriculture, and holding in the period tion of venerable antiquity. The main object for of seven years a place analogous to that of the Sab- which the sabbatical year was instituted was to bath in the week; also called "year of remission”. bring home to the people that the land was the Lord's, Three prescriptions were to be observed during the and that they were merely His tenants at will

(Lev. year (Ex., xxiii, 10–11; Lev., xxv, 1-7; Deut., xxv, 23). In that year "He exercised His right of xv, 1-11; xxxi, 10-13). (1) The land was to lie sovereign dominion. Secondarily it was to excite fallow and all agricultural labor was to be suspended. their faith and reliance on God (ibid., 20-22), and There was to be neither plowing nor sowing, nor were to stimulate their faithfulness to His Law (Deut., the vines and olives to be attended to. The spon- xxxi, 10-13). taneous yield was not to be garnered, but was to be HÚMMELAUER, Comm. in Ei, et Lev.; Comm. in Deut.; and left in the fields for common use, and what was not

other commentaries on the texts cited; SCHÜRER, Hist. of Jewish

People (New York, 1891), I, i, 41-43; KEIL, Man. of Bibl. used was to be abandoned to the cattle and wild

Archæol. (Edinburgh, 1887-88), II, 10-13; ZUCKERMANN, animals (Ex., xxiii, 10-11; Lev., xxv, 1-7). Of the Ueber Sabbathjahrcyklus u. Jobelperiode (Breslau, 1857); Casfruit trees the olive is alone mentioned, because its

PARI, Die geschichtlichen Sabbatjahre in Studien u. Kritiken (1876),

181-190; LESÊTRE in VIGOUROUX, Dict. d. l. Bib., V, 1302 sqq.; oil was one of the three great agricultural products; Jewish Encyc., X, 605 sqq. but the law probably applied also to other trees.

F. BECHTEL. The law prescribed rest for the land, not for man. Hence work other than agricultural was not forbidden, Sabbatine Privilege.—The name Sabbatine Privinor even work in the fields which had no direct con- lege is derived from the apocryphal Bull “Sacratissimo nexion with raising crops, such as building walls of uti culmine" of John XXII, 3 March, 1322. In this enclosure, digging wells, etc.

Bull the pope is made to declare that the Mother of (2) No crops being reaped during the sabbatical God appeared to him, and most urgently recommended year, the payment of debts would have been a great to him the Carmelite Order and its confratres and conhardship, if not an impossibility, for many: Tience sorores. The Blessed Virgin asked that John, as Christ's the creditor was commanded “to withhold his hand” representative on earth, should ratify the indulgences and not to exact a debt from an Israelite, though he which He had already granted in heaven (a plenary might demand it of strangers, who were not bound indulgence for the members of the Carmelite Order to abstair from agricultural pursuits (Deut., xv, and a partial indulgence, remitting the third part of 1-3, Heb. text). The Talmudists and many after the temporal punishment due to their sins, for the them understand the law to mean the remission of members of the confraternity); she herself would the debt; but modern commentators generally hold graciously descend on the Saturday (Sabbath) after that it merely suspended the obligation to pay and their death and liberate and conduct to heaven all debarred the creditor from exacting the debt during who were in purgatory. Then follow the conditions the year. The Douay translation “He to whom which the confratres and consorores must fulfill. At anything is owing from his friend or neighbour or the end of the Bull the pope declares: “Istam ergo brother, cannot demand it again” is incorrect. sanctam Indulgentiam accepto, roboro et in terris (3) During the sabbatical year the Law was to be confirmo, sicut, propter merita Virginis Matris, read on the Feast of Tabernacles to all Israel, men, gratiose Jesus Christus concessit in cælis" (This holy women, and children, as well as to the strangers within indulgence I therefore accept; I confirm and r

XIII.-19

it on earth, just as Jesus Christ has graciously granted help which the souls of brothers and members, who it in heaven on account of the merits of the Virgin have departed this life in charity, have worn throughMother). Our first information of this Bull is de- put life" the scapular, have ever observed chastity, rived from a work of the Carmelite Balduinus Leersius have recited the Little Hours (of the Blessed Virgin), ("Collectaneum exemplorum et miraculorum” in or, if they cannot read, have observed the fast days "Bibliotheca Carmelit.", I, Orleans, 1752, p. 210), of the Church, and have abstained from flesh meat on who died in 1483. The authenticity of the Bull was Wednesdays and Saturdays (except when Christmas keenly contested especially in the seventeenth century, falls on such days), may derive after death-especially but was vigorously defended by the Carmelites. on Saturdays, the day consecrated by the Church to The chief opponents of its authenticity were Joannes the Blessed Virgin-through the unceasing intercesLaunoy and the Bollandist, Daniel Papebroch, both sion of Mary, her pious petitions, her merits, and her of whom published works against it. To-day it is special protection. universally regarded by scholars as inauthentic, even With this explanation and interpretation, the the “Monumenta histor. Carmel.” of the Carmelite Sabbatine privilege no longer presents any difficulties, B. Zimmerman (I, Lérins, 1907, pp. 356-63) joining and Benedict XIV adds his desire that the faithful in rejecting it.

should rely on it (Opera omnia, IX, Venice, 1767, In 1379, in consequence of the hostility still shown pp. 197 sqq.). Even apart from the Bull and the to their order and especially to its name, the Carmel- tradition or legend concerning the apparition and ites besought Urban VI to grant an indulgence of promise of the Mother of God the interpretation of 3 years and 3 quarantines to all the faithful who the Decree cannot be contested. The Sabbatine designated them and their order “Ordinem et Fratres privilege thus consists essentially in the early liberaB. Mariæ Genetricis Dei de Monte Carmeli” (Bullar. tion from purgatory through the special intercession Carmelit., I, 141); this was granted by Urban on 26 and petition of Mary, which she graciously exercises April, 1379. It is difficult to understand why, in- in favour of her devoted servants preferentially-as stead of asking for this indulgence, they did not appeal we may assume-on the day consecrated to her, to the old promise and the recent “Bulla sabbatina.”, Saturday. Furthermore, the conditions for the gainif the scapular was then known and the promise ing of the privilege are of such a kind as justify a to St. Simon Stock and this Bull were genuine and special trust in the assistance of Mary. It is espeincontestable. While the Bull of John XXII was cially required of all who wish to share in the privilege ratified by some later popes in the sixteenth cen- that they faithfully preserve their chastity, and recite tury (cf. Bullar. Carmelit., II, 47, 141), neither the devoutly each day the Little Hours of the Blessed Bull itself in its wording nor its general contents Virgin. However, all those who are bound to read were thereby declared authentic and genuine. On their Breviary, fulfil the obligation of reciting the the contrary, the ratification by Gregory XIII on Little Hours by reading their Office. Persons who 18 September, 1577 (Bullar. Carmelit., II, 196), must cannot read must (instead of reciting the Little be interpreted quite in the sense of the later Decree Hours) observe all the fasts prescribed by the Church of the Holy Office. This Decree, which appeared in as they are kept in their home diocese or place of 1613, expresses no opinion concerning the genuine- residence, and must in addition abstain from flesh ness of the Bull, but confines itself to declaring what meat on all Wednesdays and Saturdays of the year, the Carmelites may preach of its contents. The Bull except when Christmas falls on one of these days. forbids the painting of pictures representing, in ac- The obligation to read the Little Hours and to abstain cordance with the wording of the Bull

, the Mother from flesh meat on Wednesday and Saturday may of God descending into purgatory (cum descensione on important grounds be changed for other pious beatæ Virginis ad animas in Purgatorio liberandas). works: the faculty to sanction this change was It must be also remembered that the latest authentic granted to all confessors by Leo XIII in the Decree summary of indulgences of the Carmelite Order of of the Congregation of Indulgences of 11 (14) June, 31 July, 1907 (Acta S. Sedis, XL, 753 sqq.), approved 1901. by the Congregation of Indulgences, says nothing For the text of the Bull see Bullarium Carmelit., I (Rome, either of the Bull of John XXII, of the indulgences 715), 62,99.; for its defence cf. Carmelite authors, e. 8. BROCARD

Recueil d'instructions (4th ed., Ghent, 1875); RAYNAUD, Scapugranted by him, or of the Sabbatine privilege for the lare Partheno-Carmeliticum (Cologne, 1658). For the explanaCarmelites. To learn the meaning and importance of tion of the privilege, consult BERINGER, Die Ablässe (13th ed.). the Sabbatine privilege, we may turn only to the above-mentioned Decree of the Holy Office. It was

JOSEPH HILGERS. inserted in its entirety (except for the words forbid

Sabellius and Sabellianism. See MONARCHIding the painting of the pictures) into the list of the indulgences and privileges of the Confraternity of the Scapular of Mount Carmel.

Säben. See BRIXEN, DIOCESE OF. We reproduce here the whole passage dealing with the Sabbatine privilege, as it appears in the summary

Sabina, SAINT, widow of Valentinus and daughter approved by the Congregation of Indulgences on 4

of Herod Metallarius, suffered martyrdom about 126. July, 1908. It is noteworthy that the Bull of John According to the Acts of the martyrdom, which howXXII, which was still mentioned in the previous

ever have no historic value, she lived at Rome and summary approved on 1 December, 1866, is no longer

was converted to Christianity by her female slave Ratisbon, 1885, p. 475). Among the privileges, In 430 her relics were brought to the Aventine, where referred to (cf. “Rescript. authent. S. C. Indulg.", Serapia. Serapia was put to death for her faith and

later, in the same year, Sabina suffered martyrdom. which are mentioned after the indulgences, the following occurs in the first place: “The privilege of

a basilica, which is very interesting in the history of Pope John XXII, commonly (vulgo] known as the art, is called after St. Sabina. Originally the church Sabbatine, which was approved and confirmed by is celebrated on 29 August.

was dedicated to both saints. The feast of St. Sabina Clement VII (“Ex clementi”, 12 August, 1530), St.

Acta SS., VI, August, 496–504; Bibliotheca hagiographica Pius V (“Superna dispositione”, 18 Feb., 1566), latina (Brussels, 1898-1900), 1075. Gregory XIII (“Ut laudes", 18 Sept., 1577), and

KLEMENS LÖFFLER. others, and also by the Holy Roman General Inquisition under Paul V on 20 January, 1613, in a Sabina (SABINENSIS), a suburbicarian diocese, with Decree to the following effect:

residence in Magliano Sabino, formed from the terri"It is permitted to the Carmelite Fathers to preach tory of the three ancient dioceses: Forum novum (8, that the Christian people may piously believe in the Maria in Vescovio), Cures (Corese), and Nomentum

659 sqq.

ANS.

(Mentana). When these sees were united, the diocese convent for Reformed Friars Minor, later replaced by was called Sabina because it included that part of the Order of Mercy. In 1733 Clement XII suppressed Sabina which at the time of the Lombard invasion the chapter. In the subterranean crypt of the church remained united to the Roman territory (Sabina are many traces of frescoes which have been brought Romana), while the remainder became part of the to light through the munificence of the present cardiDuchy of Spoleto. Cures was the ancient capital of nal-bishop, among whose predecessors may be menthe Sabines, which territory lay between the Tiber, tioned: Alessandro Farnese (1523), later Paul III; the Anio, and the Apennines (Gran Sasso e Maiella). Lorenzo Campeggio (1537); G. P. Caraffa (1546), Nomentum is frequently mentioned in ancient Roman later Paul IV; Giovanni Morone (1561); Cristoforo history. After Charlemagne, Sabina was ruled by a Madruzzi (1562); Gio. Antonio Serbelloni (1578); count; later its territory was divided between some Gabr. Paleotto (1591), a reformer of discipline and barons and the Abbot of Farfa; the Senate of Rome founder of the seminary; Pietro Aldobrandini (1620); exercised feudal jurisdiction over its territory, e. g: Scipio Borghese (1629), who procured an auxiliary; Magliano. During the persecutions Nomentum had Francesco Barberini (1645); Blessed Nicolò Albergati two cemeteries, one at St. Restitutus, a third century (1677); Pietro Ottoboni (1681), later Alexander VIII; martyr, at the sixteenth mile on the Via Nomentana, Carlo Pio of Savoy (1683); Paluzio Altieri (1689); belonging to Justa, a pious matron, and one at Sts. Ippolito Vincenti Čarreri (1805), who died in exile in Primus and Felicianus, martyrs under Diocletian, at Paris; Lorenzo Litta (1814); Venerable Carlo Odethe fourteenth and fifteenth miles. Bishop Stephanus, scalchi (1833); Luigi Lambruschini (1842). In 1841 a contemporary of St. Restitutus, is mentioned in the the territory now forming the Diocese of Poggio Acts of the martyr. Ursus is the first known Bishop Mirteto was separated from Sabina. The Diocese of of Nomentum (415). Others are known from Grati- Sabina contains 35 parishes with 55,000 inhabitants, anus (593) till St. Gregory the Great united the Sees 56 secular and 32 regular priests, 4 houses of reliof Cures and Nomentum. Tiberius (465) was the gious, and 13 monks. first Bishop of Cures, “called also bishops of Sabina CAPPELLETTI, Le chiese d'Italia, I; TOMASSETTI AND BIAor of St. Anthimus, as that martyr's basilica, adjoining BIOTTI, La diocesi di Sabina (Rome, 1909).

U. BENIGNI. the bishop's residence, was all that remained of the town in the fifth century". It was destroyed in 870, Sabinianus, POPE.—The date of his birth is unand the city fell into decay. The last Bishop of known, but he was consecrated pope probably 13 Sept., Nomentum was Joannes, who assisted at the Council 604, and died 22 Feb., 606. The son of Bonus, he was of Rome (964). The small town of Mentana arose born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. In 593 he was sent around the castle of the Crescenzi and came into the by St. Gregory I as apocrisiarius or Apostolic nuncio hands of the Orsini. Here Garibaldi was defeated by to Constantinople; but in some respects his adminthe pontifical and French troops (1867).

istration of the office did not come up to Gregory's In 984 Nomentum was united to the See of Forum expectations. He was not astute enough for the rulers Novum,called also Vicosabinas, situated on the Via Sal- of Byzantium. He returned to Rome in 597, and was aria, having bishops from the fifth century, e, g. Paulus chosen to succeed Gregory soon after the death of (465). The dignity of “hebdomadary” bishop of the that great pontiff; but as the imperial confirmation Lateran basilica was then conferred on the Bishop of his election did not arrive for some months, he of Nomentum, the closest to Rome; later the Bishop was not consecrated till September. The difficulties of Sabina became a cardinal-bishop. The following of his pontificate were caused by fear of the Lomdeserve mention: Joannes (1044), afterwards Antipope bards and by famine. When the Lombard danger Sylvester III; Gregory, legate to Emperor Henry IV had passed, Sabinianus opened the granaries of the in 1078; Cintius (1106) planned the imprisonment of Church, and sold corn to the people at one solidus Paschal II; Conrad (1153), later Anastasius IV; Con- (twelve shillings) for thirty pecks. Because he was rad of Wittelsbach (1163), legate in the Holy Land unable or unwilling to allow the people to have the and Germany;, John (1202), legate; Peter (1216), corn for little or nothing, there grew up in later times legate against the Albigenses and in Syria; Gaufredo a number of idle legends in which his predecessor Castiglioni

(1237), later Celestine IV; Guglielmo was represented punishing him for avarice. He is (1244), Bishop of Modena and apostle of Livonia and reputed to have restored to the secular clergy posts Lithuania; Guido Gros (1261), later Clement IV; which St. Gregory had filled with monks. He was Egidio Albornoz (1355); Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille buried in St. Peter's. (1768). During the Western Schism, the Avignon Liber Pontificalis, ed. DUCHESNE, I (Paris, 1886), 315; Epp.

Gregorii I, ed. Ewald (Berlin, 1891); Mann, Lives of the Popes popes also created cardinal-bishops of Sabina: the

in the early Middle Ages, I, 251 sq. transference of Giordano Orsini (1427) to the See of

HORACE K. MANN. Ostia (1439) was the first example of the optatio still existing in regard to suburbicarian sees; Bessarione Sabran, LOUIS DE, Jesuit; b. in Paris, 1 March, (1443); Amadeus of Savoy (1449-51), previously 1652; d. at Rome, 22 Jan., 1732. His father, afterAntipope Felix V; Isidore (1452), former metropolitan wards a marquis, was attached to the French embassy of Kieff; John Torquemada (1464). Forum Novum, in London during the Commonwealth, and piously having recovered from its destruction in the Gothic visited the martyrs Corby and Duckett (q. v.) before war, was again destroyed in 876 by the Saracens and their deaths. He married an English lady (a Goremained deserted for fifty-eight years. The basilica, ring?), and Louis was sent to the English college of at first dedicated to S. Valentine, was later restored St. Omer, and entered among the English Jesuits. under the title of S. Maria al Vescovio, but remained Distinguished for many talents, he became one of unimportant.

the royal chaplains to King James II, in 1685, During the Avignon period only a few inhabitants preached with great diligence and was engaged in remained, so Cardinal Oliviero Caraffa (1479) induced controversy with William Sherlock, dean of St. Alexander VI (1495) to transfer the episcopal resi- Paul's, and Edward Gee. On the outbreak of the dence to Magliano, erecting the collegiate church of Revolution in 1688 he was first sent to Portsmouth that city into the cathedral. Magliano (Manlianum) with the infant Prince of Wales, and then became overlooks the valley of the Tiber, on which river the involved in many adventures. He was repeatedly inhabitants formerly carried on an extensive trade seized by the mob and maltreated, but as often with Rome. Sixtus V caused the Ponte Felice to be escaped, and finally managed to slip over to France., constructed. The jealousy of the other Sabina cities He was subsequently appointed visitor of the Neacaused Leo X to restore the title of cathedral to the politan Jesuits, and represented his province at Rome church of Vescovio. Cardinal Paleotti established a in the congregation of 1693, when the case of Father

313 sg.

González (q. v.) was discussed. In 1699 the Prince- and yet unable to put him to death, the heretics Bishop of Liège appointed him president of his epis- finally succeeded in having him sent into exile. copal seminary, which excited a furious attack from the Thereafter we have no further mention of him except Jansenistic party, and the bishop had to enforce order in the Brief of Urban IV. The “Summa de catharis with soldiers. But once the crisis was past, Father et leonistis, sive pauperibus de Lugduno" (Paris, Sabran's rule became perfectly successful, and in 1548, and by Martène in “Thes. Anecd.", v, 1759) 1708 or 1709, he was made provincial. He then is the only authentic work ascribed to him. This wrote to Father Medcalfe, a Jesuit in the North, work is a collection of the heretical doctrines of his about the progress of Jansenism, but his letter was time, and was regarded as a great authority during intercepted, and was declared by some to. portend the Middle Ages. The edition of Gretser (Ratisbon, that he intended to gain possession of Douai College, 1738) is much interpolated. as he had done that of Liège. A long-drawn and some ECHARD, Script. Ord. Præd., I, 154 sq.; HURTER, Nomenclator, what bitter controversy ensued. After his provincial

II, 336 sq.; TOURON, Hist. des hommes ill., I (Paris, 1743). ship he became rector of_St. Omer (1712-5), then

CHAS. J. CALLAN. spiritual director at the English College, Rome, till death. The titles of his controversial tracts, will

Sacra Jam Splendent, the opening words of the be found in Sommervogel, and he is alleged have written a paper “Artes Bajanæ” about 1701 against The Holy See instituted the feast in 1893, making

hymn for Matins of the Feast of the Holy Family. Jansenism.

it a duplex majus (greater double) and assigning SOMMERVOGEL, Bibl. de la comp. de Jésus, VII (Paris, 1896), 359; Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, it to the third Sunday after Epiphany. Leo XIII VII (London, 1883), 676; Kirk, Biographies of English Catholics composed the three hymns (Vespers, Matins, Lauds) in the Eighteenth Century, ed. POLLEN (London, 1903), 203;

of the Breviary Office. The hymn for Matins conMSS. at Stonyhurst, etc.

J. H. POLLEN.

tains nine Sapphic stanzas of the classical type of the

first stanza: Sabrata, a titular see in Tripolitana. Sabrata was

Sacra jam splendent decorata lychnis a Phænician town on the northern coast of Africa, between the two Syrta. With Oca and Leptis Magna

Templa, jam sertis redimitur ara,

Et pio fumant redolentque acerræ it caused the Greek name Tripolis to be given to the

Thuris honore. region. Its Phænician name, which occurs on coins and in an inscription at Thevesta, was hellenized (A thousand lights their glory shed Abrotomon, though Pliny (V, 4) makes these two On shrines and altars garlanded, separate towns. Sabrata became a Roman colony; While swinging censers dusk the air Flavia Domitilla, Vespasian's first wife, was the

With perfumed prayer.) daughter of Statilius Capella of Sabrata. Justinian

The hymns for Vespers (O lux beata cælitum) fortified the town and built there a beautiful church. In the Middle Ages it continued to be an important

and Lauds (O gente felix hospita) are in classical market, to which the natives of the interior brought Vespers hymn contains six and the Lauds hymn

dimeter iambics, four-lined stanzas, of which the their corn; the Arab writers call it Sabrat en-Nefousa,

seven exclusive of the usual Marian doxology (Jesu from a powerful tribe, the Nefousa, formerly Christian. Sabrata is now represented by Zouagha, a

tibi sit gloria). All three hymns are replete with small town called by Europeans Tripoli Vecchia, in

spiritual unction, graceful expression, and classical

dignity of form.' They reflect the sentiment of the the vilayet of Tripoli, fifty miles west of the town of Tripoli. Its ruins lie a little north of the village; they

in his letter establishing a Pious Association in

pope consist of crumbled ramparts, an amphitheatre, and

honour of the Holy Family and in his Encyclical deal

ing with the condition of working-men. landing-stage. Four of its bishops are known: Pom

Translations of the three hymns are given in HENRY, Poems, pey in 255; Nados, present at the Conference of Charades, Inscriptions of Leo XIII (Philadelphia, 1902), with Carthage, 411; Vincent, exiled by Genseric about Latin text, pp. 104-15, and comment., pp. 282–84. The hymns

for Vespers and Lauds are translated by BAGSHAWE, Breviary 450; Leo, exiled by Huneric after the Conference of

Hymns and Missal Sequences (London, s. d.), nos. 52, 53, Carthage, 484.

H. T. HENRY. Smith, Dict. of Greek and Roman Geog., s. v. Sabrala and Abrotonum, with a bibliography of ancient authors; BARTH, Sacramental Character. See CHARACTER; SACWanderungen, 277; TOULOTTE, Géographie de l'Afrique chrétienne (Montreuil, 1894), 258-60; Diehl, L'Afrique byzantine (Paris, 1896), passim.

Sacramentals.-In instituting the sacraments S. PÉTRIDÈS.

Christ did not determine the matter and form down Sabunde, RAYMOND OF. See RAYMOND OF SA- to the slightest detail, leaving this task to the Church,

which should determine what rites were suitable Saccas, AMMONIUS. See NEO-PLATONISM.

in the administration of the sacraments. These

rites are indicated by the word Sacramentalia, the Sacchoni, RAINERIO (REINER), a learned and object of which is to manifest the respect due to the zealous Dominican, b. at Piacenza about the begin- sacrament and to secure the sanctification of the faithning of the thirteenth century; d. about 1263. It is ful. They belong to widely different categories, generally said that he died in 1258 or 1259, but this e. g.: substance, in the mingling of water with is an error, as we learn from the Brief of Urban IV, Eucharistic wine; quantity, in the triple baptismal by which he was called to Rome, 21 July, 1262. effusion; quality, in the condition of unleavened Little is known as to his youth and early manhood. bread; relation, in the capacity of the minister; time That, however, at an early age, he was perverted by and place, in feast-days and churches; habit, in the the Cathari, became one of their bishops, and re- liturgical vestments; posture, in genuflexion, prosmained amongst them for seventeen years, we are trations; action, in chanting etc. So many external assured by his own humble avowal (“Summa contra conditions connect the sacramentals with the virtue Waldenses”, vi). He was led back to the Faith, most of religion, their object being indicated by the Council probably, by the preaching of St. Peter Martyr, of Tront (Sess. XXII, 15), that it is asserted that apart joined the Order of Preachers, then recently established, from their ancient origin and traditional maintenance and laboured zealously for many years among the ceremonies, blessings, lights, incense etc. enhance the heretics of Upper Italy. After the martyrdom of dignity of the Holy Sacrifice and arouse the piety St. Peter he was made inquisitor for Lombardy and of the faithful. Moreover the sacramentals help to the Marches of Ancona. Being enraged against him, distinguish the members of the Church from heretics,

RAMENTS.

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who have done away with the sacramentals or use lege. Theologians do not agree as to whether the them arbitrarily and with little intelligence.

sacramentals may confer any other grace ex opere Sacramental rites are dependent on the Church operantis through the action of the one who uses which established them, and which therefore has the them, but the negative opinion is more generally right to maintain, develop, modify, or abrogate them. followed, for as the Church cannot confer sanctifying The ceremonial regulation of the sacraments in grace nor institute signs thereof, neither can she Apostolic times is sufficiently proved by the words of institute efficacious signs of the other graces which St. Paul to the Corinthians with regard to the God alone can give. Moreover, as experience Eucharist: "Cetera autem, cum venero, disponam" teaches, the sacramentals do not infallibly produce (the rest I will set in order when I come (I Cor., their effect. Finally in the euchologic formulas of xi, 34)], which St. Augustine, on what ground we the sacramentals the Church makes use, not of know not, supposes to refer to the obligation of the affirmative, but of deprecatory expressions, which Eucharistic fast (Ep. liv, “Ad Januarium", c. 6, shows that she looks directly to Divine mercy for n. 8, in P. L., XXXIII, 203). The Fathers of the the effect. Church enumerate ceremonies and rites, some of Besides the efficacy which the sacramentals possess which were instituted by the Apostles, others by the in common with other good works they have a special early Christians (cf. Justin Martyr, “Apol. I”, n. efficacy of their own. If their whole value proceeded 61, 65 in P. G., VI, 419, 427; Tertullian, "De from the opus operantis, all external good works

1 baptismo", vii in P. L., I, 1206; St. Basil, “De could be called sacramentals. The special virtue Spiritu Sancto", I, xxvii, n. 67 in P. G., XXXII, 191). recognized by the Church and experienced by The Catholic Church, which is the heiress of the Christians in the sacramentals should consist in the Apostles, has always used and maintained against official prayers whereby we implore God to pour heretics this power over sacramentals. To her and forth special graces on those who make use of the to her alone belongs the right to determine the matter, sacramentals. These prayers move God to give form, and minister of the sacramentals. The Church, graces which He would not otherwise give, and when that is, the supreme authority represented by its not infallibly acceded to it is for reasons known to His visible head, alone legislates in this matter, because Wisdom. God is aware of the measure in which the bishops no longer have in practice the power to He should bestow His gifts. All the sacramentals modify or abolish by a particular legislation what is have not the same effect; this depends on the prayer imposed on the universal Church. What concerns of the Church which does not make use of the same the administration of the sacraments is contained in urgency nor have recourse to the same Divine sources detail in the Roman Ritual and the Episcopal of merit. Some sacramentals derive no special Cæremoniale.

efficacy from the prayer of the Church; such are Apart from the ceremonies relating to the ad- those which are employed in worship, without a ministration of the sacraments the Church has in- blessing, or even with a blessing which does not atituted others for the purpose of private devotion. specify any particular fruit. This is the case with To distinguish between them, the latter are named the blessing of vessels meant to contain the holy sacramentals because of the resemblance between oils: “Give ear to our prayers, most merciful Father, their rites and those of the sacraments properly and deign to bless and sanctify these purified vessels 80-called. In ancient times the term sacrament alone prepared for the use of the sacred ministry of Thy was used, but numerous confusions resulted and the Church”: On the other hand, some sacramentals, similarity of rites and terms led many Christians to among them one of those most frequently used, regard both as sacraments. After Peter Lombard holy water, are the object of a benediction which the use and definition of the word “sacramental" details their particular effects. had a fixed character and was exclusively applicable One of the most remarkable effects of sacramentals to those rites presenting an external resemblance to is the virtue to drive away evil spirits whose mystethe sacraments but not applicable to the sensible rious and baleful operations affect sometimes signs of Divine institution. St. Thomas Aquinas the physical activity of man. To combat this occult makes use of the terms sacra and sacramentalia power the Church has recourse to exorcism and (Summa I-II, Q. cviii, a. 2, ad 2um; III, Q. lxv, a. sacramentals. Another effect is the delivery of the i, ad fum), which the theologians of a later period soul from sin and the penalties therefor. Thus in the adopted, so that at present sacramentalia is ex- blessing of a cross the Church asks that this sacred clusively reserved for those rites which are practised sign may receive the heavenly blessing in order that apart from the administration of the seven sacra- all those who kneel before it and implore the Divine ments, for which the word ceremonies is used. Majesty may be granted great compunction and a

The number of the sacramentals may not be limited; general pardon of faults committed. This means nevertheless, the attempt has been made to determine remission of venial sins, for the sacraments alone, their general principles or rather applications in the with perfect contrition, possess the efficacy to remit verse: “Orans, tinctus, edens, confessus, dans, mortal sins and to release from the penalties attached benedicens”. Orans indicates public prayer, whether to them. St. Thomas is explicit on this point: liturgical or private; tinctus, the use of holy water “The episcopal blessing, the aspersion of holy water, and the unctions in use at various consecrations; every sacramental unction, prayer in a dedicated edens, the eating of blessed foods; confessus, the church, and the like, effect the remission of venial general avowal of faults which is made in the Con- sins, implicitly or explicitly" (Summa III, Q. lxxxvii

, fiteor recited at Mass, at Communion, in the Divine a. 3, ad lum). Finally the sacramentals may be emOffice; dans, alms; benedicens, papal and episcopal ployed to obtain temporal favours, since the Church blessings etc., blessings of candles, ashes, palms etc. herself blesses objects made use of in every day life, Another distinction classifies sacramentals according e.g. the blessing of a house on which is called down the to whether they are acts, e. g. the Confiteor men- abundance of heavenly dew and the rich fruitfulness tioned above, or things, such as medals, holy water of the earth; so likewise in the benediction of the etc. The sacramentals do not produce sanctifying fields, in which God is asked to pour down His blessgrace er opere operato, by virtue of the rite or sub- ings on the harvests, so that the wants of the needy stance employed, and this constitutes their essential may be supplied by the fertile earth. difference from the sacraments. The Church is unable to increase or reduce the number of sacra

PROBST, Sakramente u. Sakramentalien (Tübingen, 1872),

LAMBING, Sacramentals of the Holy Catholic Church (New York, ments as they were instituted by Christ, but the 1892); BERINGER Les Indulgences (Paris, 1905), sacramentals do not possess this dignity and privi

H. LECLERCQ.

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