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Sacramentary. See LITURGICAL Books. the priesthood, and from there went to St. Sulpice Sacramentines. See PERPETUAL ADORERS OF THE

Paris, for his ecclesiastical studies. He was ordained BLESSED SACRAMENT.

there by Cardinal Morlot in 1861, and returned to

California. Father Manogue was sent to work in Sacramento, DIOCESE OF (SACRAMENTENSIS), the territory of Nevada about 1864. He devoted was formed out of the Vicariate of Marysville, which himself to the Indian tribes and attained great recomprised the regions lying between the parallels sults in gaining converts. His usual way of teaching of latitude 39° and 42° N., and between the Pacific them Christianity was to assemble the roving bands Ocean on the west and the Colorado River on the in the church and explain the stations, the altar, east. The diocese at present covers 54,449 square statuary, etc. He succeeded to the see, 17 March, miles in California, and 38,162 square miles in Nevada. 1884. Leo XIII changed the boundaries of the It includes the counties of Alpine, Amadok, Butte, diocese, 16 May, 1886, and the episcopal see was Colusa, Calaveras, Del Norte, Eldorado, Humboldt, moved' to Sacramento. Bishop_Manogue built Lassen, Mariposa, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, Placer, there a cathedral in the Italian Renaissance style Plumas, Sacramento, Shasta, Sierra, Siskiyou, with a seating capacity of over sixteen hundred. The Sutter, Toulumne, Tehama, 'Trinity, Yolo, and architect was Mr. Brian J. Clinch. Bishop Manogue Yuba in California; and the counties of Churchill, took a leading part in public affairs and was a sucDouglas, Esmeralda, Humboldt, Lyon, Ormsby, cessful arbitrator between the mine owners and the Storey, and Washoe in Nevada.

miners in their conflicts. He was of large stature, The Vicariate of Marysville (Marysvillensis) was of a humorous turn of mind, and a good musician. formed in 1861; four priests were in the territory. He died on 27 February, 1895, and lies buried in St. There are now 65 priests and about 50,000 Catholic Joseph's Cemetery, Sacramento, surrounded by the people within the Diocese of Sacramento. Grass remains of eleven priests. The Rev. Thomas Grace Valley, Marysville, and Virginia City, Nevada, were succeeded Bishop Manogue. He was preconized as the most populous and notable of the early missions. bishop on 27 February, 1896. He was born at WexAmongst the pioneer priests, the names of Very Rev. ford, Ireland, on 2 Aug., 1841; educated at St. Peter's T. J. Dalton, vicar-general for fifteen years, and Rev. College, Wexford; made his ecclesiastical studies J.J. Callan stand out prominently. The Very Rev. C. at All Hallows College, Dublin, and was ordained on M. Lynch, vicar-general and pastor of St. Patrick's, 11 June, 1876. He came to California the same year Grass Valley, who figured largely since 1864 in the by the way of the Isthmus of Panama in company with pioneer work, chiefly in the mining country, died on Fathers M. Coleman, L. Kennedy, V.G., and J.J.Claire. 29 Sept., 1911. The site of the first permanent church He was rector at Marysville for eight years, pastor at Sacramento was given by the Ĝovernor of Cali- at Sacramento (1881-96), and was consecrated bishop fornia, Peter H. Burnett, a devout convert and a on 16 June, 1896, in the Cathedral of the Blessed brilliant lawyer. The early mission centres were Sacrament, Sacramento. chiefly in the gold and silver regions. The rich pas- Statistics.—The diocese was incorporated on 24 Nov., ture, timber, "fruit, and agricultural lands began 1897. Its legal title is “The Roman Catholic Diolater to attract settlers, until these at present form cese of Sacramento"; the bishop is the corporation the most populous parts of the diocese. The Rev. sole; 53 priests are from Ireland, 3 from Italy, 2 Eugene O'Connell was chosen the first Vicar Apos- from Portugal, 3 German, and 2 American. All tolic of Marysville in 1861. Until that time the terri- Hallows College, Dublin, has supplied by far the largest tory was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of number of priests and continues to do so. In the San Francisco. Bishop O'Connell was born in June, episcopal city there are distinct parishes for Por1815, at Kingscourt, in the Diocese of Meath, Ire- tuguese, Italians, and Germans. Four priests minister land; he studied and was ordained in St. Patrick's at the cathedral. Nine Brothers of the Christian College, Maynooth, in June, 1842. He taught for Schools teach a primary and high school adjacent to several years in Navan seminary, which he left to the cathedral. The Sisters of Mercy conduct : direct a college at Santa Inez, California, in 1851, and primary school and academy. The Sisters of St. spent one year there. He was next sent to take charge Francis (Lewiston, New York) conduct two parochial of the theological seminary of St. Thomas near San schools. In all about 1100 children attend Catholic Francisco, where he remained three years. In 1854 schools in the city. The Notre Dame Sisters, Sisters he returned to Ireland, was dean and taught theology of the Holy Cross, Dominican Sisters, and Sisters in All Hallows College. From there he was con- of Mercy conduct schools in various parts of the secrated titular Bishop of Flaviopolis and Vicar diocese.. The Sisters of Mercy also conduct a home Apostolic of Marysville by Cardinal Cullen at for destitute children at Sacramento, a home for the Dublin, 3 February, 1861. He was installed at St. aged, and a hospital for 75 patients, with a training Joseph's Pro-Cathedral, Marysville, by Archbishop school for nurses attached; the classes contain 36 at Alemany, 28 March, 1862.

present. At Grass Valley they have two orphanages Pius IX formed the vicariate into the Diocese of providing for 100 boys and 123 girls. The State Grass Valley (VALLISPRATENSIS) on 29 March, 1868. makes an allowance for each orphan and half orphan. Bent with work and care the learned and apostolic The state prison at Folsom has a priest for chaplain. prelate of Marysville resigned his see, 17 March, 1884, The largest towns in the diocese are Sacramento, was appointed titular Bishop of Joppa, and retired which has 12 priests and a population, including to the hospital of the Sisters of Charity in Los Angeles suburbs, of 56,000; Eureka, 2 churches and 2 priests, where he died, 4 December, 1891. His remains lie population, 11,845; Marysville, 2 priests and i in Calvary Cemetery, Los Angeles. The Rev. church, 5430; Grass Valley, 1 church and 1 priest, Patrick Manogue, then pastor of Virginia City, 6250; Reno, 1 church and 1 priest, 10,867; Chico, i Nevada, was appointed coadjutor and titular Bishop priest and 1 church, 11,775. A Catholic weekly of Ceramos, and was consecrated, 16 January, 1881, paper is published at Sacramento. A public library in St. Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco, by Arch- is attached to the cathedral, and works in conjuncbishop J. S. Alemany. He was born in 1831 at tion with the state and city libraries. A clerical aid Desart, Kilkenny, Ireland, of a family that numbered fund helps to maintain infirm and aged priests. The many 'distinguished ecclesiastics. He received his Friars Minor (St. Louis province) have a church early education at Callan, came to the United States at Sacramento. Annual collections are made for and settled in New England, and later engaged in Indian and negro missions, orphanages, the Catholic mining in California. After some years he returned University, Peterspence, and Holy Land shrines. The to St. Mary's of the Lake, Chicago, to prepare for Priests' Eucharistic League meets annually at the


Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament. The priests may be taken as characteristic documents. Nor make a retreat every year at the House of Retreats, was it otherwise with the more conservative of the Grass Valley. The following confraternities are in reformed bodies of the sixteenth century. Martin the diocese: Men's Sodality of the B. V. M.; Wom- Luther's Catechism, the Augsburg, and later the en's Sodality of the B. V. M.; Holy Angels; and Westminster, Confessions are strongly sacramental the Holy Childhood; St. Aloysius Society; Altar in their toné, putting to shame the degenerate folSocieties; Apostleship of Prayer; Catholic Truth lowers of those who compiled them"(ibid., p. 7, 8). Society; Catholic Ladies' Aid Society; Young (2) Why the sacramental system is most appropriate. Ladies' Institute; Young Men's Institute; Catholic —The reasons underlying a sacramental system are Library Association; and Knights of Columbus. as follows: (a) Taking the word "sacrament" in its The growth of the Catholic population is steady. broadest sense, as the sign of something sacred and Converts are many.

hidden (the Greek word is "mystery'), we can say SHEA, The Hierarchy of the Cath. Church in the U. S. (New that the whole world is a vast sacramental system, York, 1886); SHEA, Hist. of the Cath. Church in the United in that material things are unto men the signs of Lites of American Prelates in Mem. Vol. 3rd Plenary Council things spiritual and sacred, even of the Divinity. (Baltimore, 1885); Sacramento Union, files; Catholic Herald “The heavens shew forth the glory of God, and the (Sacramento, 26 Dec., 1908); Monitor (San Francisco, 16 July, 1910); Statistics of Population of California, compiled for the

firmament declareth the work of his hands"(Ps. use of the Legislature (1911); Missiones Catholicæ (Rome, 1901). xviii, 2). “The invisible things of him si. e. God),

JOHN HENRY ELLIS. from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being

understood by the things that are made; his eternal Sacraments, outward signs of inward grace, insti- power also, and divinity” (Rom., i, 20). (b) The tuted by Christ for our sanctification (Catechismus redemption of man was not accomplished in an inconcil. Trident., II, n. 4, ex S. Aug. “De catechi- visible manner, God renewed, through the Patriarchs zandis rudibus"). The subject may be treated and the Prophets, the promise of salvation made under the following headings: (I) The necessity to the first man; external symbols were used to express and the nature of a sacramental system. (II) The faith in the promised Redeemer: "all these things nature of the sacraments of the new law. (III) The happened to them (the Israelites) in figure” (1 Cor., origin (cause) of the sacraments. (IV) The number x, 11; Heb., x, 1). "So we also, when we were chilof the sacraments. (V) The effects of the sacraments. dren, were serving under the elements of the world. (VI) The minister of the sacraments. (VII) The But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent recipient (subject) of the sacraments.

his Son, made of a woman" (Gal., iv, 3, 4). The I. NECESSITY AND NATURE. (1) In what sense Incarnation took place because God dealt with men necessary.--Almighty God can and does give grace in the manner that was best suited to their nature. to men in answer to their internal aspirations and (c) The Church established by the Saviour was to prayers without the use of any external sign or cere- be a visible organization (see CHURCH: The Visibility mony. This will always be possible, because God, of the Church): consequently it should have extergrace, and the soul are spiritual beings. God is not nal ceremonies and symbols of things sacred. (d) restricted to the use of material, visible symbols in The principal reason for a sacramental system is dealing with men; the sacraments are not necessary found in man. It is the nature of man, writes St. in the sense that they could not have been dispensed Thomas (III, Q. lxi, a. 1), to be led by things corporeal with. But, if it be shown that God has appointed and sense-perceptible to things spiritual and intelliexternal, visible ceremonies as the means by which gible; now Divine Providence provides for everything certain graces are to be conferred on men, then in in accordance with its nature (secundum modum suce order to obtain those graces it will be necessary for conditionis); therefore it was fitting that Divine men to make use of those Divinely appointed means. Wisdom should provide means of salvation for men This truth theologians express by saying that the in the form of certain corporeal and sensible signs sacraments are necessary, not absolutely but only which are called sacraments. (For other reasons hypothetically, i. e., in the supposition that if we wish see Catech. Conc. Trid., II, n. 14.) to obtain a certain supernatural end we must use the (3) Existence of sacred symbols. (a) No_sacrasupernatural means appointed for obtaining that ments in state of innocence.—According to St. Thomas end. In this sense the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, (I. c., a. 2) and theologians generally there were no can. 4) declared heretical those who assert that the sacraments before Adam sinned, i. e., in the state sacraments of the New Law are superfluous and not of original justice. Man's dignity, was so great that necessary, although all are not necessary for each he was raised above the natural condition of human individual. It is the teaching of the Catholic Church nature. His mind was subject to God; his lower and of Christians in general that, whilst God was faculties were subject to the higher part of his mind; nowise bound to make use of external ceremonies his body was subject to his soul; it would have been as symbols of things spiritual and sacred, it has against the dignity of that state had he been depenpleased Him to do so, and this is the ordinary and dent, for the acquisition of knowledge or of Divine most suitable manner of dealing with men. Writers grace, on anything beneath him, i. e. corporeal on the sacraments refer to this as the necessitas con things. For this reason the majority of theologiang venientiæ, the necessity of suitableness. It is not hold that no sacraments would have been instituted really a necessity, but the most appropriate manner even if that state had lasted for a long time. of dealing with creatures that are at the same (b) Sacraments of the law of nature.- Apart from time spiritual and corporeal. In this assertion all what was or might have been in that extraordinary Christians are united: it is only when we come to state, the use of sacred symbols is universal. St. consider the nature of the sacramental signs that Augustine says that every religion, true or false, has Protestants (except some Anglicans) differ from Catho- its visible signs or sacraments. "In nullum nomen lics. “To sacraments considered merely as outward religionis, seu verum seu falsum, coadunari homines forms, pictorial representations or symbolic acts, possunt, nisi aliquo signaculorum seu sacramentorum there is generally no objection", wrote Dr. Morgan visibilium consortio colligantur” (Cont. Faust., Dix ("The Sacramental System”, New York, 1902, XIX, xi). Commentators on the Scriptures and theop. 46). "Of sacramental doctrine this may be truly logians almost unanimously assert that there were said, that it is co-extensive with historic christianity. sacraments under the law of nature and under the Of this there is no reasonable doubt, as regards the Mosaic Law, as there are sacraments of greater digvery ancient days, of which St. Chrysostom's treatise nity under the Law of Christ. Under the law of nature on the priesthood and St. Cyril's catechetical lectures so called not to exclude supernatural revelation but because at that time there existed no written (2) The ceremonies which consisted in the use of supernatural law-salvation was granted through things pertaining to the service of God, i. e. (a) faith in the promised Redeemer, and men expressed the paschal lamb for all the people, and (b) the loaves that faith by some external signs. What those of proposition for the ministers. (3) The ceremonies signs should be God did not determine, leaving this of purification from legal contamination, i. e. (a) to the people, most probably to the leaders or heads for the people, various expiations, (b) for the priests, of families, who were guided in their choice by an the washing of hands and feet, the shaving of the head, interior inspiration of the Holy Ghost. This is the etc. St. Augustine says the sacraments of the Old conception of St. Thomas, who says that, as under Law were abolished because they had been fulfilled the law of nature (when there was no written law), (cf. Matt., v, 17), and others have been instituted men were guided by interior inspiration in worshiping which are more efficacious, more useful, easier to God, so also they determined what signs should be administer and to receive, fewer in number (“virtute used in the external acts of worship (III, Q. lx, a. 5, majora, utilitate meliora, actu faciliora, numero pauad 3um). Afterwards, however, as it was necessary to ciora”, Cont. Faust., XIX, xiii). The Council of Trent give a written law: (a) because the law of nature had condemns those who say that there is no difference been obscured by sin, and (b) because it was time to except in the outward rite between the sacraments of give a more explicit knowledge of the grace of Christ, the Old Law and those of the New Law (Sesa. then also it became necessary to determine what VII, can. ii), The Decree for the Armenians, pub external signs should be used as sacraments (ibid., and lished by order of the Council of Florence, says that Q. Ixi, a. 3, ad 2um). This was not necessary imme- the sacraments of the Old Law did not confer grace, diately after the Fall, by reason of the fullness of faith but only prefigured the grace which was to be given and knowledge imparted to Adam. But about the by the Passion of Christ. This means that they time of Abraham, when faith had been weakened, did not give grace of themselves (i. e. ex opere operato) many had fallen into idolatry, and the light of reason but only by reason of the faith in Christ which they had been obscured by indulgence of the passions, represented—"ex fide significata, non ex circumcieven unto the commission of sins against nature, God sione significante” (St. Thomas, loc. cit.). intervened and appointed as a sign of faith the rite II. NATURE OF THE SACRAMENTS OF THE NEW of circumcision (Gen., xvii; St. Thomas, III, Q. Ixx, LAW.—(1) Definition of a sacrament. The sacraa. 2, ad lum; see CIRCUMCISION).


ments thus far considered were merely signs of sacred The vast majority of theologians teach that this things. According to the teaching of_the Catholic ceremony was a sacrament and that it was instituted Church, accepted to-day by many Episcopalians, as a remedy for original sin; consequently that it the sacraments of the Christian dispensation are not conferred grace, not indeed of itself (ex opere operato), mere signs; they do not merely signify Divine grace, but by reason of the faith in Christ which it ex- but in virtue of their Divine institution, they cause pressed. “In circumcisione conferebatur gratia, non that grace in the souls of men. "Signum sacro sancex virtute circumcisionis, sed ex virtute fidei pas- tum efficax gratiæ"- -a sacrosanct sigri producing sionis Christi futuræ, cujus signum erat circumcisio grace, is a good, succinct definition of a sacrament -quia scilicet justitia erat ex fide significata, non ex

of the New Law. Sacrament, in its broadest accepcircumcisione significante” (St. Thomas, III, Q. tation, may be defined as an external sign of some lxx, a. 4). Certainly it was at least a sign of some thing sacred. In the twelfth century Peter Lombard thing sacred, and it was appointed and determined by (d. 1164), known as the Master of the Sentences, God himself as a sign of faith and as a mark by which author of the first manual of systematized theology, the faithful were distinguished from unbelievers. gave an accurate definition of a sacrament of the New It was not, however, the only sign of faith used under Law: A sacrament is in such a manner an outward the law of nature. It is incredible, writes St. Augus- sign of inward grace that it bears its image (i. e. tine, that before circumcision there was no sacrament signifies or represents it) and is its cause "Sacrafor the relief (justification) of children, although for mentum proprie dicitur quod ita signum est gratiæ some good reason the Scriptures do not tell us what Dei, et invisibilis gratiæ forma, ut ipsius imaginem that sacrament was (Cont. Jul., III, xi). The sacri- gerat et causa existat” (IV Sent., d. I, n. 2). This fice of Melchisedech, the sacrifice of the friends of definition was adopted and perfected by the medieval Job, the various tithes and oblations for the service Scholastics. From St. Thomas we have the short of God are mentioned by St. Thomas (III, Q. Ixi, a. but very expressive definition: The sign of a sacred 3, ad 3um; Q. lxv, a. 1, ad 7um) as external obsery- thing in so far as it sanctifies men—“Signum rei ances which may be considered as the sacred signs sacræ in quantum est sanctificans homines" (III, Q. of that time, prefiguring future sacred institutions: lx, a. 2). hence, he adds, they may be called sacraments of the 'All the creatures of the universe proclaim somelaw of nature.

thing sacred, namely, the wisdom and the goodness (c) Sacraments of the Mosaic Law.-As the time of God, as they are sacred in themselves, not as they for Christ's coming drew nearer, in order that the are sacred things sanctifying men, hence they canIsraelites might be better instructed God spoke to not be called sacraments in the sense in which we Moses, revealing to him in detail the sacred signs and speak of sacraments (ibid., ad lum). The Council ceremonies by which they were to manifest more of Trent includes the substance of these two definiexplicitly their faith in the future Redeemer. Those tions in the following: “Symbolum rei sacræ, et insigns and ceremonies were the sacraments of the visibilis gratiæ forma visibilis, sanctificandi vim Mosaic Law, "which are compared to the sacraments habens" —A symbol of something sacred, a visible which were before the law as something determined form of invisible grace, having the power of to something undetermined, because before the law sanctifying (Sess. XIII, cap: 3). The “Catechism it had not been determined what signs men should of the Council of Trent” gives a more comuse” (St. Thomas, III, Q. lxi, a. 3, ad 2um). With plete definition: Something perceptible by the the Angelic Doctor (I-II, Q. cii, a. 5) theologians senses which by Divine institution has the power usually divide the sacraments of this period into both to signify and to effect sanctity and justice three classes: (1) The ceremonies by which men were (II, n. 2). Catholic catechisms in English usually made and signed as worshippers or ministers of God. have the following: An outward sign of inward grace, Thus we have (a) circumcision, instituted in the time a sacred and mysterious sign or ceremony, ordained of Abraham (Gen., xvii), renewed in the time of Moses by Christ, by which grace is conveyed to our souls. (Lev., xii, 3) for all the people; and (b) the sacred Anglican and Episcopalian theologies and catechisms rites by which the Levitical priests were consecrated. give definitions which Catholics could accept (see.


e. g. Mortimer, “Catholic Faith and Practice", tation through the merits of Christ, which will cover New York, 1905, part I, p. 120).

his soul as a cloak, there is no place for signs that cause In every sacrament three things are necessary: grace, and those used can have no other purpose the outward sign; the inward grace; Divine institu- than to excite faith in the Saviour. Luther's contion. A sign stands for and represents something venient doctrine on justification was not adopted by else, either naturally, as smoke represents fire, or all his followers and it is not baldly and boldly proby the choice of an intelligent being, as the red cross claimed by all Protestants to-day: nevertheless they indicates an ambulance. Sacraments do not natu- accept its consequences affecting the true notion of rally signify grace; they do so because they have been the sacraments. chosen by God to signify mysterious effects. Yet (3) Catholic Doctrine.- Against all innovators the they are not altogether arbitrary, because in some, Council of Trent declared: “If any one say that cases, if not in all, the ceremonies performed have a the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the quasi-natural connexion with the effect to be produced. grace which they signify, or that they do not confer Thus, pouring water on the head of a child readily grace on those who place no obstacle to the same, let brings to mind the interior purification of the soul. him be anathema" (Sess. viii, can. vi). “If any one The word "sacrament" (sacramentum), even as used say that grace is not conferred by the sacraments ex by profane Latin writers, signified something sacred, opere operato, but that faith in God's promises is alone viz., the oath by which soldiers were bound, or the sufficient for obtaining grace, let him be anathema" money deposited by litigants in a contest. In the (ibid., can. viii; cf.can. iv, v, vii). The phrase "ex opere writings of the Fathers of the Church the word was operato", for which there is no equivalent in English, used to signify something sacred and mysterious, probably was used for the first time by Peter of Poiand where the Latins use sacramentum the Greeks tiers (d. 1205), and afterwards by Innocent III (d. use uvOTTPLOV (mystery). The sacred and mysterious 1216; de myst. missæ, III, v), and by St. Thomas (d. thing signified is Divine grace, which is the formal 1274; IV Sent., dist. 1, Q. i, a. 5). It was happily incause of our justification (see GRACE), but with it we vented to express a truth that had always been taught must associate the Passion of Christ (efficient and and had been introduced without objection. It is meritorious cause) and the end (final cause) of our not an elegant formula but, as St. Augustine remarks sanctification, viz., eternal life. The significance of (In Ps. cxxxviii): It is better that grammarians should the sacraments according to theologians (e. g; St. object than that the people should not understand. Thomas, III, Q. lx, a. 3) and the Roman Catechism “Ex opere operato”, i.e. by virtue of the action, means (II, n. 13) extends to these three sacred things, of that the efficacy of the action of the sacraments does which one is past, one present, and one future. The not depend on anything human, but solely on the will three are aptly expressed in St. Thomas's beautiful of God as expressed by Christ's institution and promise. antiphon on the Eucharist: "O sacrum convivium, “Ex opere operantis”, i.e. by reason of the agent, would in quo Christus sumitur, recolitur memoria passionis mean that the action of the sacraments depended on ejus, mens impletur gratia, et futuræ gloriæ nobis the worthiness either of the minister or of the recipient pignus daturo sacred banquet, in which Christ (see Pourrat, "Theology of the Sacraments”, tr., St. is received, the memory of the passion is recalled, Louis, 1910, 162 sqq.). Protestants cannot in good the soul is filled with grace, and a pledge of future lifé faith object to the phrase as if it meant that the mere is given to us".

outward ceremony, apart from God's action, causes (2) Errors of Protestants.- Protestants generally grace. It is well known that Catholics teach that the hold that the sacraments are signs of something sacraments are only the instrumental, not the princisacred (grace and faith), but deny that they really pal, causes of grace. Neither can it be claimed that cause Divine grace. Episcopalians, however, and the phrase adopted by the council does away with all Anglicans, especially the Ritualists, hold with Catho- dispositions necessary on the part of the recipient, the lics that the sacraments are “effectual signs" of sacraments acting like infallible charms causing grace grace. In article XXV of the Westminster Confes- in those who are ill-disposed or in grievous sin. The sion we read: “Sacraments ordained of God be not fathers of the council were careful to note that there only badges or tokens of Christian men's

profession, must be no obstacle to grace on the part of the re but rather they be certain sure witnesses and effectual cipients, who must receive them rite, i. e. rightly and signs of grace and God's good will towards us by worthily; and they declare it a calumny to assert that which He doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only they require no previous dispositions (Sess. XIV, de quicken but strengthen and confirm our faith in Him pænit., cap. 4). Dispositions are required to pre(cf. art. XXVII). “The Zwinglian theory”, writes pare the subject, but they are a condition (conditio Morgan Dix (op. cit., p. 73), "that sacraments are sine qua non), not the causes, of the grace conferred. nothing but memorials of Christ and badges of Chris- In this case the sacraments differ from the sacramentian profession, is one that can by no possible jugglery tals, which may cause grace ex opere operantis, i. e. with the English tongue be reconciled with the for- by reason of the prayers of the Church or the good, mularies of our church." Mortimer adopts and pious sentiments of those who use them (see SACRAexplains the Catholic formula "ex opere operato” MENTALS). (loc. cit., p. 122). Luther and his early followers (4) Proofs of the Catholic Doctrine.-In examining rejected this conception of the sacraments. They do proofs of the Catholic doctrine it must be borne in not cause grace, but are merely "signs and testimo- mind that our rule of faith is not simply Scripture, nies of God's good will towards us” (Augsburg Confes- but Scripture and tradition. (a) In Sacred Scripsions); they excite faith, and faith (fiduciary) causes ture we find expressions which clearly indicate that justification. Calvinists and Presbyterians hold the sacraments are more than mere signs of grace and substantially the same doctrine. Zwinglius lowered faith: “Unless a man be born again of water and the still further the dignity of the sacraments, making Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of them signs not of God's fidelity but of our fidelity. God” (John, iii, 5); “He saved us, by the laver of By receiving the sacraments we manifest faith in regeneration, and renovation of the Holy Ghost" Christ: they are merely the badges of our profession (Tit., iii, 5); Then

they laid their hands upon them, and the pledges of our fidelity. Fundamentally and they received the Holy Ghost” (Acts, viii

, 17); all these errors arise from Luther's newly-invented “He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, theory of righteousness, i, e. the doctrine of justi- hath everlasting life : . For my flesh is meat indeed: fication by faith alone (see GRACE). If man is to be and my blood is drink indeed” (John, vi, 55, 56). sanctified not by an interior renovation through grace These and similar expressions (see articles on each which will blot out his sins, but by an extrinsic impu- sacrament) are, to say the least, very much exaggerated if they do not mean that the sacramental cere- more important element in the composition, because mony is in some sense the cause of the grace conferred. men express their thoughts and intentions principally (b) Tradition clearly indicates the sense in which by words. "Verba inter homines obtinuerunt printhey have been interpreted in the Church. From cipatum significandi” (St. Augustine, “De doct. the numerous expressions used by the Fathers we christ.", II, iii; St. Thomas, III, Q. Ix, a. 6). It must select the following: “The Holy Ghost comes down not be supposed that the things used for the acts perfrom heaven and hovers over the waters, sanctifying formed, for they are included in the res, remarks them of Himself, and thus they imbibe the power of St. Thomas (loc. cit., ad 2um) have no significance. sanctifying" (Tertullian, De bapt., c. iv.). "Baptism They too may be symbolical, é. g. anointing the body is the expiation of sins, the remission of crimes, the with oil relates to health; but their significance is cause of renovation and regeneration”. (St. Gregory clearly determined by the words. “In all the comof Nyssa, "Orat. in Bapt."). “Explain to me the pounds of matter and form the determining element is manner of nativity in the flesh and I will explain to the form” (St. Thomas, loc. cit., a. 7). you the regeneration of the soul . . . Throughout, The terminology was somewhat new, the doctrine by Divine power and efficacy, it is incomprehensible: was old: the same truth had been expressed in former no reasoning, no art can explain it” (ibid.). “He that times in different words. Sometimes the form of the passes through the fountain (baptism) shall not die sacrament meant the whole external rite (St. Augusbut rises to new life” (St. Ambrose, De sacr., I, iv). tine, “De pecc. et mer.", xxxiv; Conc. Milev., De “Whence this great power of water", exclaims St. bapt.). What we call the matter and form were reAugustine, "that it touches the body and cleanses the ferred to as “mystic symbols”; “the sign and the thing soul?” (Tr. 80 in Joann). "Baptism”, writes the invisible"; "the word and the element” (St. Augussame Father, “consists not in the merits of those tine, tr. 80 in Joann.). The new terminology immeby whom it is administered, nor of those to whom diately found favour. It was solemnly ratified by it is administered, but in its own sanctity and being used in the Decree for the Armenians, which was truth, on account of Him who instituted it" (Cont. added to the Decrees of the Council of Florence, yet Cres., IV). The doctrine solemnly defined by the has not the value of a conciliar definition (see DenCouncil of Trent had been announced in previous zinger-Bannwart, 695; Hurter, “Theol. dog. comp.' councils

, notably at Constantinople (381; Symb. Fid.), I, 441; Pourrat, op. cit., p. 51). The Council of Trent at Mileve (416; can. ii) in the Second Council of used the words matter and form (Sess. XIV, cap. ii, Orange (529; can. xv); and in the Council of Florence iii, can. iv), but did not define that the sacramental (1439; Decr. pro. Armen., see Denzinger-Bannwart, rite was composed of these two elements. Leo XIII, nn. 86, 102, 200, 695). The early Anglican Church in the "Apostolicæ Cura" (13 Sept., 1896) made the held fast to the true doctrine: "Baptism is not only Scholastic theory the basis of his declaration, and pro a sign of profession and a mark of difference, whereby nounced ordinations performed according to the anchristened men are discerned from those that be not cient Anglican rite invalid, owing to a defect in the christened, but is also a sign of regeneration or New- form used and a lack of the necessary intention on Birth, whereby as by an instrument they that receive the part of the ministers. The hylomorphistic theory Baptism rightly are grafted into the church” (Art. furnishes a very apt comparison and sheds much light XXVII).

on our conception of the external ceremony. Never(c) Theological Argument.—The Westminster theless our knowledge of the sacraments is not dependConfession adds: “The Baptism of children is in any ent on this Scholastic terminology, and the comparison wise to be retained in the church as most agreeable must not be carried too far. The attempt to verify with the institution of Christ." If baptism does not the comparison (of sacraments to a body) in all deconfer grace ex opere operato, but simply excites faith, tails of the sacramental rite will lead to confusing then we may ask: (1) Of what use would this be if the subtilities or to singular opinions, e. g., Melchior language used be not understood by the recipient, i. e. Cano's (De locis theol., VIII, v, 3) opinion as to the an infant or an adult that does not understand Latin? minister of matrimony (see MARRIAGE ; cf. Pourrat, In such cases it might be more beneficial to the by- op. cit., ii). standers than to the one baptized. (2) In what does III. Origin (CAUSE) OF THE SACRAMENTS.—It the baptism of Christ surpass the baptism of John, might now be asked: in how far was it necessary that for the latter could excite faith? Why were those the matter and form of the sacraments should have baptized by the baptism of John rebaptized with the been determined by Christ? (1) Power of God.baptism of Christ? (Acts, xix). (3) How can it be The Council of Trent defined that the seven sacrasaid that baptism is strictly necessary for salvation ments of the New Law were instituted by Christ since faith can be excited and expressed in many other (Sess. VII, can. i). This settles the question of fact ways? Finally Episcopalians and Anglicans of to- for all Catholics. Reason tells us that all sacraments day would not revert to the doctrine of grace ex opere must come originally from God. Since they are the operato unless they were convinced that the ancient signs of sacred things in as far as by these sacred faith was warranted by Scripture and Tradition. things men are sanctified (St. Thomas, III, Q. Ix, a. 2

(5) Matter and Form of the Sacraments.-Scho- c. et ad I); since the external rite (matter and form) lastic writers of the thirteenth century introduced into of itself cannot give grace, it is evident that all sacratheir explanations of the sacraments terms which were ments properly so called must originate in Divine derived from the philosophy of Aristotle. William appointment. “Since the sanctification of man is of Auxerre (d. 1223) was the first to apply to them the in the power of God who sanctifies”, writes St. words matter (materia) and form (forma). As in Thomas (loc. cit., a. 5), “it is not in the competency physical bodies, so also in the sacramental rite we find of man to choose the things by which he is to be sanctwo elements, one undetermined, which is called the tified, but this must be determined by Divine instimatter, the other determining, called the form. For tution”. Add to this that grace is, in some sense, a instance, water may be used for drinking, or for cool- participation of the Divine nature (see GRACE) and ing or cleansing the body, but the words pronounced our doctrine becomes unassailable: God alone can by the minister when he pours water on the head of decree that by exterior ceremonies men shall be parthe child, with the intention of doing what the Church takers of His nature. does, determines the meaning of the act, so that it (2) Power of Christ.—God alone is the principal signifies the purification of the soul by grace. The cause of the sacraments. He alone authoritatively matter and form (the res et verba) make up the exter- and by innate power can give to external material nal rite, which has its special significance and efficacy rites the power to confer grace on men. Christ as from the institution of Christ. The words are the God, equally with the Father, possessed this principal,

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