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were commonly effected at the public terial omission in the exposition of his expence alone, it might be deemed more measures, by not particularizing the advisable to place a sum in the hands mode for the repayment of the ad. of the lord lieutenant, and avoid the difficulties that would attend a selec

The Chancellor of the Exchequer tion of commissioners. With respect said, his view was, that the advances to the agricultural portions of the should be repayable in 1820 by instalcommunity, he had never thought that ments, to be settled by the commisany assistance of this kind could avail sioners according to the circumstances to them. Their necessities were far of the cases. In advances made for greater than could be embraced by the promotion of useful public works, any relief of this sort, and their in- there might probably be a farther exterest so widely extended, that it was tent of time allowed. He should prohardly possible to conceive a case in pose a clause to meet such cases, giv. which parliament could advance to ing an extension of three years more. their assistance. Indeed, he fancied It was his intention that the rate of such an advance would only have the the exchequer bills should be as it now effect of increasing their poor rates, is. As to public works, the commisby making them constitute a part of sioners could not be called upon, ex. the wages of labour. On these ac cept when they were of public utility, counts, a general relief of the agricul- and when security was given by indi. tural distress did not form a part of viduals. That security was most likethe present plan, which he thought ly to be found among the proprietors not likely to have any effect in in of such works or undertakings. creasing the poor rates. The amount Mr Phillips declared his inability to to be granted to any district on the comprehend the nature of the security credit of these rates, was not to ex- alluded to by the right honourable ceed half the rate of the last year, and gentleman. Did the right honourable no advance was to be made until that gentleman mean to confine the prorate doubled the amount of the ave. posed loans to public works actually rage of the three preceding years ; begun? (“ No, no," from the treabut although he could not promise a sury bench," they are to extend to general relief to the agricultural in. works to be begun.") As these loans terests, he should have been sorry not were to be granted for the constructo have laid before the House some tion of public roads, how, he would measure which promised considerable ask, were the parochial rates to be reassistance to a portion of the poorer lieved by pledging these rates to the classes, who are at this time deprived persons who should become security of employment. He then moved a for the repayment of these loans? Such resolution, that it was the opinion of a plan would, in his opinion, rather the committee, that commissioners tend to augment the rates, and to agshould be enabled to issue L.1,500,000 gravate the evil so loudly complained in Exchequer bills, under certain limi- of. Then as to manufactures, it was a tations, for the furtherance of public delusion to conceive that_this plan works of utility, the encouragement would afford any relief. For, to his of the fisheries, and the employment knowledge, the manufacturing towns of the poor, for a time to be limited, did not want capital to give employ. securities being given for the advances. ment to labour, but a market for the

Mr Ponsonby thought the right sale of their productions. (Hear, honourable gentleman had made a ma hear!) Again, as to the system of se

curities proposed by the right honour. means of employing capital, and renable gentleman, it was obvious that dering it productive. And unless they the establishment of such a system could provide a market for the pro. must interfere most injuriously with duce of labour-unless they could rethe transfer of property. For who vive the commerce of the country, he could calculate that, under such a did not see how the issue of exchequer system, any property purchased might bills could be of any benefit, for they not most unexpectedly be swept away could not create resources. by an exchequer extent, or extent in Mr Brougham was most willing to aid ?

allow this plan to produce all the good Lord Cochrane thought the money effects of which it was capable ; but should be given to the people as a re- he entertained very strong doubts of payment for what had been taken from its efficacy. The poor were to be em. them, and no securities required. We ployed almost entirely in public works; had been told from authority, that but what prevents public works from commerce would revive ; but had that being carried on at present ? Is it want been the case ? That revival was ob- of capital? He was afraid it would be viously impracticable. Our distress, found to be solely want of demand. he might almost say, was brought up. There was at present no want of capi. on us by a profligate expenditure. If tal in the country. There was no fear they put a sponge on the whole pub- of exchequer process on the part of lic debt, and threw the books into the the borrowers. Private lenders were sea, the country would not be poorer. preferable to a public creditor. The

Mr Littleton said, the right honour. only effect of the measure would be a able gentleman had assumed certain facility of obtaining loans. It would facts which he did not think were te. throw L.1,500,000 into the market, nable. First, that the present distress and thus facilitate loans ; and this was greatly owing to the want of ca- would be its only effect, its only be. pital. He did not conceive that to be nefit. the case. It was rather a want of the The resolutions were then agreed to.

CHAPTER VII.

1

TREATMENT OF BUONAPARTE.

General Observations.- Motion by Lord Holland.-Explanation by Earl

Bathurst - Motion negatived.

Ew circumstances, during the pre- mind is guided in its passions and preent year, excited a stronger interest dilections. The most operative, in han the reports and representations the present instance, appears to us to ransmitted 'from St Helena relative have been the same which we know a o the illustrious individual to whom witty old gentleman to have assigned hat island had been assigned as a pri as the cause of the love men of large on. There is something very remark. property are observed to entertain for able in the estimate formed through their grandsons—that of being the out this country of that extraordinary enemy of their enemy. The natural personage. There never, perhaps, was and irreconcileable enmity between an individual, all whose views and con the French emperor and the British duct were so thoroughly those of a ministry, formed a tie between him and despot. He obliterated every vestige the individuals in question, to which of that liberty on whose foundation he every other consideration was apt to had risen ; every thing in France, un appear as secondary. der him, was governed at the point of It must be confessed, that the ad. the bayonet; and in all the states over mirers of Napoleon had something to which he acquired influence, he de. boast of in the dignified serenity and manded and enforced the abolitioneven courtesy of his deportment, when reof the most moderate forms of popular ceived on board a British vessel, and in suffrage. Yet in Britain, each party, in the first moments of so mighty a fall. proportion to the zeal avowed by them We should scarcely, indeed, from a in the cause of liberty, has made him survey of his life, be justified in ascribtheir favourite ; till, among the most ing it to a greatness of soul so high, as inveterate sticklers for popular rights, to render its possessor superior to all he is reverenced almost as an earthly the vicissitudes of human fortune. It divinity. Yet, glaring as is this in- manifested, however, a very uncomconsistency, it were probably unjust mon energy and self-command, not, to charge them on that account with indeed, unsupported by powerful mo. a want of sincerity in their political tives; for Buonaparte, on the deck of creed. It is difficult to estimate the the Northumberland, had the eyes of varied motives by which the human mankind as intensely fixed upon him

as when seated on the greatest throne bearance from the manner in which he of the world. The same motives, too, put himself into the power of Britain. operated in his first communications By placing himself at the head of with the British military and medical what remained of the army, he might officers, who were immediately about have caused delay and trouble ; and if his person, and whom he employed as he had finally succeeded in making his instruments for conveying to Europe way to America, Europe would have his own representations relative to him. been left in a state of permanent inseself. But when all that was new and curity. It seems also becoming the striking in this situation was over, and character of a great and magnanimous when day after day rolled over his head nation, when an enemy has fallen 80 in hopeless monotony, his eagerly rest. low, to forbear all vindictive proceed. less spirit began to prey upon itself, ings, and to inflict no punishment beand to devote its thoughts wholly to yond the ample one arising from the the means of escape from this detest. comparison of his past and present ed thraldom. That this was really fortune. At the same time, it was the motive of that system of violent totally out of the question, on account remonstrance which was now set on of the comfort of one individual, to foot, appears to us very evident. All commit, in any degree whatever, the the complaints so vehemently urged, * repose of a hundred millions. Whatwere so contrived as to terminate in a ever indulgence, therefore, was grant. demand, not for increase of physical ed to him, it was essential that it should accommodation, but for an enlarged not trench in any degree on the strictintercourse with Europe, and a relax ness of the guardianship under which ation of the strictness with which he he was kept. Such appears to have was guarded—something, in short, been the conception of government in which might be made subservient to sending him to St Helena, whose escape. We do not consider him as rocky walls, in the depth of so vast absolutely without a clain to employ an ocean, seemed to dispense

with any stratagems of this nature. There was artificial and closer prison. There, it certainly nothing in the treatment should seem, he might be allowed a which he had received from Britain greater degree of liberty, combined to terminate that long and rooted en- with perfect security against escape, mity which had subsisted between him than in any other part of the world. and that power. Treated as an enemy, It seems perfectly astonishing, that so and converted into a state prisoner, he strong a mind should ever have inmight justly consider himself as in a dulged the chimera of being allowed state of war with the power which had to live at liberty, and watch the op60 acted towards him, and as entitled portunity of re-ascending the throne to employ against it the stratagems of of France. He had recently afforded war. This, of course, does not in the too ample a specimen of what might least abate of their title to counteract, be expected from him, or indeed from by every possible means, the fulfilment any deposed sovereign, even though of his purpose, and to disregard every much less ambitious, and fallen from complaint, which had escape for its a much lower height. Under these real object.

considerations, combined with the It seems scarcely to be denied, that statements now to be laid before our Buonaparte derived some claims to for- readers respecting the treatment of

See Letter of Mentholon, Appendix, p. 250.

Buonaparte, it will probably be judged to the Prince Regent, under whose that he has received all the indulgence sovereignty he lived, any representato which he was fairly entitled. We tion respecting the treatment expemust only dissent as to the denial of rienced from Sir Hudson Lowe, the the empty name of Emperor to the governor, without its being opened fallen master of the world. This was by Sir H. himself, whose enmity would an indignity which could have no ef. necessarily be increased by its perufect except the pain excited by it; no sal. Finally, it was alleged that comadditional security was afforded, nor forts, and even necessaries, were with. benefit of any description produced. held from Buonaparte ; and that a deIt appears to us even, that it was the mand was made of contributing to his interest of sovereigns to consider the own support, without any means being sovereign title, once obtained and ac afforded of obtaining the necessary knowledged, as ever after indelible. It funds. He conceived that parliament, had been acknowledged, not only by having been a party to the sending the people of France, but by all the Buonaparte to St Helena, were engreat monarchs on the continent, vir- titled to inquire whether he was treattually even by Britain ; and there was ed with any wanton and unnecesa decided littleness, we think, in now sary severity. His lordship therefore denying it. Here, however, we take moved for copies of such letters and leave of this mighty name, now sink- dispatches, as might tend to throw ing so fast into oblivion, and which, light upon the subject. we trust, is never again destined to Earl Bathurst agreed with the no. hold any conspicuous place in the ble lord, that those who approved the history of the world.

detention of Buonaparte, might not On the 18th of March, Lord Hol. approve the manner in which he was land introduced into the House a mo treated; yet when he heard the noble tion upon this subject. He stated, that lord disapproving of the detention although he still adhered to the disap- together, he could not help doubting probation formerly expressed by him the impartiality of his judgment on of the detention of Buonaparte at St the other question. Sir Hudson Lowe Helena, he did not mean to bring that had acted in every respect according question again under discussion. He to the instructions received from the only conceived that the official letter government at home. Napoleon had, published by Count Montholon, with for obvious reasons, been prohibited concurring rumours from various quar. from receiving or sending any letters ters, afforded sufficient ground for without their being opened by the parliamentary inquiry into the treat- governor. Under this restriction he ment experienced by this distinguish- might write to any of his friends, or ed character. It was asserted, that his they to him. But there was one preresidence on the island was fixed in a liminary to his receiving any letters damp and unhealthy situation; that from his friends, which was, that his he was debarred from the requisite friends should write to him; and, in , opportunities of exercise ; that he was fact, only one of his relations had done not permitted to receive the books, 90, his brother Joseph, whose letter journals, and prints, which he wish- had been received in October last, and ed; that he was not allowed to corre forwarded. In regard to the not being spond with his friends, or on business, allowed to send a sealed letter to the without the most vexatious restric- Prince Regent, the object of this retions; that he could not even transmit gulation was, on the one hand, to pro

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