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VII. RECIPIENT OF THE SACRAMENTS.—When all erly disposed; and the sacrament is said to be validum conditions required by Divine and ecclesiastical law sed informe, --valid, but lacking its proper form, i. e. are complied with, the sacrament is received validly grace or charity (see LOVE). Can such a person reand licitly. If all conditions required for the essential cover or receive the effects of the sacraments? The rite are observed, on the part of the minister, the re- term reviviscence (reviviscentia) is not used by St. cipient, the matter and form, but some non-essential Thomas in reference to the sacraments and it is not condition is not complied with by the recipient, the strictly correct because the effects in question being sacrament is received validly but not licitly; and if the impeded by the obstacle, were not once “living condition wilfully neglected be grave, grace is not then (cf. Billot, op. cit., 98, note). The expression which conferred by the ceremony. Thus baptized persons he uses (III, Q. lxix, a. 10), viz., obtaining the contracting matrimony whilst they are in the state of effects after the obstacle has been removed, is more mortal sin would be validly (i. e. really) married, but accurate, though not so convenient as the newer term. would not then receive sanctifying grace.
(a) Theologians generally hold that the question (1) Conditions for Valid Reception.-(a) The pre- does not apply to penance and the Holy Eucharist. vious reception of baptism (by water) is an essential If the penitent be not sufficiently disposed to receive condition for the valid reception of any other sacra- grace at the time he confesses his sins the sacrament is ment. Only citizens and members of the Church not validly received because the acts of the penitent can come under her influence as such; baptism is the are a necessary part of the matter of this sacrament, door by which we enter the Church and thereby be- or a necessary condition for its reception. One who come members of a mystical body united to Christ unworthily receives the Eucharist can derive no beneour head (Catech. Trid., de bapt., nn. 5, 52). (b) fit from that sacrament unless, perhaps, he repent of In adults, for the valid reception of any sacrament ex- his sins and sacrilege before the sacred species have cept the Eucharist, it is necessary that they have the been destroyed. Cases that may occur relate to the intention of receiving it. The sacraments impose five other sacraments., (b) It is certain and admitted obligations and confer grace: Christ does not wish to by all, that if baptism be received by an adult who is impose those obligations or confer grace without the in the state of mortal sin, he can afterwards receive consent of man. The Eucharist is excepted because, the graces of the sacrament, viz. when the obstacle in whatever state the recipient may be, it is always the is removed by contrition or by the sacrament of body and blood of Christ (see INTENTION; cf. Pourrat, Penance. On the one hand the sacraments always op. cit., 392). (c) For attention, see supra, VI, 6. produce grace unless there be an obstacle; on the other By the intention man submits himself to the opera- hand those graces are necessary, and yet the sacration of the sacraments which produce their effects ment can not be repeated. St. Thomas (III. Q, Ixix, ex opere operato, hence attention is not necessary for a. 10) and theologians find a special reason for the conthe valid reception of the sacraments. One who ferring of the effects of baptism (when the "fiction" might be distracted, even voluntarily, during the con- has been removed) in the permanent character which ferring, e. g. of baptism, would receive the sacrament is impressed by the sacrament validly administered. validly. It must be carefully noted, however, that Reasoning from analogy they hold the same with in the case of matrimony the contracting parties are regard to confirmation and Holy orders, noting howthe ministers as well as the recipients of the sacra- ever that the graces to be received are not so necessary ments; and in the sacrament of Penance, the acts of as those conferred by baptism. the penitent, contrition, confession, and willingness (c) The doctrine is not so certain when applied to to accept a penance in satisfaction, constitute the matrimony and extreme unction. But since the proximate matter of the sacraments, according to the graces impeded are very important though not strictly commonly received opinion. Hence in those cases necessary, and since matrimony cannot be received such attention is required as is necessary for the valid again whilst both contracting parties are living, and application of the matter and form.
extreme unction cannot be repeated whilst the same (2) Conditions for the Licit Reception.-(a). For the danger of death lasts, theologians adopt as more problicit reception, besides the intention and the atten- able the opinion which holds that God will grant the tion, in adults there is required (1) for the sacraments graces of those sacraments when the obstacle is reof the dead, supernatural attrition, which presupposes moved. The “reviviscence" of the effects of sacraacts of faith, hope, and repentence (see ATTRITION ments received validly but with an obstacle to grace and JUSTIFICATION); (2) for the sacraments of the at the time of their reception, is urged as a strong living the state of grace, Knowingly to receive a argument against the system of the physical causality sacrament of the living whilst one is in the state of of grace (supra, V, 2), especially by Billot (op. cit., mortal sin would be a sacrilege. (b) For the licit re- thesis, VII, 116, 126). For his own system he claims ception it is also necessary to observe all that is pre- the merit of establishing an invariable mode of causscribed by Divine or ecclesiastical law, e. g. as to ality, namely, that in every case by the sacrament time, place, the minister, etc. As the Church alone validly received there is conferred a "title exigent of has the care of the sacraments and generally her duly grace". If there be no obstacle the grace is conferred appointed agents alone have the right to administer then and there: if there be an obstacle the "title" them, except baptism in some cases, and matrimony remains calling for the grace which will be conferred (supra VI, 2), it is a general law that application for as soon as the obstacle is removed (op.cit., th. VI, VII). the sacraments should be made to worthy and duly To this bis opponents reply that exceptional cases appointed ministers. (For exceptions see Excom- might well call for an exceptional mode of causality. MUNICATION.)
In the case of three sacraments the character suffi(3) Reviviscence of the Sacraments.—Much atten- ciently explains the revival of effects (cf. St. Thomas, tion has been given by theologians, especially recently, III, Q. 66, a. 1;Q.3, Q. 66, a. lxix, aa. 9, 10). The to the revival of effects which were impeded at the doctrine as applied to extreme unction and matritime when a sacrament was received. The question mony, is not certain enough to furnish a strong arguarises whenever a sacrament is received validly but ment for or against any system (see "Irish. Theol. unworthily, i. e. with an obstacle which prevents the Record”; “Amer. Eccl. Review”, cited above V, 2). infusion of Divine grace. The obstacle (mortal sin) Future efforts of theologians may dispel the obscurity is positive, when it is known and voluntary, or nega- and uncertainty now prevailing in this interesting tive, when it is involuntary by reason of ignorance or chapter. good faith. One who thus receives a sacrament is Literature on the sacraments is very extensive: we can give said to receive it feignedly, or falsely (ficte), because only a few of the most important or most interesting works on
the sacraments in general. (For each sacrament see special by the very act of receiving it he pretends to be prop- articles.)
Official declarations of Catholic doctrine are found principally upon the constitutions of St. Ignatius based upon the Trent. Other authentic
declarations are given by DENZINGER- Rule of Saint Augustine. Its members bind themBANNWART, Enchiridion symbolarum (11th ed., Freiburg, 1911). selves for life by the simple vows of religion. There are The Catechismus ex decr. Conc. Trid. ad Parochos, quasi-official, no priests in the congregation, the objective purpose Eng. tr. by DONOVAN, Catechism of the Council of Trent (New of which is the Christian education of boys in asylums, Le catéchisme romain (Montrejeau, 1906 sq.) is a mine of informa- parochial and select schools, and commercial colleges. tion. On this see DOCTRINE, CHRISTIAN ROMAN CATECHISM. The growth of the congregation was slow. At the For definitions, Polman, Breviarium theologicum (Milan, 1883) is period of its origin the political condition of France unsurpassed.
PATRISTIC AGE.-JUSTIN, I Apologia, xxix, and Sr. IGNATIUS, was very unfavourable. It was a day of political Ep. ad Smyr., treat especially of baptism and the Eucharist; agitation and revolution. Lyons, the cradle of the IDEM, In Matt.; IDEM, In Joan.; "Sr. CYRIL OF JERUSALEM, congregation, suffered sorely in these revolutions. Catech. mystag., iv, 3, 7, 9; Sr. BASIL, In Matt.; ST. GREGORY But a more hampering difficulty to its growth lay in NAZIANZUS, Orat., xl
, 8; Sr. CYPRIAN, Epist., lxx; TERTULLIAN, the ill-defined government imposed upon the congrega. De bapt., 1; IDEM, Adr. Marc., IV, xxxiv; ST. CHRYSOSTOM, tion. Père André Coindre was the superior-general Hom. in Matt. lxxxii, 2, 4; Sr. AMBROSE, De Spir. Sancto, I, kxxxviii; IDEM, De mysteriis, xix; and especially St. AUGUSTINE, and continued such till his death in 1821. Père De doct. christ., I, 1, 4; IDEM, De cio. Dei, X, v: IDEM, In Joann. Vincent Coindre, his brother, succeeded him in this tr. lxxx, 3; IDEM, Contr. Faustum, XX, xiii, laboured to explain
office. the notion of a sacrament, called "sacramentum" first by Tertullian, called "signum rei sacræ" by St. Augustine. On the In 1840 Père Coindre assembled the general chapter efficacy of the sacramental rite according to the Fathers see of the congregation. During the discussions of the above, II, (4), (b). Many other texts could be adduced, see works chapter, opinion among the brothers was unanimous
SCHOLASTIC PERIOD. ST. JOHN DAMASCENE, De fide orthodoxa, that it was necessary for the success of the congregaIV, xiii, and ST. ANSELM, De sacrm. divers., were the forerunners tion that its temporal affairs should be in the hands of the Scholastics. ST. PETER DAMIAN, Op. VI, serm. 69, and
of the brothers themselves, and that one of their numST. BERNARD, Serm. in Cæna Domini, accepted the word sacrament in a broad sense (see textbooks of theology, "De numero ber should be superior-general. The question was sacramentorum"); ABELARD, Introd. ad theol.; Sic et Non; but referred to Mgr de Bonald, Archbishop of Lyons, develop the conception of a sacrament. Peter
LOMBARD in his who, after an exhaustive examination, judged it adPourth Book of Sentences gave to Catholic doctrine the definite visable that Père Coindre_should resign the office. and accurate expressions which it has since retained (substan- On 13 Sept., 1841, Brother Polycarp was unanimously conciseness, clearness, and comprehensiveness has been unex- chosen by the brothers as their superior-general. He celled, in his Summa theol., III, Q. Ix sq.; and his Con. Gentes, reconstructed the government of the community and menians is a summary of a chapter of one of the Opuscula of this death in 1859, there were in France alone seventyIV, lvi sq. It is of interest to note that the Decree to the Ar gave it stability and permanency. At the time of his 1856). Contemporaneous with St. Thomas were ST. BONAVEN- three establishments, an increase of sixty during his TURE, Comm. in IV lib. Sent., and later DUNS SCOTUS, Comm. in
administration. He had, moreover, in 1846 opened IV lib. Sent. These theologians were followed by the great commentators: SALIMANTICENSES, Cursus theol. (18 vols., Paris, up in the United States, at Mobile, Ala., a new field 1880); CAJETAN; FERRARIENSIS; SUAREZ, De sacramentis; of labour for the institute. In 1872 the province of BELLARMINE, Controv. de sacram. in gen.; BILLUART, Summa de the United States extended its schools into Canada, most of our manuals of theology before the tract "De Sacra- and in 1880 transferred its novitiate from Indianapolis mentis in genere", e. 8., TANQUEREY, POHLE, etc.
to Arthabaskaville, P. Q., Canada. The growth of Other theological treatises on the Sacraments in general are: the congregation was here so rapid that it was deemed (Venice, 1737) MUSZKA, De sacr. novæ legis (Vienna, 1958); advisable to erect the
establishments in Canada into KATCHTHALER, Theol. dogm. specialis, IV (Ratisbon, 1884); a separate province. This was effected by a decree of FRANZELIN, De sacramentis in genere (Rome, 1888); DE AU- the general chapter of the society held at Paradis, GUSTINIS, De re sacramentaria (Rome, 1889); BILLOT, De eccl. sacr., I (Rome, 1907); Sasse, De sacr. eccl., I (Freiburg, 1897);
near Le Puy, France, in 1900. About the same time LAHOUSSE, De sacr. in genere (Bruges, 1900); PAQUET, De sacr., a house of studies for postulants and a novitiate for I (Quebec, 1900), NOLDIN, De sacr. (Innsbruck, 1901): CAPRE- the United States province were established at OLUS, Comm. in IV lib. Sent., JOHN OF ST. THOMAS, Theol
. de Metuchen, N. J. sact.; MARTÍNEZ DE PRADO, De sacrum, in genere; Gonet, De sacr. in communi; SYLVIUS, In 3 par, 8. Thomæ; JOCOBATUS, The congregation has at the present time (1907) in Doctr. dogm. de sacram.; GOTTI, De sacr.; DROUIN, De re sacram.; the United States and Canada forty-eight establishWIRCEBURGENSES, De sacramentis; TOURNELY, De sacramentis; ments directed by 460 brothers, educating more than
Schanz, Die Lehre non der Sakramenten der kath. Kirche (Frei- 9000 pupils. Just previous to the French Law of 1901, burg. 1893); Oswald, Die dogmatische Lehre von den
hl, Sakra- suppressing religious communities in France, there Theol., IX (Mainz, 1901); Gihr, Die hl. Sakramenten, 1 (Frei- were in that country alone 1100 brothers, 150 schools, burg, 1902), PROBST, Sacramenten und Sakramentalien in der academies, colleges, asylums, deaf and dumb instituersten drei Jahrhunderten (Tübingen, 1872); Hahn, Die Lehre tions, with 25,000 pupils, in twenty dioceses. Owing Wirksamkeit der Sakramenten ex opere operato (Munich, 1860); to the present religious persecution in France, the BACH, Die siebenzahl der sakramente (Ratisbon, 1864); HAAS, congregation has been obliged to seek new fields of Die nothwendige Intentionen des Ministers (Bamberg, 1903); labour, and twenty establishments have recently been BESSON, Les sacrements ou la grace de l'Homme-Dieu (Paris, 1876); founded in Spain and Belgium. HUGON, La causalité instrumentale (Paris, 1907), iv; MONSABRE, Sacraments in Exposition du dogme catholique (Paris, 1883).
BROTHER CHARLES. For historical treatises on the sacraments see the following: HAHN, Doctrinæ Romæ de numero sacr. septen. rationes historicæ
Sacred Heart Abbey. See OKLAHOMA. (Breslau, 1859, Protestant); JUENIN, De sacr. comment. his
Sacred Heart of Jesus. See HEART OF JESUS, toricus et dogmaticus; GRÖNE, Sacramentum oder Begriff und Bedeutung vom Sakrament in der alte Kirche bis zur scholastik DEVOTION TO THE. (Brilon, 1853); SCHMALZL, Die Sakramente des Aut. Test. (Eichstädt, 1883); SCHANZ, Der Begriff des Sakr, bei den Vaentern
Sacred Heart of Jesus, MISSIONARY SISTERS OF (Tübingen, 1891); MERLIN, Traité histor. et dogmat. sur les THE, a religious congregation having its general motherparoles ou les formes des sacr. de l'Eglise; CHARDON, Hist
. des house at Rome, founded in 1880 by
Mother Francis dogmes; Dict, 'd'arch. chrét. et de "Lit.; HEFELE, Hist, of the Xavier Cabrini, who is still living. The aim of the inCouncils : HARNACK, History of Dogma;
MOEHLER, Symbolism stitute is to spread devotion to the Heart of Jesus by (London, 1906). D. J. KENNEDY. means of the
practice of spiritual and corporal works Sacred College. See CARDINAL.
of mercy. The sisters conduct homes for the aged
and the sick, orphanages, industrial schools, sewing Sacred Congregations. See Roman CONGREGA- classes; they visit hospitals and prisons, and give reTIONS.
ligious instruction in their convents, which are open Sacred Heart, BROTHERS OF THE, a congregation to women desirous of making retreats. The congrefounded in 1821 by Père André Coindre, of the Diocese gation has spread rapidly in Europe and America. In of Lyons, France. Its constitutions were modelled 1899, at the suggestion of Leo XIII, the sisters came
New York, and have since opened convents in the Annals, its monthly bulletin, and conduct five missions Dioceses of Brooklyn, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and retreats. They also have a public chapel. Newark, Scranton, and Seattle. At the beginning of The novitiate for Canada and the States is at Beau1911 the institute had in the United States: 253 sis- port. The other Canadian communities are engaged ters; 11 schools with 4850 pupils; 6 orphanages with in parochial and missionary work. In England, 713 orphans; 2 hospitals with about 3520 patients an- besides Glastonbury, the Missionaries of the Sacred nually; and 1 dispensary where 21,630 persons were Heart have communities at St. Albans, Herfordshire, treated during the preceding years.
and at Braintree, Essex. They engage in parish This congregation is to be distinguished from the work and act as chaplains. Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, In the United States the Society has communities founded by Father Hubert Linckens, provincial of at Watertown, N. Y.; Natick, R. I.; Onawa, Iowa; the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart, Hiltrup, near Cazenovia and Sioux City, Wis., this last being Münster, on 3 August, 1899, and approved episco- a dependency of the German Province; the first pally in 1900. The latter sisters are engaged teach- four form an American Quasi-Province with heading in New Guiana, New Pomerania, and the Marshall quarters at Natick. In all these places the Fathers Islands, in the districts confided to the care of the have charge of parishes, except those at Sioux City, Missionaries of the Sacred Heart.
who preach missions, supply the places of absent A. A. MacERLEAN. priests, and assist the clergy. The Natick community
supplies chaplains to St. Joseph's Hospital for tuberSacred Heart of Jesus, MISSIONARIES OF THE cular patients at Hills Grove, and to the Rhode Island (Issoudun). -A religious congregation of priests and State charitable and correctional institutions at lay brothers with the object of promoting the knowl- Howard, Cranston, and Sackanosset. edge and practice of devotion to the Heart of Jesus, For the past quarter of a century the efforts of the as embodied in the revelations of Our Lord to Blessed Missionaries of the Sacred Heart have been expended Margaret Mary Alacoque, and of offering personal chiefly in foreign mission fields. On 1 Sept., 1881, reparation to the Divine Heart. The society's three Fathers set out from Barcelona for the South motto is, “Ametur ubique terrarum Cor Jesu Sacra- Sea Islands at the request of Leo XIII, and estissimum” (May the most Sacred Heart of Jesus be tablished a station in New Britain-now New loved everywhere). It was founded at Issoudun, Pomerania. To-day the priests and brothers doing in the Archdiocese of Bourges, France, by the Abbé missionary work in divers islands and archipelagoes Jules Chevalier. Until very recent years the mother- of the South Pacific number upward of 300, exclusive house was in the above-named town, but since the of the new mission lately opened in Mindanao, separation of Church and State in France the society Philippine Islands—where thirty or more apostolic has its headquarters in Rome. The origin of the labourers from the Dutch Province are already emMissionaries of the Sacred Heart is closely connected ployed—and the vast territory comprised in the diowith the Papal definition of the dogma of the Im- cese of Port Victoria and Palmerston, South Australia, maculate Conception of the B. V. M., the means to in charge of Father F. X. Gsell as Administrator lay their foundation being the outcome of special Apostolic, with residence at Port Darwin. The prayers addressed to the Mother of God during the Bishop of Ponso-Alegre has just entrusted the direcnine days preceding the great religious event of 8 tion of his episcopal college to the congregation. Dec., 1854. The founder had pledged himself to CHEVALIER, Le Sacré-Cæur de Jésus dans ses rapports aree honour the Blessed Virgin in a special manner. He re- Marie, ou Notre Dame du Sacré-Caur (Paris, 1884); VAUDON, deemed his promise the following year by erecting
Mgr Henry Verjus (Paris, 1899); CARRIÈRE, Le P. Tean Vandei (Issoudun, 1908);
societatis missionariorum SSmi a shrine dedicated to the honour of the Blessed
Cordis Jesu (Rome, 1911). Virgin under the title of "Our Lady of the Sacred
ZÉPHYRIN PÉLOQUIN. Heart".
In 1864 an association of prayer was founded which Sacred Heart of Jesus, SOCIETY OF THE (PAChas since been honoured with the official title of Uni- CANARISTS).
This society was founded by two young versal Archconfraternity of Our Lady of the Sacred seminarists of Saint-Sulpice who had emigrated to Heart, and enriched with numerous indulgences. Belgium during the French Revolution, FrançoisThe central governing body is at Rome, with local Eleonor de Tournély and Prince Charles de Broglie, directors in various countries. The official centre for a son of the marshal. Their object was to form a the United States is at Watertown, New York; those society similar in all respects to the order founded by for other English-speaking countries are at Glaston- St. Ignatius Loyola. Their first residence was the bury, Somerset, England; Sydney, New South Wales, old country house of the Louvain Jesuits, into which and Cork, where the society's first house in Ireland the community under Tournély entered 8 May, 1794, was founded, and an ecclesiastical college opened, numbering four members. These four were the two in 1909.
founders and two young officers of the army of Condé, On 2 Oct., 1867, an apostolic school was founded Xavier de Tournély, brother of the superior, and by Father Vandel at Chezal-Benoit in France, with Pierre-Charles Le Blanc. The victory of the French twelve pupils. It grew and prospered, and in course forces at Fleurus (26 June, 1794) obliged them to of time other similar institutions arose in different leave Belgium just as they were joined by a recruit countries. From these the priests of the society are who was destined to play a part of great importance, chiefly recruited. The work is represented in the Joseph Varin de Solmon, who had also been in the United States by St. Joseph's Apostolic School at army of Condé. The fugitives lived for some time Watertown, N. Y.
at Leutershofen near Augsburg. In the church of The personnel of the society is composed of 825 the Benedictines at Augsburg, on 15 Oct., 1794, they professed religious, with provincial houses in Italy, consecrated themselves by a special yow to the Germany, Holland, Australia, and a Provincial Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Most Holy Heart of Superior residing in Paris, who rules over the dis- Mary, to continue the work they had begun, to offer persed members of the French Province, and its themselves to the sovereign pontiff, and to obey him establishments in Switzerland; Belgium; Canada- as St. Ignatius and his companions had done. When Quebec; Beauport, Province of Quebec; South it had to leave Augsburg, the Society of the Sacred Qu'Appelle, Medicine Hat, Saskatchewan, and North Heart numbered sixteen subjects. It wandered Cobalt, Ont.
about for some time in Southern Germany and The Fathers at Quebec direct_the Archconfra- several of its members, Father Varin among them, ternity of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, publish the were ordained priests. At length, on Easter Tuesday,
1797, it settled in the village of Hagenbrünn, three the Fathers of the Sacred Heart as a command, and leagues from Vienna. There the founder, not more their already numerous congregation allowed itself than thirty years of age, died of smallpox, 9 July, to be absorbed by Paccanari's little society. On 1797, and Father Varin, but twenty-eight years of 18 April, Paccanari, still only a tonsured cleric, was age, was chosen his successor.
received as superior-general, and the name Fathers The new superior submitted the statutes of the of the Sacred Heart was changed to that of Fathers society for the endorsement of the exiled French of the Faith. The general, deeming the manner of bishops in Germany and the approbation of Pius life of the Hagenbrünn Fathers too austere and too VI, then detained at Florence. The number of confined, shortened their hours of prayer, increased postulants having greatly increased, a novitiate was the time devoted to studies and recreation, and opened at Prague under the protection of the Arch- launched his subjects on the external life and the duchess Maria Anna, and Hagenbrünn was con- work of preaching. Having been introduced by verted into a boarding school. This was at the close Father Varin to the Archduchess Maria Anna, Pacof the year 1798. Nicholas Paccanari, a native of canari gained an extraordinary ascendency over that Valsugnana, near Trent, had at one time been a princess, through whose good offices he received minor sergeant in the garrison of S. Angelo, had then be orders, the subdiaconate, and the diaconate from the come a merchant and, having met with financial hands of the nuncio at Vienna. disaster, was reduced to earn his living as a sort of At the request of his new subjects, who were alguide or cicerone. Though entirely without educa- ready beginning to be uneasy about his tendencies, tion, he possessed a remarkable natural gift of elo- he gave out (11 Aug., 1799) a somewhat vague statequence.
ment of his intentions in regard to the original Jesuits. At about this period Paccanari was attached At last he left Germany, but only after distributing to the Oratory of the Caravita, a pious association his men among the different countries of Western at Rome under the direction of Father Gravita, who Europe. A college was opened at Dillingen, a founhad been a Jesuit. Here Paccanari conceived a dation which lasted five or six years was made at desire to re-constitute the Society of Jesus. He won Amsterdam, and Fathers Rozaven and de Broglie over to his project those priests who were his asso- with some scholastics set out for England, where, ciates at the Caravita: Joseph della Vedova, a doc- in March, 1800, they opened a boarding-school tor of the Sapienza; Halnat, of the Diocese of Rennes, at Kensington. Paccanari himself, returning to formerly a missionary in Madagascar; Epinette, of Italy, established a novitiate at Cremona, then at the Diocese of Le Mans. He drew up a rule of life Este. for them and shut himself up at Loreto in a retreat He scattered many of his religious among the hoswhich lasted eleven months. Returning to Rome pitals—at that time overcrowded with wounded in May, 1797, he obtained for his project the approval soldiers—in Italy and Germany. In the midst of of Cardinal della Somaglia, the pope's vicar, and on his labours he was ordained priest at Padua, and 15 August, in the Chapel of the Carąvita, the founder 800n after this he received from the new pope, Pius and his three companions made the three vows of VII, permission to have a house at Rome. The Archreligion and the yow of obedience to the sovereign duchess Maria Anna bought from the Theatines pontiff. They adopted the habit of the original the Church of St. Sylvester, with its convent and Jesuits and settled themselves at Spoleto. In gardens, at Monte-Cavallo; and in 1801 the pope August, 1798, Paccanari, having been received by in person came to install the Fathers there. In the Pius VÍ who was then at Sienna, obtained from the month of August, 1802, the first congregation was pope several privileges and a Rescript in which the held; with some temporary modifications, the old society was designated “The Company of the Faith constitution of the Society of Jesus was adopted. of Jesus”. The pope charged him with the care In 1803 and 1804 Paccanari summoned to the College of the Propaganda students who had been expelled of St. Sylvester the young religious of the society, from their seminary.
and the courses in philosophy and theology, as well Paccanari made three journeys to Rome to collect as the solemn theses, of this house of studies shed these young men; the third time he and his compan- great lustre upon the nascent order. At that time ions were arrested by the French military authorities there were 110 religious at St. Sylvester. In the and lodged in the Castle of S. Angelo. They re- beginning of 1804, again under the archduchess's mained there four months, were then expelled from patronage, the Salviati Palace, near St. Peter's, was the Roman Republic and retired to Parma, where opened as a boarding-school for young nobles, the many of the former Jesuits had established them- institution being named, after its benefactress, the selves under the protection of the duke. Father “Collegio Mariano". Halnat, having learned of the existence of the Sacred Throughout Italy, but particularly at Spoleto, the Heart Fathers, suggested to Paccanari the idea of Paccanarists gave missions with great success. one foundation for the two institutes devoted to the Nov., 1805, the Council of the Republic of Le Valais same object. Negotiations were opened, but were in- offered Paccanari the College of Sion, which was terrupted by the imprisonment of Paccanari, and were accepted. To Father Varin France had been assigned resumed in 1799. The founder of the Fathers of the as the field of his apostolate; he returned thither in Faith, after a visit to Pius VI who heartily encour- the spring of 1800 and began by preaching to the sick aged his project, repaired to Vienna. The society in the hospitals of Bicêtre and la Salpêtrière. It was numbered about a score of members, only three of at this time that, with Blessed Sophie Barat, he esthem priests. It had at first been well received by tablished the Society of the Ladies of the Sacred the Jesuits of Parma and of Venice, but its leader's Heart (21 Nov., 1800). The Fathers of the Faith lukewarmness towards the idea of union with the rapidly increased in number; in 1801 they were able Jesuits of Russia rendered it suspect to those re- to open at Lyons a boarding-school, which was transligious.
ferred in the following year to the old Jesuit college Fusion with the French community at Hagenbrünn at Belley. Lamartine was educated there. Another therefore offered the only opportunity for its devel- school was established in 1802 at Amiens, and then opment. Conferences were inaugurated at Hagen- another at Roanne in 1804. These foundations brünn, 9 April, 1799, and lasted nine days, Father aroused the suspicions both of Fouché, the minister Sineo della Torre, one of the Sacred Heart Fathers, of police, and of Napoleon; but Portalis and, still acting as interpreter between Father Varin and more, Cardinal Fesch quieted them for a time. MisPaccanari, who knew neither French nor Latin. The sions were preached with brilliant success; at the encouragement given by Pius VI was accepted by first mission, at Tours, the extraordinary power which
Father Enfantin exercised over the crowds was to die a holy death. She obtained permission for unexpectedly revealed; at the second, at Amiens, the last remnants of the Paccanarists to live, though more than six hundred marriages were rehabili- without the religious habit, in the house of St. Syltated.
vester. The Collegio Mariano was sold, and in 1814 Meanwhile Paccanari's administration, his taste most of the Paccanarists entered the Society of for display, his festivals, and the premature thrusting Jesus. of his subjects into publicity displeased the Fathers As for the French Fathers, the fall of Napoleon of the Faith. Besides, Father Rozaven, the provin- enabled them to meet in Paris and deliberate as cial of England, who had learned in 1802 certain to what course they should take. Father de Clorunsavoury details of the general's private life, pur- ivière, one of the old Jesuits, and Monsignori di Gresued his inquiries, and, having attained certainty, gorio and della Genga (the latter afterwards Leo visited Rome in 1803 to communicate the melan- XII), the pope's representatives, advised them to choly facts to Pius VII. During his absence most remain in France. Father Varin, however, had alof his brethren in London wrote to Father Grüber, ready set out for Russia to ask the general to appoint the Vicar-General of the Society of Jesus in Russia, a commissary to re-establish the Society of Jesus in to obtain admission individually. Father Rozaven France, when the commission was given to Father on his return to England imitated their example, Clorivière himself. Father Varin was received by and in March, 1804, he set out for Russia. Only him into the Society on 19 July, 1814. Nearly all Father Charles de Broglie remained in London, as a the former Fathers of the Faith followed him; the secular priest; he broke with his former friends, rest remaining among the secular clergy. allied himself closely with the anti-concordataire
GUIDÉE, Vie du P. Joseph Varin (2nd ed., Paris, 1860); IDEM, bishops, and persisted in his protestations against Notices hist. sur quelques membres de la Soc, des Pères du Sacré the act of Pius VII as late as 1842. Father Varin, Caur et de la C. de J. (Paris, 1860); SPEIL, Leonor o. Tournely u. apprised of the course of events by Father Rozaven,
die Gesellschaft des hl. Herzens Jesu (Breslau, 1874). referred the matter to the cardinal-legate in France,
MARC DUBRUELand on 21 June, 1804, broke with Paccanari. His society, having become independent, remained in Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, CONGREGAFrance on the advice of the legate and of Pius VII TION OF THE, AND OF THE PERPETUAL ADORATION OF himself. It flourished in that country until 1807; THE BLESSED SACRAMENT OF THE ALTAR, better known missions were given at Grenoble, Poitiers, Niort, as the Congregation of Picpus, was founded by Bordeaux, and elsewhere; seminaries were opened Father Coudrin, b. at Coursay-les-Bois, in Poiton on at Roulers (Gand), Marvejols (Mende), Bazas 1 March, 1768. He was only deacon when the perse (Bordeaux), and a college at Argentière (Lyons). cution, directed against the clergy, dispersed the stuThis progress alarmed Fouché; Napoleon issued an dents of the seminary of Poitiers, where he was being order for the suppression of the congregation, which trained. Having learned that Mgr de Bonald, Bishop was executed in Nov., 1807; the connivance of of Clermont, was in Paris and would confer Holy local authorities enabled it to continue the work Orders upon him, he set out for that city, and on 4 of the seminaries, but its missions were stopped. March, 1792, was ordained priest in the Irish SemMany of the Fathers entered the parochial minis- inary. The ordination took place in the library, betry.
cause the revolutionaries had invaded the chapel in In August, 1806, Father Sineo della Torre and the which they were actually holding their meetings. Fathers in Switzerland in their turn abandoned Pac- After ordination he returned to Coursay, but the canari. In 1810 they were received as a body into violence of the persecution soon compelled him to hide the Society of Jesus, though only in foro interno, elsewhere. During October of the same year, disthe official aggregation not taking place until 1814. guised, he laboured in the Dioceses of Poitiers and Also about the year 1806 some of the Fathers of Spo- Tours. leto, Padua, Lombardy, and Amsterdam seceded. Father Coudrin gathered around him a few comThe Society of Jesus having been restored at Naples panions, to whom he communicated his views to by Pius VII (31 July, 1804), many Fathers of the promote devotion to the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Collegio Mariano went there and were admitted as of Mary, and who were also willing to assist him in novices.
his great work. On Christmas night, 1800, he solIn July, 1807, Paccanari received positive commands emnly made his religious vows, devoting himself from the pope to retire to Spoleto. A first canonical entirely to the love of the Sacred Hearts. During the process was begun during the winter. Relegated to year 1805 Father Coudrin bought some dilapidated the convent of the Franciscans at Assisi, the general houses in the Rue Picpus in Paris, and there estabmade a confession of his whole life and appeared lished himself with a few of his religious. A college penitent. At the end of five months he was trans- for the training of youths and a seminary were ferred to the prisons of the Holy Office. A new trial soon started. "The Good Father”, as his religious resulted, in August, 1806, in a sentence of ten years' used to call him, governed his congregation with imprisonment. The sentence paid a tribute to the tact and prudence, and in spite of many difficulinnocence and virtue of the other Fathers of the Faith; ties, his work prospered. Several new monasteries nevertheless it was the annihilation of their soceity and colleges were founded and opened in various In 1809, when the French army opened the pontif- towns. ical prisons, Paccanari at first refused to go out, but In 1825 the evangelization of the Sandwich Islands eventually left and disappeared. It is uncertain in the Pacific Ocean was entrusted by the Holy See to whether he withdrew to Switzerland under an as- the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts, and the followsumed name, as some have asserted, or whether, ing year the first band of missionaries of the Sacred under some regrettable circumstances, he was stabbed Hearts left France to carry the Faith to the inhabiby a domestic servant and his body thrown into the tants. In 1833 the Archipelagos of Oriental Oceanica Tiber, as another tradition has it. No one knows were likewise confided to the same Congregation and what his end was.
immediately missionaries were sent to the Gambier The Archduchess Maria Anna, who, in spite of the Islands; some of these fathers established houses of commands of her brother the Emperor Leopold, had the congregation in Peru and Chile, South America. at first refused to abandon Paccanari and his workNot long afterwards other evangelical labourers were was obliged to submit, overcome by the miserable sent to the Marquesa Islands at the death of the life which her brother allowed her to live and the founder in 1837.' The perpetual adoration of the shame of her condemnation. She retired to Styria Blessed Sacrament was made day and night in nineteen