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becomes absolutely incumbent on go. hand, the strictest care is requisite that vernment to know, if possible, what they should be merely passive accomtheir views and designs are. If there plices, and do nothing tending to ag. be reason to think them such as strike gravate the offences which it is their at the very root of the social system, object to represe. There cannot be a the necessity becomes still more ur greater enormity than that of a plot gent ; and it would be a weakness against government fomented by its equally ridiculous and criminal in go. own agents. A natural temptation is vernment to allow them to mature in offered to such base instruments, of secret the plans by which the peace thus increasing the importance of the and social order of the country would information which they communicate. be overthrown. There is, perhaps, It seems indispensible, therefore, that scarcely any faction so small which they should be warned, at their very might not become authors of the most utmost peril, not to involve themselves dreadful calamities, provided they were in any proceedings of such a tendency. thus left to mature their projects un From the statement of the committee, molested. Few individuals, perhaps, as well as from other quarters, there have had higher potions of public vir- appears ground to suspect that, in the tue than Cicero, and few assemblies present instance, these limits were than the Roman senate. Yet we find passed. If so, an investigation ought Cicero boasting to Catiline of the in- surely to have taken place, and the of. timate knowledge which he possessed fender, if found guilty, ought not to of his most secret movements, to a have been shielded by his connection degree which could only be derived, with ministers, who, we are confident, as history shews it to be, from the would never sanction such a course. testimony of a pretended accomplice. Ministers, however, protected their In such exigencies, then, there arises instruments; and opposition, perhaps, a necessity for government to employ were less anxious to bring a culprit means from which it would otherwise to justice, than to involve their antahave shrunk : they must receive and gonists in the odium which his

proreward the information of real and even ceedings were calculated to excite. counterfeit accomplices. On the other

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CHAPTER V.

FINANCE.

Lord Castlereagh's Statement of proposed Reductions, and Motion for a Committee of Inquiry.First Report of the Committee --Second Report.-The Budget.- Debate on the War Salary of the Secretaries to the Admiralty.On the number of Admiralty Lords.-On the Office of Third Secretary of Slate.-- On Mr Canning's Mission to Lisbon.-On Mr Harris's appointment.

The distressed circumstances of the of the question for the present, as these nation during this session, the stag. did not bear upon the estimates of the nation of the agricultural and commer. public expenditure of this country. cial interests, the diminished amount With respect to the land forces, then, of the revenue, all appeared imperi- the numbers for the last year for this ously to call for economy and for re. country, Ireland, and the colonies, duction to the utmost extent possible. was 90,000 men-53,000 for the home The nation, as formerly observed, was service, and 46,000 for the foreign probably mistaken in expecting from establishment. The number at home this source any immediate relief; still was to be reduced by 5,000 men, the economy being substantially excellent, reduction of the troops abroad was to it was well that government should by be 13,000; making a total reduction this impulse be urged to its full adop- of 18,000 men. He did not at present tion. The Prince Regent, in his open- think it necessary to state the partiing speech, had recommended this sub. cular circumstances which had regu. ject to the attention of the House; lated these reductions ; but had no he. and the 7th Fe ary, Lord Castle. sitation in stating, that they were made reagh entered upon it at full length. under a strong sense of the pressure of He premised a view of the reductions the moment. Onthat account, ministers which were intended to be effected in had felt it necessary, in a great measure, the different branches of the public to put out of view the military defence expenditure.

of these colonies against any external First, then, he requested the atten- attack, and to consider merely what tion of the House to the subject of was necessary for internal security. the army expenditure; and, in com. He thought that the present circumparing the expence for the present year stances of the country justified that with that for the last year, the best policy, because there might be a price mode, perhaps, would be to consider beyond which it would be improper to the troops in France and India as out go for putting these colonies in a com

plete state of defence. But as to the the commissariat and barrack departe home department, there was no price ments for Great Britain L.580,000, that could be too great for that object; and for Ireland L.300,000, making and the only question was, what was a total for these departments of the proper and necessary force for the L.880,000. The army extraordinaries external and internal protection of the for this year

would be L.1,300,000. state, and the rights and liberties of The total charge for the army, except the people ? and events had pressed the ordnance, for this year, would be upon them of late which sufficiently L.9,230,000, instead of L.10,564,000, proved, that the magistrates were un which was the supply for 1816, maable to enforce the laws by means of king a diminution in the supply for the civil power alone, without the aid army service, for the year 1817, of of a military force. The number, then, L.1,334,000, as compared with the for the service of Great Britain, Ire- charge of last year. With respect to land, and the colonies, would now be the ordnance, the supply for last year 81,016 men, as compared with 99,000, for that department was L.1,696,000. the number for the last year, there in the present year, the charge for being a reduction of 5,000 men in the that service would be L.1,246,000, home establishment, and 13,000 in the being a saving of L.450,000, as comcolonial, a reduction upon the whole of pared with the charge of last year. 18,000 men. Then, as to the votes, This saving was effected by the rethe total number for which a vote had duction of 3000 men, and other rebeen taken last year was 150,000 men; ductions in the artillery. It was prothe total number for which the vote per to call the attention of the House of this year would be taken was only to the circumstances, that of the 123,000 men. The reason for this L.6,538,000 for the regular forces, a was, by the convention with France, sum of about L.2,551,000 was for the number of our troops there was to services already given. All the halfbe reduced from 30,000 to 25,000 pay and retired pensions had been inmen, and the number of the govern- cluded in the calculation ; so that the ment troops in India, from 20,000 to sum required for the regular forces 17,000 men. So that the vote for the actually on service was only about British, Irish, and colonial establish- four millions. Gentlemen, therefore, ments, would be for this year 81,016 when they talked of reduction, ought men, as compared with 99,000 men to consider, that when reductions took voted last year; and the total number place, the half-pay and pensions for revoted for this year would be 123,000, tired services must, on the faith of the instead of 150,000 voted last year. It legislature, be paid; and, therefore, would be proper, however, to mention, the reduction, in point of expence, that a sum of L.200,000 would be re- has by no means kept pace with the quired for regiments now in progress reductions in point of numbers, as to reduction, but whose reduction had compared with the sums paid to the not yet been completed. Having stated troops when actually on service. When this much as to the numbers of the a body of troops was reduced, the ex. army, he should proceed, in a summary pence was still continued to the amount way, to mention the charge for the of 1s. 3d. or nearly 1s. 2d. He now army. The supplies for the regular came to the naval establishment. The land forces would be for this year number voted last year was 33,000 about L.6,513,000, and, including the men ; the number for this

year

would militia, L.7,500,000. The supplies for be only 19,000 men, being a reduction

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of 14,000 men. On a full view of the For the Army ...........L.7,050,000 state of the navy, and the distresses of

Commissariat .......808,000 the country, those whose duty it was

Extraordinaries ... 1,300,000 to attend particularly to this depart.

Ordnance ...........1,246,000 ment of the public service were of opi

Navy .................6,379,000 nion this reduction might be made

Miscellaneous .....1,500,000 without danger. But it was not intended to make any reduction in the Making a grand Total of L.18,373,000 marine corps ;

and the reason was, that He might state some reductions which the reduction of that corps would ren- might fairly be anticipated in next der the speedy equipment of the navy year, even of the L.18,373,000, which at a future period a matter of very was the estimate for this. There might great difficulty. The vote, therefore, be expected a saving of was to be taken for six thousand men

In the Army ......... L.223,000 for this year, being the number voted

Extraordinaries................ 300,000 last year. The charge for the navy,

Ordnance ............................50,000 last year, was L.10,114,000. The

In the Navy, under the head charge for this year would be only

of Transport Service......500,000 L.6,397,000 ; making a saving of L.3,717,000, as compared with the

L.1,073,000 charge of last year. In the charge of L.6,397,000 for this year, there was, which, added together, would amount it ought to be mentioned, a sum of to more than a million, thus reducing L.500,000, which would not appear included not only the charges for the

the charge to L.17,300,000. This sum in the estimate of the following years. It would be proper, also, to mention, public service of the year, but that that though the number of men was

expenditure likewise required for seronly reduced to 19,000, the charge vices already performed, namely, penwas calculated, with reference to that sions and half-pay. The addition to

what would otherwise be necessary of last year, as if the vote had been only for 18,000 men. The reason was,

for this purpose was under the heads that as you reduced the men, you

also reduced the ships ; so that there was a

Army

.........L.2,551,000 reduction not only of the expence for Navy

...1,271,000 the men, but also of the expence for

Ordnance

.223,000 wear and tear. The reduction in the

Pensions

.400,000 estimates for the navy, then, as compared with those of last year, would

L.4,445,000 amount to L.3,717,000; to which which being deducted from the estiadding the savings under the heads of mate for the year, would leave little the army, the commissariat, the ord more than 13 millions for services. nance, and the other branches of ser In 1792, the supplies, indeed, avice to which he had previously ad. mounted to only L.5,200,000 ; but verted, would make up the gross saving to this was to be added the separate to L.6,510,000. He meant this, he charge of L.1,000,000 for Ireland, repeated, as compared with the sup- making L.6,200,000. The pay and plies of last year. The noble lord allowances of the army had, since that then recapitulated the separate charges, time, been greatly augmented; the as estimated for the current year : pay of a regiment of cavalry had risen

of

from L.28,000 to L.38,000. While rate a reduction of the evils felt over he deprecated all gloomy views of our Europe. In the highest quarter, in situation, while he saw no reason for the head of the government of this alarm or despondency, and entertained country, the same feelings and sympa hopes of an alleviation of our burdens, thies were shared that actuated his even sooner than many would allow, people. He not only sympathized he was as little disposed to deny, as

with their distress, but was prepared he was ready to lament, that the coun to share their privations; and, from try was suffering under the severest the spontaneous movement of his own pressure, in every branch of its indus- mind, had expressed his determination try and resources ; that this distress to abstain from receiving, in the prewas as universal as it was severe ; and sent state of distress, so much of the that, from the highest to the lowest civil list as he could refuse, consistentrank, through all classes of society, ly with maintaining the dignity of his the hand of Providence was heavily station, without doing what parliafelt. It was rather an aggravation ment would disapprove of incurring. than an alleviation of the sufferings of His Royal Highness bad given his a generous

people, to know that they commands to inform the House, that did not suffer alone ; but if our cala- he meant to give up for the public mities could be soothed by a fellow service a fifth part of the fourth class ship in distress, we need only look into of the civil list, which, it ought to be Europe to find causes of consolation. observed, was the only branch connectNo state on the continent, howevered with the personal expences, or the small or great, no class of society royal state of the Sovereign ; for all were exempt from that pressure and the other heads of charge included exhaustion which were consequent up in the civil list, except the privy on a war of such extent.

If he com

purse, were as much for paying pubpared Great Britain with any one of lic services as the sums included in these states, he should be led to de- the estimates he had this night menscribe her as comparatively happy. tioned. That branch of the civil list Comparisons of this kind, however, amounted to L.209,000, and his Royal could not lighten our distress. What- Highness offered out of this and the ever was the lot of other nations, our privy purse, L.50,000 (hear, hear!) sufferings were severe, our calamity for the public service. The servants was great ; but if it was great, the of the crown (as we understood the ardour of those in affluent circum- noble lord to say, for he spoke so low stances to relieve was likewise great. as to be inaudible in the gallery at this (Hear, hear!) That desire to lighten particular time,) had resolved to follow the burdens of the destitute, by sha. the example of their royal master, and ring them—that generous sympathy to surrender that part of their salaries which bound all classes of society to which had accrued to them since the gether in this happy land, and diffused abolition of the property tax ; and he a general spirit of beneficence and cha- trusted that the whole of what would rity-had wrought, not only within thus be given up might amount to a the limits of law, but had exerted a sum not unworthy of the acceptance itself in public and in private, with of the country, nor unbecoming their spontaneous efforts, beyond any thing situation. He now came to the proever witnessed on any former occasion. position already alluded to, of a com: The example of England would be mittee to inquire into the income and admired by the world, and would ope. expenditure of the country. Ballot

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